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THE AMERICAN 



MIDLAND NATURALIST 



P- 



DEVOTED TO NATURAL HISTORY, PRIMARILY 
THAT OF THE PRAIRIE STATES 



JULIUS A. NIEUWLAND. C. S. C. PH. D., Sc. D. 

EDITOR ^~-- __ 

[^ nCTI 3 1926 ^, 



VOLUME III, 1913-1914. <§> 




UNIVERSITY OF NOTRE DAME 

NOTRE DAME, INDIANA 






CONTENTS 



Erigeron in North Dakota. — /. Lnnell i 

Adicea. — /. Lunell 6 

New Plants from North Dakota. — J. Ltmell 12, 141, 343 

Notes on Our Local Plants. — /. A. Nieuwland 14, 41, 98, 

217, 274, 289, 317, 346 

Daily Observations of Our Local Birds. — Brother Alphonsus 23 

A Correction 29 

Obituary 30 

Michigan Bird Life 32 

A Question of Nomenclature. (Plate I.) 5. W. Geiser 2>2> 

Song vSeason of Our Birds in 1912. — Bro. Alphonsus 48 

Our Birds in the Spring of 1912. — Bro. Alphonsus 50 

Some Midland Dogbanes. — /. A. Nieuwland 53 

Evactoma. — J. A. Nieuwland 57 

Nesting Habits of Our Birds. — Bro. Alphonsus 60 

Midland Witch Hazels. — /. A. Nieuwland. 61 

Nesting Habits of Our Birds. — Bro. Alphonsus 65 

The Generic Name of the White Pine. — ./. A. Nieuwland 68 

Our Birds in the Summer of 191 2. — Bro. Alphonsus 70 

Seedless Oranges, A Historical Note 76 

Certain Violet Names. — Edward L. Greene 79 

A New Midland Violet and Some Notes on " Cleistogamous" Flowers. 

(Plates IL and III.) — J. A. Nieuwland 85 

Some Littoral Algae of Puget Sound. — Chas. O. Chambers 91 

Migration of Our Birds in the Autumn of 19 12. — Bro. Alphonsus 125 

An Older Name for Listera. — ./". A. Nieuwland 128 

New Plants from Various Places. — /. A. Nieuwland 129 

Book Note 133 

Viola arvensis Murr. in Northern Indiana. — J. A. Nieuwland 134 

Rosa in North Dakota. — /. Lunell 135 

Another Rhus glabra Segregate from Nebraska.— 7. Lunell 147 

Notes on Fox Elders. — B. F. Bush 148 

Notes on Priority of Plant Names. — J. A. Nieuwland 150 

Our Birds in the Winter of 1912-13. — Bro. Alphonsus 158 

Comparative Migration of Our Birds in .Spring. — Bro. Alphonsus 161 

Linnaea americana in Indiana 166 

In the Woods. — Walter L. Hahn. .: 167 

Critical Notes on New and Old Genera of Plants. — J. A.. Nieuwland. . 170, 253 

Priority of Hierochloa. — R. M. Kaczmarek 198 

Notes on Cleistogamous Flowers of Violets. — J. A. Nieuwland 198 



4 CONTENTS 

Polygonum I,oiigistyliun Small, A Synonvm. — J. A. Nieuivland 200 

Our Birds in the Spring of 1913. — Bro. Alphonsus 201 

Studies in Viola. — /. A . Nieuivland 207 

Our Birds in the Autumn of 191 2. — Bro. Alphonsvs 243 

Our Birds in the Summer of 1913. — Bro. Alphonsus 248 

Forest Arboreta. — Chas M. Dow 255 

Some New American Lythra. — J. A . Nieuwland 26,s 

Migration of Our Birds in the Spring of 1913. — Bro. Alphonsus 271 

Some Common Bird.s. — Victor Carpenter 283, 298 

Notes on vScedlings. (Plates IV., V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X}~Richard 

Vogt .■ 287 

Our Birds in the Autumn of 1913. — Bro. Alphonsus .,..»... .305 

A New Variety of Sambucus. — ./. A. Nieuwland 310 

Field Notes of Western Botany. — Edw. L. Greene 311 

Migration of Our Birds in the Autumn of 1913. — Bro. Alphonsus 327 

New Species of Ranunculus. — Edward L. Greene 333 

The Anatomy of Megalodonta Beckii. — A . V. Hoeck 33(j 

A New Antennaria — B. F. Bush 352 

Notes on Hemerocallis. — N. M. Grier -353 

Comparative Migration of Our Birds in Autumn. — Bro. Alphonsus . . . .355 



CORRKCTION 

For Chenopodiuni virgatum Lunell, A. M. N. III. p. 345 (1914), sub- 
stitute: Chenopodium jerulatum. The former name is antedated by a 
Chen, virgatum Thunberg, Nov. Ac. Soc. Sc. Ups. VII. p. 143 (iSi.s). (Japan). 

For the same reason for Chenopodium virgatum junceum Lunell (1. c.) 
substitute: Chenopodium ferulatum junceum. 

J. Lunell^ 

Date of Table, Contents and Correction, Dec, 11, 1914. 
Pages 333-360 published Nov. 13, 1914. 



9« / 17 




Vol. III.. l^^^K JANUARY, .1913. No. 1. 



A«fR% MIDLAND 
NATURALIST 



Devoted to Natural History, Primarily 
that of the Prairie States 



Published by the University of Notre Dame, 
Notre Dame, Indiana 

J. A. NIEUWLAND, C. S. C, Ph. D., Sc. D., Editor 



CONTENTS 

Erigeron in North Dakota. — XL /. Lunell i 

Adicea /. Lunell 6 

New Plants from North Dakota. — X. J. Lime/ 1 12 

Notes on Our Local Plants. — II. /. A. Nieuwland 14 

Daily Observations of Our Birds. — I. Brother Alphonsus, C. S. C. 2'^, 
A Correction 
Obituary 

Michigan Bird Life \^Jk»a4 I6u^5^^^^ ^' " * 



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The American Midland Naturalist 

PUBLISHED BI-MONTHLY BY THE UNIVERSITY 
OF NOTRE DAME, NOTRE DAME, INDIANA. 



VOL. III. JANUARY, 1913. NO. 1. 

Erigeron in North Dakota.— II. 

BY J. LUNELL. 



When publishing E. multicolor in the issue of this journal 
for July 19 1 2, the manuscript having been written some weeks 
beforehand, I intimated that I expected to collect during the 
incumbent season additional material of specimens standing near 
to this species in general appearance, but with some characters 
more or less different. The result was richer indeed than antici- 
pated, and before introducing these plants, I only wish to em- 
phasize that whatever the merit is of this paper, it has been en- 
hanced by many valuable suggestions from Dr. E. L. Greene which 
herewith are appreciatively acknowledged. It is worth adding 
that in the species where there is a dentation of the leaves, the 
teeth are as a rule quite small, often needing the aid of a lens 
to be recognized, and in poorly developed individual plants this 
dentation is rudimentary and often altogether absent. 

In order to draw the difference between the species belonging 
to this group of daisies, I believe the following key will be helpful: 

Clavis Analytica. 
A. Flores radiati 6-8 mm. longi, angusti. 
a. Folia Integra. 

b. Caules hirsuto-scabri i. E. asper Nutt. 

b. Caules pilis mollibus longitudinis inequalis 
repandis et appressis tenuiter ves- 

titi 8. E. asper var. appressus. 

a. Aliquot saltem folia dentata. 

c. Folia inferiora plerumque brevia et lata.. 9. E. ahruptorum. 

c. Folia inferiora spatulato-lanceolata 2. E. multicolor. 

c. Folia inferiora longa, angusta, tenuiter 
aculeata. 



2 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

d. Denies utrimque 4-5, ampli, atte- 

nuato-acuti 10. E. oxyodontus . 

d. Dentes pauciores, dispersi, parvi. 
e. Caules pilis diflfusis vel retrorsis 

vestiti 1 1. E. oligodonius . 

e. Caules pilis mollibus longitudinis 
inaeqtialis repandis et appressis 
tenuiter vestiti. . .12. E. oligodontus var. acuminatus. 
A. Flores radiati 6-8 mm. longi, lati, folia 3- 

nervata i-^. E. siihcostatus . 

A. Flores radiati 8-12 mm. longi, lati. 

a. Folia inferiora denticulata 14. E. procerus. 

a. Folia omnia Integra i5- E. anodonius 



Analytical key. 

A. Rays 6-8 mm. long, narrow, 
a. Leaves entire. 

b. Stem hirsutely scabrous i. E. 

b. Stem scantily covered with soft hairs of 
unequal length, turned upwards and ap- 

pressed 8. E. asper var 

a. At least some of the leaves dentate. 

c. Lower leaves generally short and broad.. 9. E. 
c. Lower leaves spatulate-lanceolate .... 2 E. 
c. Lower leaves long and narrow, slenderly 
pointed, 
d. Teeth 4-5 on each side, large, atten- 
uate pointed 10. E. 

d. Teeth fewer, scattered, small. 

e. Stem covered with spreading or 

retrorse hairs 11. E. 

e. Stem scantily covered with soft 
hairs of unequal length, turned up- 
wards and appressed 

\2. E. oligodontus var. 
A. Rays 6-8 mm. long, broad, leaves 3-nerved . .13. E. 
A. Rays 8-12 mm. long, broad. 

a. Lower leaves denticulate 14. 

a. All the leaves entire 15. E 



asper Nutt. 



. appressus. 

ahruptorum 
mu ticolor 



oxyodontus. 



oligodontus. 



acuminatus. 
subcostatus. 

E. procerus. 
. anodontus. 



ERIGERON IN NORTH DAKOTA 3 

8. Erigeron as per var. appressus var. nov. 

Vide Clavem analyticam. 

The character mentioned in the key seems to make the only 
difference from the species, as described in the Midi. Nat. II (p. 254). 
The variety was collected on low prairie at Dickinson, Stark 
County, on June 16, 19 12, by Mr. Clarence H. Waldron. 

9. Erigeron abruptorum sp. nov. 

Caulis solitarii, simplices, i usque 2-(interdum 3 usque 4-) 
capitati, 20-30 cm. alti, pilis diffusis vel magis minusve appressis 
copiose usque tenuiter vestiti. Distinctio laminarum et petiolorum 
foliorum magis conspicua, lamina quidem ad laminas propin- 
quorum latiore. Folia adpresse pilosa, radicalia late usque anguste 
ovalia, serrato-dentata, apice acuta vel retusa, in petiolos alatos 
ad longitudinem laminarum prope accedentes sensim reducta. 
Folia cauiina inferiora lanceolata usque late lanceolata, serrato- 
dentata quoque, apice acutula, in petiolum longum sensim reducta; 
folia sursum sensim diminuta, anguste lanceolata, longe acuminata, 
integra, sessilia. Capitula circiter 2 cm. diametro (radiis albis 
inclusis) . 

Stem single and simple, i to 2- (sometimes even 3 to 4-) headed, 
20-30 cm. high, abundantly to scantily covered with spreading 
or more or less appressed hairs. The foliage of this species is more 
differentiated into lamina and petiole, the lamina broader in pro- 
portion than is the case with its relatives, and appressed-hairy. 
Radical leaves broadly to narrowly oval, serrate-dentate, acute 
or blunt at the apex, tapering into winged petioles of approxi- 
mately the same length as the lamina. Lower stem leaves lanceo- 
late to broadly lanceolate, also serrate-dentate, with acutish 
apex and tapering into a long petiole; the leaves are gradually 
reduced in size upwards, narrowly lanceolate, long-acuminate, 
entire, sessile. Heads about 2 cm. in diameter, including the 
white rays. 

Collected by the writer on top of a high bluff, on June 19, 
1912, at Butte, Benson County. 

10. Erigeron oxyodontus sp. nov. 

Caules simplices, plerumque 3-capitati, 30-35 cm. alti, pu- 
bescentes, foliis tenuiter vestiti. Folia dimidiae partis superioris 
anguste linearia, integra, longe acuminata, dimidiae partis inferioris 



4 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

lanceolata, acuminata, in petiolum longum lentissime reducta, 
5-7 cm. longa, petiolo longitudine aequali. Folia radicalia et 
caulina inferiora dentibus 4-5 amplis attenuato-acutis margin- 
aliter utrimque provisa. Capitula 1.5-2 cm. diametro (radiis 
albis inclusi.s). 

Stems simple, usually 3-headed, 30-35 cm. high, pubescent, 
sparingly covered with leaves, these being narrowly linear, entire 
and long-acuminate on the upper half, and on the lower half 
lanceolate, acuminate, very gradually tapering into a long petiole, 
5-7 cm. long, with petiole of the same length. Radical and lower 
cauline leaves with 4-5 large, attenuate-pointed teeth on each 
side of the margin. Heads small for the size of the plant, 1.5-2 
cm. in diameter, including the rays. 

Collected by the writer in wet soil on June 19, 19 12, at Butte, 
Benson County. 

II. Erigeron oligodontus sp. nov. 

Caules 1-6, simplices, i usque 4-capitati, graciles, 25-35 
cm. alti, pilis diffusis vel retrorsis vestiti, restricte foliosi. Folia 
caulina superiora sessilia, anguste linearia vel bracteis similia, 
integra, inferiora et radicalia lanceolata usque anguste lanceolata, 
5-15 cm. longa (petiolo incluso), ad basin .sensim reducta, apice 
tenuissime aculeata, alia marginibus integris, alia dentibus paucis, 
insigniter salientibus, parvis, interdum sub lente solum manifestis 
ornata. Capitula circa 2-2.5 cm. diametro (radiis albis vel rubi- 
cundis inclusis). 

Stems 1-6, simple, i to 4-headed, slender, 25-35 cm. high, 
covered with spreading or retrorse hairs, sparingly leafy. Upper 
stem leaves sessile, narrowly linear or bract-like, entire. Lower 
cauline and radical leaves lanceolate to narrowly lanceolate, 5-15 
cm. long (including the petiole), gradually tapering toward the 
lower end, very slenderly pointed at the apex, some with entire 
margins, others with few, remarkably salient, small teeth, sometimes 
only visible under a lens. Heads about 2-2.5 cm. in diameter, 
including the white or pink rays. 

Frequent at Butte, Benson County, in damp meadows. It 
was collected there by the writer on June 19, 191 2. 

12. Erigeron oligodontus var. acuminatus var. nov. 
Vide Clavem analyticam. 
The scanty jjubescence of the stem with ui)turned, appressed 



ERIGERON IN NORTH DAKOTA 5 

hairs being the feature of this variety, it was collected by the writer 
on June 24, 1906, in low meadow at Leeds, Benson County. 

13. Erigeron subcostatus sp. no v. 

Caulis solitarius, simplex, erectus vel leviter ascendens, i 
usque 4-capitatus, circiter 50 cm. altus, pubescentia brevi, tenui, 
alba, adpressa et foliis 8-12 vestitus. Folia radicalia et caulina 
inferiora lanceolata usque late lanceolata vel oblanceolata, Integra 
vel remote denticulata, acuminata, in petiolum alatum angustata, 
adpresse pilosa, venis duobus lateralibus per totam laminae longi- 
tudinem conspicue currentibus, etsi in aliquot foliis aliquantulum 
obscuris. Folia superiora angustius lanceolata, sursum reducta, 
sessilia, gracillime acuminata, integra. Capitula solitaria vel 
corymbosa, 2-3 cm. diametro (radiis inclusis), 7-10 mm. alta. 
Bracteae lineari-acuminatae, late scarioso-marginatae, laxiores, 
indumento albo appresso vestitae. Radii 130-150, albi, lati. 

Stem single, simple, erect or slightly ascending, i to 4-headed, 
about 50 cm. high, with a short, scanty, white, appressed pubes- 
cence, and 8-12 leaves. Radical and lower cauline leaves lan- 
ceolate to broadly lanceolate or oblanceolate, entire or distantly 
denticulate, acuminate, tapering into a winged petiole, appressedly 
hairy," with two lateral veins running quite prominently through 
the entire length of the lamina, though the venation is some- 
what obscure in part of the leaves. Upper leaves more narrowly 
lanceolate, reduced in size upwards, sessile, slenderly acuminate, 
entire. Heads single or corymbose, 2-3 cm. across (including 
the rays), 7-10 mm. high. Bracts linear-acuminate, broadly 
scarious-margined, with a white, appressed indument, quite loose. 
Rays white, 130-150, broad, rather short for the disk. 

The large heads, the white, broad, rather short rays, and the 
thin, 3-nerved, partly denticulate leaves are a combination of 
characters distinguishing this daisy from kindred species. It 
was collected in shade along the Heart River, a tributary of the 
Missouri, at Dickinson, Stark County, on June 23, 191 2, by Mr. 
Clarence H. Waldron. 

14. Erigeron procerus sp. nov. 

Caules 1-2, simplices, 2 usque 4-capitati, 35-40 cm. alti, 

pubescentia densa, paene appressa pilorum inaequalium provisi. 

Folia radicalia spatulata, caulina inferiora lanceolata vel anguste 

lanceolata, omnia acuta, petiolis laminae aequalibus ornata, 



6 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

denticulata vel aliquot Integra. Folia caulina superiora linearia, 
integra. Capitula 3-4 cm. diametro (radiis albis, latis inclusis). 

Stems 1-2, simple, 2 to 4-headed, 35-40 cm. high, with a thick, 
almost appressed pubescence of unequal hairs. Radical leaves 
spatulate, lower cauline lanceolate or narrowly lanceolate, all 
acute, with petioles as long as the laminae, and denticulate, or 
some of them entire. Upper stem leaves linear, entire. Heads 
3-4 cm. in diameter, including the white, broad rays. 

Collected on a roadside, in subsoil clay from a ditch, by the 
writer on June 19, 191 2, in the prairie not far from Butte, Benson 
County. 

15. Erigeron anodontus sp. nov. 

Caulis solitarius, simplex, 3-capitatus, 45 cm. altus, restricte 
pubescens. Folia radicalia anguste lanceolata vel oblanceolata, 
10-20 cm. longa (petiolo longitudinis partes circiter duas e tribus 
occupante incluso). Folia caulina inferiora anguste oblanceolata, 
sessilia, 10-15 cm. longa, superiora linearia, 4-7 cm. longa. Folia 
omnia acuminata, integra. Capitula 3 cm. diametro (radiis latis 
albis inclusis). 

Stem single, simple, 3-headed, 45 cm. high, sparingly pu- 
bescent. Radical leaves narrowly lanceolate or oblanceolate, 
10-20 cm. long, including the petiole, which occupies about X 
of the entire length. Lower stem leaves narrowly oblanceolate, 
sessile, 10-15 cni- long. Upper stem leaves linear, 4-7 cm. long. 
All the leaves acuminate, entire. Heads 3 cm. in diameter, including 
the broad, white rays. 

Collected by the writer in dry pasture land at Butte, Benson 
County, on June 23, 1907. 

Leeds, North Dakota. 



Adicea. 

BY J. LUNHLL. 



The genus Adicea belonging chiefly to the tro])ics, represented 
there by about 150 species, and being most abundant in tropical 
America, has 4 species in Florida, but only one of these, A. pumila 
(L.) Raf., has a territory extended beyond the northern boundary 



ADICEA 7 

of that state. In adding to the species 4 new relatives from the 
northern and central United States, I have found it convenient 
to divide them in one black-seeded and one green-seeded group 
and arrange them under the following key: 
A. Achaenia nigra vel subnigra. 

a. Planta 4-8 cm. longa, per partem dimidiam 
superiorem foliosa, simplex, achaenia 1.5 mm. 

longa and 1.5 mm. lata i. A. fontana. 

a. Planta 10-30 cm. longa, prope basin sursum 

ramosa, achaenia 2 mm. longa, 1.5 mm. lata.. .2. A. opaca. 
A. Achaenia viridia. 

a. Planta 15-25 cm. longa, simplex, per partem 
dimidiam superiorem foliosa, achaenia 1.5 

mm. longa, i % "^ni- lata 3. A. Nieuwlandii 

a. Planta 30-60 cm. longa, prope basin sursum ramosa. 

b. Achaenia i mm. longa, /4-/i mm. lata. . . .4. A. Deamii. 
b. Achaenia 1.5 mm. longa, i. mm. lata. .5. A. pumila (L) Raf 

A. Achenes black or blackish. 

a. Plant 4-8 cm. long, leafy above the middle 

simple, seeds 1.5 mm. long and 1.5 mm. wide. . i. A. fontana. 
a. Plant 10-30 cm. long, branching from near 

the base, seeds 2 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide. . . .2. A. opaca 
A. Achenes green. 

a. Plant 15-25 cm. long, simple, leafy above the 

middle, seeds 1.5 mm. long, 1% mm. wide . .3. A. Nieuwlandii 
a. Plant 30-60 cm. long, branching from near 
the base, 
b. Achenes i mm. long, K~M mm. wide. . . .4. A. Deamii. 
b. Achenes 1.5 mm. long, i mm. wide. .5. A. pumila (L.) Raf. 

I. Adicea fontana sp. nov. 
Caulis annuus, gracilis, simplex, teres, pellucidus, paene 
erectus, appresse pilosus vel glabratus, 4-8 cm. altus, recens 
apice tantum foliosus, postea autem foliis geminis in caule 
medio vel iuxta eum positis. Quae folia infima parvo sunt, 
3-5 mm. diametro, orbicularia, vel basi rotundata vel paene 
truncata suborbicularia, margine fere integro et petiolis longi- 
tudini foliorum aequalibus. Folia omnia opposita et petiolata 
geminaque 2-4 in summo caule conferta, quae ampliora, 7-20 
mm. longa, viva etiam membranacea, ovata, magis minusve 



8 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALSIT 

crenata, 3-4 vel interdum 5-dentata, basi cuneata vel rotundata, 
apice brevi-acuminata, appresse et breviter pilosa, denique glabrata, 
petiolis I -5- 1 -3 longitudinis foliorum ornata sunt. Flores minimi 
in axillis foliorum congesti, sessiles vel subsessiles, petiolo multo 
breviores. Calyx dentes lineares tres habet, breviores achaeniis 
subatris (maturis atris), late ovatis, subplanis, 1.5 cm. longis et 
latis, acutulis. 

Stem annual, slender, simple, terete, pellucid, almost erect, 
or ascendent, appressed-hairy or glabrate, 4-8 cm. high, leafy 
only at the top when young, later with one pair of leaves on or 
somewhat above or sometimes even below the middle of the 
stem. These lowest leaves are small, 3-5 mm. transversely, or- 
bicular or nearly so, with rounded or almost truncate base and 
quite entire margin, and with petioles as long as the leaves. All 
the leaves are opposite and petioled, and 2-4 pairs are crowded 
at the top of the stem, and these are larger, 7-20 mm. long, almost 
membranous even when fresh, ovate, more or less crenate with 3 to 
4 teeth, or sometimes 5, cuneate or rounded at the base, with 
short-acuminate apex, appressedly short-pilose, at length glabrate, 
3-nerved from the base, the pair of lateral nerves branching out 
to the lower teeth and ending in the 2nd tooth, with one 
pair of lateral nerves for the uppermost pair of teeth; petioles 
1-5 to 1-3 of the length of the blade. Flower clusters small, sessile 
or subsessile in the axils, and very much shorter than the petioles. 
Calyx with 3 linear teeth, not as long as the blackish (at full 
maturity black), broadly ovoid, flattened achenes, which measure 
1.5 mm. in length and width, acutish. 

This plant may be found on a narrow strip along the boggy 
margin of a rill, in deep shade, often hidden beneath larger plants, 
in the woodland of Pleasant Lake, Benson County, North Dakota, 
and localities with similar natural conditions favoring the growth 
of this species are very rare within the state. The plants were 
collected by the writer several times between July 3 and 
September 2 in the years 1911-12, the latter date furnishing 
the mature plant which even then, at the close of the season, 
just immediately before the frost, proved to be of its usual, very 
small size. 

2. Adicea opaca sp. nov. 

Caulis annuus, simplex, vel ramis brevibus, adscendentibus 
singulis usque ternis oppositis vel de axillis foliorum orientibus 



ADICEA 9 

vestitus, erectus vel in solo incurvatus, 1-3 dm. altus, crassus, 
exigue et appresse pilosus vel glabratus, pellucidus. Folia opposita 
gemina 3 caulem et gemina 3 apicem frequenter occupantia, 
succulenta (siccata membranacea), 2-6 cm. longa, 1-4 cm. lata 
(ramorum 1-2 cm. longa, 0.5-1.5 cm. lata), ovata, breviter vel 
nequaquam acuminata, dentibus 59 crasse crenato-serrata, 
cuneata vel basi rotundata, 3-nervata. Florum cymi 5-6 in caule, 
I vel 2 in ramis congest!, in axillis foliorum brevi-pedunculati, 
petiolis subtendentibus breviores. Pedunculi, pedicelli, sepala 
hyalino-marginati. Achaenia, aliquantulum aspera vel tuber- 
culata, ovata, subplana, 2 mm. longa, 1.5 mm. lata, acutula. 

Stem annual, simple or with 1-3 pairs of short, ascending 
branches, opposite and growing from the leaf axils, erect or bent 
on the ground, and in the latter case having the lower side covered 
with rootlets penetrating the loose soil or the moss, 1-3 dm. high, 
fleshy, sparingly appressed-hairy or glabrate, pellucid. Leaves 
opposite, usually 3 pairs along the stem and 3 pairs at the top, 
watery (after drying membranous), 2-6 cm. long, 1-4 cm. wide 
(those of the branches 1-2 cm. long, 0.5-1.5 cm. wide), ovate, 
shortly or not at all acuminate, coarsely crenate-serrate with 
5-9 teeth, cuneate or rounded at base, 3-nerved with the lateral 
nerves ending in the 2nd tooth, with i pair of petioles as long 
as the blades, the others shorter. Flower clusters 5-6 on the stem, 
I or 2 on the branches, short-peduncled in the leaf axils, shorter 
than the subtending petioles. Peduncles, pedicels and sepals 
with hyaline margins. Achenes with or without a greenish blush, 
somewhat roughish or tuberculate, ovoid, flattened, 2 mm. in 
length and 1.5 mm. in width, acutish. 

In measuring the seeds as well as all the other parts of this 
and the preceding species, care was taken to use only full-grown 
plants, collected at the end of the season, and seeds that had 
dropped spontaneously from their receptacles. 

The plant grows in damp, but drained soil, well shaded, some- 
what distant from the rill where the preceding species thrives. 
Both of them enjoy luckily such natural advantages that there 
seems to be no danger of their extermination, as is the case with 
prairie plants. They don't need to fear the plow or the pasturing 
cattle which apparently has no appetite for them. They are 
fairly well established, sufficient in numbers to fill the wants of 
even a score of botanists, without visible lessening of the supply — 



10 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

a boon which can not be overestimated, considering the fact that 
Pleasant Lake, N. D., is their only habitation known, now and 
perhaps for the future. 

A. opaca was collected there by the writer on July 28 and 
September 2, 191 2 (the type s])ecimen made up from plants of 
the latter date.) 

3. Adicea Nieuwlandii sp. nov. 

Caulis annuus, erectus \el ascencens, simplex, glaber, pellu- 
cidus, supra dimidiam partem foliosus. F'olia geminorum 5-7. 
Succulenta (siccata membranacea), 2-4 cm. longa, 1-2.5 cm. 
lata, ovata, nonnihil acuminata, dentibus 4-7 crasse crenato- 
serrata, basi rotundata vel cuneata, 3-nervata, exigue et appresse 
pilosa vel glabrata, petiolis omnibus lamina brevioribus. Florum 
cymi 5-6, in axillis foliorum brevi-pedunculati. Achaenia 1.5 
mm. longa, '^-1% mm. lata, sive aequaliter viridia sive punctis 
obscurius viridibus marginaliter vestita. 

Stem annual, erect or ascending, simple, glabrous, pellucid, 
leafy above the middle. Leaves 5-7 pairs, watery (after 
drying membranous), 2-4 cm. long, 1-2.5 cm. wide (the lowest, 
especially if there is some rudimentary branching, very small, 
I cm. long or less), ovate, somewhat acuminate, coarsely crenate- 
serrate with 4-7 teeth, rounded or cuneate at base, 3-nerved, with 
the lateral nerves ending in the 2nd tooth, appressedly short- 
hairy or glabrate, petioles all shorter than the laminae. Flower 
clusters 5-6 in the leaf-axils, short-peduncled. Achenes 1.5 mm. 
long, ^-ij4 mm. wide, either uniformly green or with a dotted 
darker green lining along the margin. While the size of the achene 
is almost invariably constant in the other species here described, 
its width in this species is quite variable. 

The late date of its collection (October 19, 191 2) surely 
quaranteed a ripe specimen. It was collected at Notre Dame, 
Indiana, by Prof. J. A. Nieuwland and was named in his honor. 

4. Adicea Deamii sp. nov. 

Caulis annuus, ramos diffusos vel aequatos etiam propemodum 
de basi emittens, vel simplex, adscendcns vel paene erectus, 30-40 
cm. altus, succulentus, glabratus, pellucidus. Folia gemina 
7-10, opposita, succulenta (siccata membranacea), 2-9 cm. 
longa, 1.5-4 cm. lata (ramorum 2-4 cm. longa, 1-2 cm. lata), 
ovata, brevi-acuminata, dentibus 6-12 crasse crenato-serrata, basi 



ADICEA II 

cuneata vel rotundata, 3-nervata, petiolis lamina brevioribus. 
Florum cymi 8-10 in caule, 3 vel 4 in ramis, in axillis foliorum 
graciliter pedunculati et pedicellati. Achaenia i mm. longa, 
^-^ mm. lata, flavido- viridia, aliquantulum punctata, nihilo- 
minus autum aequalius colorata, apice acuto. 

Stem annual, branching from near the base with spreading 
or even horizontal branches, or simple, ascending or almost erect, 
30-40 cm. high, fleshy, glabrate, pellucid. Leaves opposite, 7-10 
pairs, watery (after drying membranous), 2-9 cm. long, 1.5-4 
cm. wide (those of the branches 2-4 cm. long, 1-2 cm. wide), 
ovate, short-acuminate, coarsely crenate-serrate with 6-12 teeth, 
cuneate or rounded at base, 3-nerved with the lateral nerves ending 
in the 2nd tooth, petioles shorter than the blades. Flower clusters 
8-10 on the stem, 3 or 4 on the branches, in the axils of the leaves 
on slender peduncles and pedicels, about }i as long as the sub- 
tending petioles. Achene i mm. long, yi-Yi mm. wide, yellowish 
greene, somewhat dotted, but still rather uniformly colored, less 
compressed than in the other species, with acute apex. 

The species is represented in my herbarium by two sheets. 
One was collected on August 24, 1902, in rich, moist woods in 
Wells County, Indiana, by Mr. Chas. D. Deam, for whom the 
species is named. It is a large plant, and its having so remarkably 
small achenes I at first ascribed to its probable immaturity on 
account of the rather early date for its collection. Later, when I 
received from Prof. J. "A. Nieuwland a sheet, collected at Mineral 
Springs, Indiana, on the 26th of September, 191 2, I noticed how 
at this ripe old age the size of the achene was not larger, and thus 
must represent the normal manifestation of the species. 

5. Adicea putnila (L.) Raf. 

Preliminary to all the work here needed, it is necessary to 
know what A. pumila is, and this in especially all-important in 
regard to the green-seeded species. Through the courtesy and 
kindness of Dr. Edward L. Greene I received some time ago elab- 
orately selected specimens of fully developed A. pumila, collected 
late in the season in the Potomac Valley. The study of these aided 
me in attributing to this species the following differential characters, 
most of them noticeable only in the mature plant. 

Stem reaching a length of 6 dm., with later on spreading 
branches, some of which are often longer than the part of the stem 



12 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATTRLAIST 

above their attachment; leaves not unusually becoming 12 cm. 
long and 7 cm. wide, 3-nerved at base, with the lateral nerves 
ending in the ist or 2nd tooth, sometimes even in the 3rd and 
4th from above; leaf-margins with 8-16 teeth; petioles very 
slender, in the middle of the stem longer and toward the apex 
shorter than the laminae; flower clusters 8 on the stem, 4 on the 
branches, spreading on long and slender pedicels. Achenes 1.5 
mm. long, i mm. wide, more or less narrowly ovoid, only slightly 
acutish and slightly compressed, colored light green and beautifully 
sprinkled with dark green dots, which are either distinctly separate 
or closer together, then looking reticulated or like rosaries. This 
being our largest species, its name suggests a plant of dwarfy 
dimentions and is a misnomer, indicating that Linnaeus made his 
description from an immature or poorly nourished specimen. 

Leeds, North Dakota. 



New Plants from North Dakota. -X. 



BY J. LUNELIv. 



Ranunculus V/aldronii sp. nov. 

Caules, pedunculi, petioli, margines foliorum, sepala sparsim 
pilosi, denique glabrati. Caules i — complures, 7-12 cm. alti, 
de fasciculo radicularum carnosarum perennium oriundi, floribus 
paucis — compluribus ornati. Folia radicalia 2-5, anguste — late 
elliptica usque ovalia, basi cuneata, apice acutulo, sive integra 
sive apice 2 vel 3 lobis brevibus exornata, petiolo laminae aequali 
vel duplo longiore. Folia caulina aut integra, anguste elliptica, 
aut profunde usque basin paene fissa, lobo mediano amplo, latiore 
(sive integro sive apice 2 vel 3 lobis brevibus exornati), laterali- 
bus vel omnibus lobis linearibus. Petala parva, anguste obovata, 
5-8 mm. longa, 3-5 mm. lata, sepala cxcedentia. Capitula car- 
pellorum sphaerica. Achaenia turgida, glabra, dorso rotufidato, 
rostro brevi adunco provisa. 

Stems, peduncles, petioles, leaf-margins and sepals sparingly 
hairy, at length glabrate. Stems 1 -several, 7-12 cm. high, from 
a fascicle of numerous, fleshy, flbrous, perennial roots, few -several 
flowered. Radical leaves 2-5, narrowly-broadly elliptical to 



PLANTS FROM NORTH DAKOTA 1 3 

oval, with cuneate base and acutish apex, either entire or with 
2 or 3 shallow apical lobes, the petiole equalling to twice as long as 
the lamina. Cauline leaves either entire, narrowly elliptical, 
or deeply cleft almost to the base, with the median lobe large, 
broader (entire or with 2 or 3 shallow apical lobes), and the lateral 
ones linear, or with all the lobes linear. Petals small, narrowly 
obovate, 5-8 mm. long, 3-5 mm. broad, exceeding the sepals. 
Head of carpels spherical. Achenes glabrous, plump, dorsally 
rounded, with a short hooked beak. 

If we locate the species in the system, we will find it belonging 
to the R. glaberrimus group, which has the following members. 
(i) R. glaberrimus Hook, of the Pacific coast, which is glabrous, 
with broad and broadly 3-lobed radical leaves, entire cauline 
leaves, large petals, 10-12 mm. long, 8-10 mm. broad, broadly 
obovate, brighter yellow, achenes with a slender beak, herbage 
becoming black in drying; {2) R. ellipiicus Greene, of the Rocky 
Mountains of Colorado, Utah and Nevada to eastern California, 
which is glabrous, has always entire, acute radical leaves, usually 
3-cleft cauline leaves, large petals as in R. glaberrimus, often 
even more rounded, achenes with a short, curved style, and herbage 
remaining green in drying; and (3) R. Waldronii, chiefly of the 
prairies of eastern Montana and western Dakota, glabrate (or 
glabrous), leaf-characters generally of R. ellipticus, but often at 
the same time partly coming nearer to R. glaberrimus , small and 
narrowly obovate petals, 5-8 mm. long, 3-5 mm. wide, achenes 
with a short, curved style, and herbage not changing color in dry- 
ing, the flower and the whole plant just equalling in size young 
specimens of our own R. ovalis Raf. The size and shape of the 
petals certainly deserve specific distinction. The type was col- 
lected on May 14, 19 12 in a moist pasture at Dickinson, Stark 
County, in the southwestern part of this state. It has been named 
in honor of its first collector, Mr. Clarence H. Waldron, the junior 
representative of a North Dakotan family of botanical fam.e. 

Leeds, North Dakota. 



14 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

Notes on Our Local Plants. —11. 

BY. J. A. NIEUWLAND. 

Class 2. ANGIOSPERMAE. 
Subclass I. MONOCOTYLEDONEAE 

J. Ray and A. Haller. 

Order 6. PANDANALES. 

Britton, Man. 2nd. ed. p. 38, (1905). 

Family ii. TYPHACEAE J. St. Hillaire, Expos. 

Fam. I, p. 60, (1805)^ also Dumort. Comment. Bot. p. 67 
U822). Fl. Belg. p. 162, (1827). 

T y phoideae Yentenat, Tabl. II, p. 87 (1794). 
Typhae Juss. Gen. p. 30, (1787). 

TYPHA Theophrastus, Hist. PI. 4, 11, Dioscorides 3, 123, 
Pliny, Nat. Hist. 16, 36 and 66, also 19, 2. 

Typha Dodonaeus, Pempt. 604, (1582) Lobelius, Obs. 42, 
and Icon. 81 (1576) also (1571), Tragus Hist. p. 681 (1543) also 
Matthioli, Camerarius, Ruellius, C. Bauhin, Morison, Lonicer, 
etc., etc. 

Typha Tour. Els. Bot. 422 (1694) and I. R. H. p. 530; (1700). 
Typha Linn. Syst. (1735), Hort. Cliff, p. 439. (1737) Crcn. PI. 
p. 281, (1737), p. 418 (1754)- Sp. PI. p. 971, (1753)- 

Typha palustris Ruellius Nat. Stirp. p. 560 (1543) also 
Caesalpinus, De Plantis (1582). Dodonaeus, p. 604, (1582), also 
Typha palustris Linn., Am. Acad. p. 259 (1749). Typha aquatica 
Tragus. Typha latifolia Linn. vSp. PI. p. 971 (1753). 

Common throughout our whole region I have observed it 
in many localities in every country. No. 9486 U. N. I). Herb., 
Notre Dame, (Laporte Co.) State Catalogue. Lake Maxinkuckee 
(Marshall Co.) H. W. Clarke. (Lake Co.) Deam. Millers, Ind. 
(Lake Co.) Umbach. 

Typha media Clusius, Pann. p. 716. (1583). 

Typha angustifolia Linn. Sp. PI. p. 971, (1753). Massula 
angustifolia (Linn.) Dulac Engl. Bot. 21, No. 1456. 

(Lake Co.) Deam, (I^aporte Co.) Deam. Seen only at Millers, 
Ind., (Lake Co.) No. 2637 U. N. D. Herb. 2 specimens. Rare. 



NOTES ON OUR LOCAL PLANTS 15 

Neither of these are quite typical. There is only a small space 
between the staminate and pistillate spikes, but otherwise normal. 
This species is common around Detroit, Mich. Scarce where I 
have recorded it, and I have never found it elsewhere in the area 
embraced by this list. 

Family 12. SPARGANIACEAE Agardh, Theor Syst. 
PI. 13. (1858). 

SPARGANIUM Dioscorides, 4, 21, also Gesner, Matthioh, 
Lobelius, Dodonaeus, Tabernaemontanus, Morison, J. and C. 
Bauhin, etc., etc. 

Sparganiuni Tour. Els. Bot. p. 422, (1694), Inst. R. H. p. 530, 
(1700) Sparganium Linn. Syst. (1735) Gen. PI. 281, (1737), p. 
418 (1854). Sp. PI. p. 971, (1753)- 

Sparganium eurycarpum Engelm., in A. Gray, Man. 2nd Ed. p. 
430, (1856). 

The plant grows near Benton Harbor, Mich., Berrien Co.), 
in abundance. Edges of ponds and back water of the river are 
covered by large areas of it. It was found also at Millers, Ind. 
(Lake Co.). No. 9290 U. N. D. Herb, from Benton Harbor. No. 
9288, Roadside pool near Mishawaka, (St. Joseph Co.). 

Sparganium simplex Hudson, Fl. Angl. 2nd Ed. p. 401, (1788). 

No. 474 U. N. D. Herb. Sagunay (Laporte Co.) No. 2152 
Millers, Ind. Lake Maxinkuckee (Marshall Co.). H. W. Clarke, 
Millers and Tolleston, Ind. Higley & Raddin. Pine, Ind. Hill. 

Sparganium minimum C. Bauhin. Prod. p. 24, (1620) also. 
Pin. p. 15. 

Sparganium minimum Fries. Sum. Veg. 2, p. 560, (1746). 

No. 1807 and No. 2693 Rum Village near South Bend, Ind. 
(St. Joseph Co.). (Lake Co.) State Cat. Pine, Ind. (Lake Co.) 
Babcock. Clarke, Ind. (Lake Co.) Hill, also Millers, Ind. (Lake 
Co.). 

Order 7. HELOBIAE. 
Bartling, Ord. Nat. p. 70, (1830). 

Naiadales Britton, Man. p. 40, (1905). 

Family 13. POTAMOGETONEAE Dumortier, B. C. 

Flor. Belg. Stam. p. 163, (1827). Naiadaceae Lindley J. 
Nat. Syst., Ed. 2, p. 366, (1836) in part. 



1 6 AMURICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

Fluviales Vent. Tabl. II. p. 80, (1794); Nayadeae Bartling 
do. p. 71, also Link, also Rich, A. El. p. 416. 

SPIRILlUS]. Gay. Compt. Rend. Acad. Sc. 38, p. 703, (1854) 
PoTAMOGETON Tour. Kls. p. 199, (1644) also Inst. R. H. p. 
232, (1700), Linn. Sysl. (1735); Gen. in. p. 33, (1737); P- 61, 
(1754); Sp. PI. p. 126, (1753); and nearly all post-Linnaean 
authors, but not Potamogeton Dioscorides 1. 4. c. gg,= Persicaria 
amphibia Linn. Am. Acad. p. 2 and 6. (1749); nor Potamogeton 
Pliny, Nat. Hist. 1. 26, 8, v. 2,7, — Equisetum Telmateia Linn. ace. to 
some; nor Potamogeton of early pre-Linnaean authors generally. 
Buccaferrea Bubani, Nuov. Giorn. Bot. Ital. V, p. 316, (1873) also 
Fl. Pyr. Vol. IV., p. 10, (1901), not Buccaferrea Micheli, P. Nov. 
PI. Gen. p. 72 (i y 2g) =Ruppia (Dillen) Linn, (1753). 

Spirillus natans (Linn). 

Potamogeton natans Linn., Pan. Suec. Am. Acad. II, 
p. 241, (1749); Sp. PI. p. 126, (1753); Buccaferrea natans (Linn.) 
Bubani 1. c. 

Bankson Lake near Lawton, Mich. (Cass Co.) ; Benton Harbor, 
St. Joseph, Bertrand, New Buffalo, Niles, Mich. (Berrien Co.); 
Hudson Lake, Ind. (Laporte Co.); Notre Dame, South Bend, 
Lakeville, North Liberty, Ind., (St. Joseph Co.); Lake Maxin- 
kuckee )Marshall Co.); H. W. Clarke, (Lake Co.) Hill. Pine, Ind. 
Wheeler. Millers, Ind. (Lake Co.); U. N. D. Herb. No. 2647. 

Spirillus amplifolius (Tuckerm). 

Potamogeton amplifolius Tuckerm. Am. Jr. vSc. 45, p. 

38, (1843)- 

Millers, Ind. (Lake Co.) U. N. D. Herb. No. 2646. Lake 
Maxinkuckee, H. W. Clarke, (Lake Co.) Hill. Hudson Lake, 
Ind., Lawton, Mich., Bankson Lake, [Kalamazoo River, (Allegan 
Co.) Wight]. 

Spirillus pulcher (Tuckerm). 

i'oTAMOGETON PULCHER Tuckerm. Am. jr. Sc. ^5. p. 38, 

(1843). 

(Lake Co.) Hill.; Pine, Ind. (Lake Co.) W. C. Calkins, U. N. D. 
Herb. No. 6959; Dune Park, Ind. (Lake Co.), Higley & Raddin. 

Spirillus lonchites (Tuckerm). 

Potamogeton lonchites Tuckerm. Am. Jr. Sc. II. 6, p. 226, 
(1848); Potamogeton americanus C. & S. 



NOTES ON OUR LOCAL PLANTS 1 7 

Lake Maxinkuckee, H. W. Clarke, (Lake Co.) Hill; Pine, 
Ind. (Lake Co.) Wheeler; Lawton, Mich., Bankson Lake, U. N. D. 
Herb. No. 9501, [Kalamazoo River (Allegan Co.), Wight.) 

Spirillus heterophyllus (Schreb.) 

PoTAMOGETON HETEROPHYLLUS Schreb. Spicil. Fl. Lips. p. 
21, (1771). 

Lake Maxinkuckee, H. W. Clarke. (Lake Co.) Hill. 

Spirillus lucens (Linn). 

PoTAMOGETON LUCENS Linn. Sp. PI. p. 126, (1753) 

Lake Maxinkuckee, H. W. Clarke. Clarke, Ind. (L.ake Co.) 
L. M. Umbach. 

Spirillus Zizii (Roth.). 

PoTAMOGETON Zizii Roth, Enum. I. p. 531, (1827). 

PoTAMAGETON ANGUSTiFOLius Berch. and Presl. Rost. 19, 
(1821); not same of D. C. (1805). 

(Lake Co.) Hill. 

Spirillus praelongus (Wulf.). 

PoTAMOGETON PRAELONGUS Wulf. in Roem. Arch. 3, p. 331, 
(1805). 

Lake Maxinkuckee, H. W. Clarke, (Lake Co.) Hill. Bankson 
Lake near Lawton, Mich. 

Spirillus perfoiiatus (Linn.). 

PoTAMOGETON PERFOLIATUS Linn. Am. Acad. IL, p. 241, 
(1749); Sp. PI. p. 126, (1753). 

Lake Maxinkuckee, H. W. Clarke. 

Spirillus perfoiiatus var. Richardsonii (A. Bennett). 
PoTAMOGETON PERFOLIATUS var. RiCHARDSONii A. Bennett. 
Poiamogeion perfoiiatus var. lanceolatus Robbins, A. Gray 
Man. Ed. 5, p. 488, (1867), not Blytt. (1861). 
(Laporte Co.) Hill. 

Spirillus zosteraefolius (Schum). 

PoTAMOGETON ZOSTERAEFOLIUS Sclium. Enum. PI. Saell. p. 
50, (1801); Potamogeton compressus Fries, Novit, Ed. 2, p. 44, 
(1828); not P. compressus Linn., (1753). 

Lake Maxinkuckee, H. W. Clarke, (Laporte Co.) Barnes, 
(Lake Co.) Hill. [Kalamazoo River, (Allegan Co.) Wight]. 

Spirillus Friesii (Ruprecht.). 

PoTAMOGETON Friesii Ruprecht, Beitr. Pfl. Russ. Reichs. 



l8 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

4, p. 43, (1845); Potamogeton compressus J. E. Smith, Engl. Bol. 
3, pi. 418, (1794); not Linn. (1753); Potamogeton pusillus var. 
major Fries, Novit. Ed. 2, 48, (1848). Potamogeton major Morong, 
Mem. Torr. Club. 3, pt. 2, 41, (1893), not P. pusillus var. major 
M. & K.. (1823). 

Lake Maxinkuckee, H. W. Clarke, Pine, Ind., Wheeler. 
[Kalamazoo River, (Allegan Co.) Wight.] 

Spirillus foliosus var. niagarensis (Tuckerm.). 

Potamogeton foliosus var. niagarensis Tuckerm. Pot- 
amogeton pauciflorus var. niagarensis (Tuckerm.) Morong, Mem. 
Torr. Club. 3. 2, p. 39, (1893). Potamogeton niagarensis Tuckerm. 
Am. Jr. Sc. (II) 7, P- 354, (1849). 

(Laporte Co.) S. Coulter. Clarke, Ind., L. M. Umbach, Wolf 
Lake, Hammond, Ind. (Lake Co.) A. Chase. 

Spirillus pusillus (Linn.). 

Potamogeton pusillus Linn. Sp. PI. p. 127, (1753). 

Lake Maxinkuckee, H. W. Clarke, [South Haven, Mich., 
(Van Buren Co.) L. H. Bailey] [Kalamazoo River (Allegan Co.) 
Wight]. 

Spirillus filiformis (Pers.). 

Potamogeton filiformis Persoon, Syn. i, p. 152, (1805). 

Lake Maxinkuckee (Marshall Co.) H. W. Clarke. 

Spirillus diversifolius (Raf). 

Potamogeton diversifolius (Raf. Med. Rep. (II) 5, p. 
354, (1898); Potamogeton hybridus Michx., Fl. Bor. Am. i, p. 
loi, (1803), not Thuill. (1790). (Lake & Laporte Co.) Hill. 

Spirillus pectiniformis (Linn.). 

Potamogeton pectiniforme Linn. Am. Acad. II., p. 241,(1749). 

Potamogeton pectinatus Linn. Sp. PI. p. 127, (1753). 

Lake Maxinkuckee, H. W. Clarke; St. Mary's Lake, Notre 
Dame, Ind., U. N. D. Herb. No. 9215; [Kalamazoo River, Mich. 
(Allegan Co.) Wight]. 

Spirillus interruptus (Kitaibcl.). 

Potamogeton interruptus Kitaibel, Schultes, CEst. Fl. 
Ed. 2, p. 328, (1814). Potamogeton flahellatus Babington, Man. 
Bot. Ed. 3, p. 324, (185 1). 

Notre Dame, Ind. (Lake Co.) Hill. Lake Maxinkuckee, H. W. 
Clarke. 



NOTES ON OUR LOCAL PLANTS I9 

Spirillus Robbinsii (Oates). 

PoTAMOGETON RoBBiNSii Oakes, Hovey's Magazine, 7, p. 
180, (1841). 

Lake Maxinkuckee, H. W. Clarke, (Lake Co.) Hill. 

Spirillus obtusifolius (Mert. & Roch.). 

PoTAMOGETON OBTusiFOLUis Meit. & Roch. Deutsch. Fl. 

I, p. 855, (1823). Potamogeton compressus Wahl. Fl. Suec. i, 
p. 107, (1824), not P. compressus Linn. 1753. 

[South Haven, Mich. (Van Buren Co.) L. H. Bailey]. 

Family 14. NAYADEAE Rich, El. p. 416. 

Bartling, Ord. Nat. PI. p. 70, (1830), also Link Naiadaceae 
Lindley, Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, p. 366, (1836); Fhcviales Vent. Tabl. 

II, p. 80, (1794) ill part. 

NAJAS Linn., Syst. (1735)' 

Gen. PL, p. 278, (1737), P- 445, (i754); Hort. CHff. p. 437, 
(1737); Sp. PI. p. 1015, (1753); Fluvialis Vaillant Act. Acad, 
p. 17, (1719); also Fl. Paris, p. 40, (1723), p. 54, (1727); also 
Mich. Nov. PI. Gen. 11, (1729); Fluvalis Adans. Fam. des. PI. 
II, p. 472, (1763); Fluvialis (?) of older authors. 

Najas flexilis (Willd.) Rost. & vSchmidt, Fl. Sed. p. 384, (1824). 
Caulinia fiexilis Willd. Abh. Akad. Berl. 95, (1803). 
Lake Maxinkuckee, H. W. Clarke. 

Family 15. JUNCAGINEAE Rich, also Kunth. Endlicher, (1840). 

Scheuchzeriaceae Agardh, Theor. Syst. PI. p. 44, (1858). 
Triglochineae Dum. Fl. Belg. p. 141, (1827), also Am. Fam. 
PI. p. 61, (1829), ex D. C. Prod. 

TRIGLOCHIN C. Bauhin Pinax, p. 6, (1623). • 

Also Rivinus, Linn. Sust. (1735); Gen. PI. p. 106, (i737), 

p. 157, (1754); Sp. PI. p. 338, (1753)- Jtmcago Tour. Els. p. 232. 

Inst. R. H. p. 266. Ahbotia Raf. New. Fl. N. Am. I, p. 36, (1836). 

Triglochin tricapsularis Linn., Am. Acad. p. 245, (1894). 
Triglochin palustris Linn. Sp. PI. p. 338, (1753)- 
luncago palustris (Linn.) Moench, Meth. p. 644, (i794)- 
Ahbotia palustris (Linn.) Raf. 1. c. 

(Lake Co.) Ind. Higley & Raddin, also Hill. 

HEXAGLOCHIN (Dum.) Nwd. Nov. Gen. 



20 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

Triglochin Linn. 1. c. etc. in part [Hexaglochin Dum. as 
section under Triglochin. Fl. Belg. Stani. p. 141, (1827). 

Diflfert a Triglochine capsulis sexlocularibus ovoidis, cum 
axilla intra capsulam sexangulari minime alata, apicibus sex 
pedicellis decurrentibus in rachim; cum habitu et multis aliis 
characteribus generis praecedentis.* 

Hexaglochin sexlocularis (Linn.) Nwd. 

Triglochin sexlocularis Linn. Am. Acad. II. p. 245, (1749). 
Hexaglochin maritima (Linn.) Nwd. 

Triglochin maritima Linn. Sp. PI. p. 339, (1753). Triglochin 
data Nutt. Gen. I: p. 237, (1818); Triglochin maritima var. 
elata A. Gray. Man. Ed. 2. p. 437, (1852) in part. 

Millers, Ind. (Lake Co.) U. N. D. Herb. No. 2656, also (Lake 
Co.) Hill. Chain Lakes (St. Joseph Co.) U. N. D. Herb. No. 547; 
also Mineral Springs, Ind. (Porter Co.) East of Bankson Lake; 
Indiana Harbor (Lake Co.) A. Chase, Lake Maxinkuckee, H. W. 
Clarke. 

SCHEUCHZERIA Linn. Syst. (1735) Gen. PI. p. 106, (1737) 
P- 157, (1754), Sp. PI. p. 338, (1753)- 

Scheuchzeria palustris Am. Acad. II, p. 245, (1749), Linn. 
Sp. Pi. p. 338, (1753)- 

(Marshall Co.) Hessler, Lake Maxinkuckee, H. W. Clarke; 
Millers, Ind., Bastin; Chain Lakes, Ind. (St. Joseph Co.), I have 
found it in open spaces in tamarack bogs commonly throughout 
the region, associated with Sarracenia purpurea, Oxycoccus macro- 
carpus or Drosera rotundi folia, Menyanthos trifoliatus (Buckbean). 
Other places where I have seen it without collecting it are ; Bankson 

* Though this plant genus, the type of which is Triglochin maritima 
Linn. vSp. PI. p. 339, (1753), had scarcely any other good characters than 
that of a capsule with six rather than three carpels, it could not reason- 
ably be kept in Triglochin. So great is this a difTerence for purposes of 
classification that we wonder how Linnaeus himself could have retained 
the plant in his group Hexandria irigynia, where one would hardly look 
for it with such contradictory characters. The habit of Hcxaglochhi and 
Triglochin are the same and for scarcely any other reason could a follower 
of the Linnaean or any other system have kept the plants together. Many 
botanists oliject to habit as a satisfactory character for generic separation 
and such conservatives can not object. The capsules, however, are very 
different in habit, excluding T. .itriata which according to Rafinesque may 
perhaps constitute a third separate genus with characters quite as notable. 



NOTES ON OUR LOCAL PLANTS 21 

Lake (3 miles east) Dune Park, Lakeville, North Liberty, Tam- 
arack (Laporte Co). 

Family 16. ALISMACEAE D. C. Fl. Fr. 3, p. 181, 

(1805), also Dum. Comment. Bot. p. 64 (1823). 

Fl. Belg. p. 135 ex Vent. 

ALISMA (Pliny) Nat. Hist. 1. 25, c. 10 & 77. Valerius Cordus 
(1561). 

Also Alisma Linn. Syst. (1735) Gen. PI. p. 108, (1737), p. 
160, (1754); Sp. PI. p. 342, (1754); in part. Plantaginastrum 
Heister, Syst. 7, (1748). Ranunculus Tour. Els. p. 241, (1694). 
Inst. R. H. p. 292, (1700), in part. Damasonium Dioscorides 
and Pliny, is a synonym for Alisma. 

Alisma erecta Linn. Am. Acad. II, p. 245, (1749). 

Alisma Plantago Scopoli, 1771. 

Alisma Plantago aquatica Linn. Sp. PI. p. 342, (1753).* 

Lake Maxinkuckee, Ind., H. W. Clarke; Bankson Lake, 
Mich.; Chain Lakes, Ind. (St. Joseph Co.); St. Joseph's Lake, 
Notre Dame, Ind.; Rum Village, South Bend, Ind.; Lakeville, 
Ind.; Benton Harbor, St. Joseph, New Buffalo, Bertrand, Mich; 
Hudson Lake, Tamarack, and Sagunay, Ind. (Laporte Co.) ; 
(Laporte Co.) Deam, Barnes. Mineral Springs (Porter Co.) ; 
Millers, Dune Park, Gary, (Lake Co.); Michigan City, Ind.; C. D. 
Mell; Millers, Ind., L. M. Umbach. 

SAGITTA Pliny, Nat. Hist. 1. 21, c. 17 & 68, also numerous 
authors before Linnaeus. 

Sagittaria Gerard (1576), not SagiUaria Lobelius. 

Sagittaria Linn. Syst. (1735), Gen. PI. p. 289, (1737); p. 
429, (1754); Sp. PI. p. 993, (1753). Ranunculus Tour. Els. p. 241, 
(1694); Inst. R. H. p. 292, (1700). 

Sagitta latifolia (Willd.). 

Sagittaria latifolia Willd. Sp. PI. 4, p. 409, (1806). 

Bankson Kake, Bertrand, Benton Harbor, St. Joseph, Mich.; 
Rum Village at South Bend, Notre Dame Lakes, Lakeville, Chain 
Lakes, Dollar Lake (St. Joseph Co.); Millers & Dune Park, (Lake 
Co.) Tamarack, Hudson Lake, Michigan City, (Laporte Co.); 
Mineral Springs, (Porter Co. 

* The Linnaean name not being a binary is inadmissable in a strictly 
binary system. For other synonyms see Am. Mid. Nat. II. p. loi. 



12 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

Sagitta graminea (Michx). 

Sagittaria graminea Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2, p. 190, (1803). 

Millers, Ind., U. N. D. Herb. No. 2156. (Laporte Co.) Barnes. 
Lake Maxinkuckee, H. W. Clarke. Millers, Ind., L. M. Umbach. 

Sagitta rigida (Pursh.). 

Sagittaria rigida Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 397, (18 14). 

Sagittaria heterophylla Pursh, 1. c. p. 397 not S. heterophylla 
Schreb. (181 1). 

Millers, Ind. Higley & Raddin. Lawton, Mich. (Cass Co.), 
U. N. D. Herb. No. 2341. 

Sagitta engelmanniana (J. G. Smith). 

Sagittaria engelmanniana J. G. Smith. Mem. Torr. Bot. 
Club. 5, p. 25, (1894); Sagittaria variabilis vsix. gracilis S. Watson, 
in A. Gray, Man. Ed. 6, p. 555, (1889), not Engelm. 

Notre Dame, Ind., U. N. D. Herb. Herb. No. 2547. Lake 
Maxinkuckee, H. W. Clarke. 

Family 17. VALLISNERIACEAE Dumort. Anal. 

Fam. p. 54, (1829). 

Vallisnerieae Dum. Fl. Belg. p. 135, (1827), as tribe under 
Hydrocharideae . 

PHILOTRIA Raf. Am. Month. Mag. 2, p. 175, (1818). 

Elodea Mich. Fl. Bor. Am. I., p. 20, (1803), not Elodes Adanson, 
(1763); Udora Nutthall, Gen. 2, p. 242, (18 18). 

Philotria canadensis (Michx.) Britton, Sc. II., 2, p. 15, (1895). 

Elodea canadensis Michx. 1. c. 

Anacharis canadensis Planch. Ann. Sc. Nat. III. 9, p. 75, (1849). 

(Laporte Co.) Barnes; Millers, Ind., Benton Harbor, Mich., 
Notre Dame, Ind., Rum Village, South Bend, etc., very commom. 

VALLISNERIA MicheH, Nov. PI. Gen. p. 12, (1729). 

Also Vallisneria Linn. Gen. p. 300, (1737), p. 446, (1743); 
Hort. ChfT. 1). 454, (1737); Sp. PI. p. 1015, (1753). 

Vallisneria spiralis Lmn. Sp. PI. 1. c. (1753). 

Lake Maxinkuckee, H. W. Clarke,* (St. Joseph Co.) Ind. 
Barnes. (To be continued.) 

* The citations attributed to H. W. Clarke, L. H. Bailey, L. M. 
Umbach, A. Chase, Wight and some by Hill and others were taken from 
specimens deposited in the U. S. Herbarium in the Smithsonian Institution, 
where through the kindness of Dr. J. N. Rose, I was enabled to examine the 
specimens during the summer vacations of the last three years. 



DAILY OBSERVATIONS 01^ OUR BIRDS 23 

Daily Observations of Our Birds. — I. 



BY BROTHER ALPHONSUS, C. S. C. 



SEPT. 4, 1912. 

5:30 a. m. — Many Swifts and two Martins flying about a 
church steeple. The Martins looked large compared with the 
Swifts. 

7:30 to 8:30 a. m. — Jays were numerous and noisy. A few 
notes of a Song Sparrow. Saw a Grackle and a Dove. Warbling 
Vireos plentiful and in full song. Saw a Baltimore Oriole — 
no note. Many Indigo Birds — counted seven sitting on a fallen 
branch — all brown. Note of Downy Woodpecker. A few notes of 
the Goldfinch. Flicker's call-note. A few notes of the Pewee. 
A note somewhat similar to the White-breasted Nuthatch's, but 
sufficiently different to make me look carefully for the bird. 
In a minute out flew a Red-breasted Nuthatch — the first arrival 
of this species from the north. Two Catbirds in bushes; heard 
call-note. 

4:45 to 5:15 p. m. — A few Robins, and many Grackles in 
tops of trees. A Red-headed Woodpecker resting on top of a cross 
on a tower; the bird flew out after a passing insect. Note of young 
Goldfinches. 

September 5, 1912. 

5 130 a. m. — Many Swifts and a few Robins seen. 

7:30 to 8:30 a. m. — Jays plentiful; heard several different 
call-notes and their bell-like note. Saw some Robins and one Song 
Sparrow. A Grackle flew overhead. Two Kingfishers flew out over 
the lake. Warbling Verios not so much in evidence as yesterday, 
but still in song. Indigoes numerous. Goldfinches here and there. 
Note of Flicker. Saw first Yellow-legs this month. 

4:15 to 5:15 p. m. — Hawk-note of Jay. Call-note of Robin. 
Note of Grackle. Note of Screech Owl at 5:10. Saw a few Swifts. 
Song of Warbling Vireo. Indigo call-note. Tree toad note of 
Red-headed Woodpecker. Notes of Downy Woodpecker, White- 
breasted Nuthatch, Goldfinch. Saw and heard a Flicker. 

7 p. m. — Note of Killdeer. 

September 6, 1912. 
5 130 a. m. — Call-note of Robin. Saw several Grackles. 



24 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

7 -.30 to 8 :30 a. m. — Jay-note. Saw one Song Sparrow. Grackles 
seen and heard. One Dove seen. Warbling Vireo still in full song. 
Indigo call-note. Catbird's call. Note of White-breasted Nuthatch. 
Call-note of Goldfinch. 

5:15 to 5:45 p. m. — Notes of Jay, RoVjin, White-breasted Nut- 
hatch. Two telephone wires lined with Cowbirds for about 100 
feet. The birds were perched close together, the males and females 
black and brown respectively. Many others in company with many 
Grackles were bathing just beneath at the edge of a lake. I have 
observed this bathing of Cowbirds before at this time of the year. 
This was the first time I had seen any of this species since August 
15. Saw one Song Sparrow — no notes since the 4th inst. A few 
Swifts in sight. Two Flickers in the path ahead of me. 

6:45 p. m. — Note of Killdeer. 

September 7, 1912. 

5:30 a. m. — Call-notes of Jay and Robin. 

7:30 to 8:30 a. m. — Caw of Crow — first since Aug. 31. A 
variety of unmusical notes from a Jay. Call-note of Robin. Grackles 
seen and heard. Warbling Vireo's note. Saw one of this species 
eating a worm in a sycamore tree. Indigo call-note. Unmusical 
notes of Catbird. Call-notes of Goldfinch, Flicker. 
4 to 5 p. m. — Call-notes of Jay, Robin, Grackle, Indigo Bird, Cat- 
bird, Goldfinch. 

7 p. m. — Note of Killdeer. 

September 8, 1912. 

5 :30 a. m. — Saw Swifts and heard Robins. 

7 :30 to 8 130 a. m. — Call-notes of Jay and Robin. Saw one 
Song Sparrow — no note. Note of Grackles. Startled a Dove. 
Few feeble notes of Warbling Vireo. Call-notes of Indigo Bird 
and Catbird. A shrill note and tree toad note of Red-headed 
Woodpecker. Saw one Pewee — no note. 

4:15 to 5:15 p. m. — Call-notes of Jay, Song Sparrow, Grackle, 
Flicker. Saw a Dove. Caw of a Crow. 

7 p. m. — Note of Killdeer. Call-note of Robin. 

September 0, 1912. 

5:30 a. m. — Call-notes of Jay and Robin. 

10 to 10:45 a. m. — Call notes of Jay, Robin, Grackle. A few 
notes of Warbling Vireo. Loud note of White-breasted Nuthatch 
A Pewee — song has ceased. 



DAILY OBSERVATIONS OF OUR BIRDS 25 

4:45 to 5:15 p. m. — Call-notes of Jay and Robin. A few 
Crackles seen and heard. Saw several Swifts. Note of young 
Goldfinch. 

September io, 1912. 

8 a. m. — Call-notes of Jay, Robin, Grackle. Feeble notes of 
Warbling Vireo. A few Swifts above a building. 

5 to 5 130 p. m. — Crackles and Cowbirds very numerous, 
perched on dead branches at the top of a tall poplar. Jays and 
Robins calling here and there. Flicker's note frequently heard. 

September ii, 1912. 
5 130 a. m. — Saw a flock of Crackles wheeling above the trees. 
10 a. m. — Bell-like note of Jay. Call-note of Robin. 

4 to 5 p. m. — Caw of Crow. Jay-note. Crackles seen. A few 
Swifts high over buildings. A Brown Thrasher flew into an apple 
tree — first seen since Aug. 26. A Herring Cull wheeling and calling 
over a lake. 

7 p. m.^ — Note of Yellowlegs, repeated loudly. 

September 12, 1912. 

5 130 a. m. — Heard Swifts outside a window. 

9 to 9:30 a. m. — Jay-note repeated loudly by two birds. 
Call-note of Song Sparrow. Feeble note of Warbling Vireo. Two 
distinct call-notes of a Brown Thrasher. Caw of Crow. Call-note 
of several Bluebirds — first since Aug. 11. A Kingfisher flew low 
over a lake and uttered its note while rising to alight in a tree. 

6 p. m. — Swifts seen. 

September 13, 19 12. 

8:45 to 9:30 a. m. — Caw of Crow. Jay-note. Call-note of 
Robin. Catbird call -note. Saw two Pewees. First Pine Warblers 
arrived from the north. Heard their call-note. 

3:15 to 4 p. m. — Call-notes of Jay, Robin, Song Sparrow. 
Crackles in flocks. 

September 14, 1912. 

8 145 to 9 130 a. m. — Caw of Crow. Loud calls of a Jay. A large 
flock of Crackles came into a grove and began to chatter. Saw a 
Catbird — silent. A Downy Woodpecker climbed around a slender 
branch as cleverly as a Chicadee. Loud note of White-breasted 
Nuthatch. Call-note of Coldfinch. Note of Flicker; one flew 
out of a tree. Deep note of Cuckoo. Pine Warblers plentiful and 
active in tree tops; heard their call-note. 



26 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

4:30 to 5 \). m. — Call-notes of Robin, Jay and Kingfisher. 
SEPTEMBiiR 15, 1912. 

II to 1 1 130 a. m. — Call-notes of Jay and Grackle. Unidentified 
Warblers seen. 

4 to 5 p. m. — A few Crackles and Cowbirds on the dead branches 
of a poplar. Flock of Crows noisy in a nearby grove. A small 
number of Swifts seen. Heard a White-breasted Nuthatch. 
September 16, 1912. 

8:30 to 9:30 a. m. — Jay-note always in ear-shot. Notes of 
Grackle and young Goldfinch. White-breasted Nuthatch heard 
here and there. A number of Pewees seen, and call-note heard 
once. Black-throated Green Warbler arrived; call-note of same. 

2:15 to 3:15 p. m. — A flock of Grackles flew overhead. Note 
of White-breasted Nutharch. A Yellow-billed Cuckoo, which 
remained still for a minute and then changed its position to a 
nearby branch Here the bird saw a worm, which it caught and 
began to eat. Before finishing, the Cuckoo flew to another tree 
and was lost to sight. 

September 17, 19 12. 

8:30 to 9:30 a. m. — Saw a Song Sparrow; heard its call- 
note. A Dove flew overhead. A House Wren seen and its call- 
note heard. Catbird call-note. Note of Downy Woodpecker. 
Saw a Wood Pewee. 

September 18, 1912. 

7:30 to 8:15 a. m. — Cawing of Crows. Note of Grackle. Saw 
a single Swift. Call-note of Bluebird. 

3:30 to 4:15 p. m. — Jay-note. A Cowbird seen. 

September 19, 1912. 
9 to 10 a. m. — Saw two Jays — rather quiet. Several Swifts 
seen. One Redstart flitting in a tree; first seen since spring. 

4 to 5 p. m. — Note of Mcadowlark — first heard since July 17; 
first seen since Aug. i. A flock of Robins flew overhead. 

September 20, 1912. 

5:15 a. m. — Saw three Robins and heard call-note of others. 

4:30 to 5 p. m. — Jay-note. A Robin calling loudly. Cow- 
birds very numerous on the dead branches of a tall poplar. Their 
note thin and uttered in chorus. The tree top was crowded for 
ten minutes, when many departecd. While the branches were 
thickly covered, some of the birds moved frequently. Among 



DAILY OBSERVATIONS OF OUR BIRDS 27 

the Cowbirds were a few Grackles. A few Swifts above the poplar. 

September 21, 1912. 

9 to 9:45 a. m. — Saw a Jay and heard its call frequently. 
Call-note of Song Sparrow and Killdeer. A Kingfisher heard ahead 
of me and seen flying when I had advanced a short distance. 
Indigo call-note. Young Goldfinch heard. Black- throated Green 
Warbler high up in an oak. 

4:30 to 5 p. m. — Jays calling. Saw a White-breasted Nuthatch. 

September 22, 1912. 

II to 12 a. m. — A Jay seen. Several Cowbirds were heard, 
hidden in a maple tree. In order to see them I had to go under 
the tree. Two notes were heard — a bubbling note and part of a 
whistling note. Call-note of Goldfinch. 

4:30 to 5:30 p. m. — Jays calling. Call-note of Robin. Song of 
two Meadowlarks. Grackles numerous and noisy in an elm grove. 
Note of Killdeer. Several large flocks of Cowbirds passed, one 
close behind another. The birds alighted in a grove ahead of me 
and when I arrived in the grove, which was near a lake, I found 
many of them drinking. They came one by one to the edge of 
the lake, but left in small flocks, the black and brown of the males 
and females plainly visible. In drinking some of the birds rested 
on matted weeds at the surface of the water. A large number of 
Swifts were flying, some high and others low, over the lake. Those 
flying low would strike the water now and then, making a splash. 
This was the first time I ever remember to have seen Swifts bathing. 
Why was this my first obser^^ation? 5 Perhaps because Swifts 
only bathe toward evening, and I may never have been near a 
lake just at the opportune time to witness the performance. 

September 23, 19 12. 
Crows in a grove very noisey. Jays calling. Call-note of 
Robin and Song Sparrow. A Kingfisher dropped into the water and 
returned to a tree nearby, but shifted its position twice, making 
it impossible to see whether the bird caught a fish or not. Note 
of young Goldfinches, in the top offan elm ;'7 undulating note of 
old bird. Several Black-throated Green Warblers in walnut 
trees; note, vers' low. Another species of the Warbler family, 
with faint chestnut on sides and two white wing bars; the unde- 
veloped plumage making it difiicult to say if it was a Chestnut- 
sided or a Bay-breasted Warbler. 



28 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATITRALIST 

4 to 4:30 p. in. — Jays calling. Meadovvlarks singing loudly. 
Killdeer note. Call-note of Robins; one seen. 

September 24, 19 12. 

6:30 a. m. — Swifts flying high. 

9:15 to 10 a. m. — Jays calling. Call-note of Robin; saw two. 
Song Sparrow in song; saw many in a vegetable garden. Killdeer 
note. Note of White-breasted Nuthatch. Yellow -billed Cuckoo 
sitting in a mulberry tree. 

3:45 to 4:30 — Jays making a variety of noises. A few Swifts 
seen. 

September ^25, 1912. 

6:30 a. m. — Swifts seen. 

8 to 8:30 a. m. — Jays seen and heard. Note of Song Sparrow 
repeated. One Grackle in the top of a poplar. Killdeer note in 
several places; saw one bird. Notes of old and young Goldfinches. 
A Phoebe in a birch tree; first seen since July 30 — an absence of 
56 days. 

3:45 to 4:30 p.m. — Jays calling. Notes of Grackle, Killdeer. 
Cowbirds perched on dead branches of a poplar, utteringTa^thin 
note, and changing their position frequently. Call-note of 
Goldfinch. 

September 26, 1912. 

II to 1 1 :45 a. m. — Jay-note. 

4 to 4:45 p. m. — Passed the poplar where Cowbirds are seen, 
but none were in the tree. When I returned a number were on the 
dead branches, and, as usual, moving and uttering a low thin 
note. Heard Grackles here too. Note of Meadowlark, Downy 
Woodpecker. Call-note of Song Sparrow. White-throated Sparrow 
arrived — 5 days earlier than last autumn. 

September 27, 1912. 

1 1 to 1 1 130 a. m. — Two Jays flying. Call-notes of Song Sparrow 
and Goldfinch. Note of Meadowlark. 

3:45 to 4:30 — Many Jays flying about along a country road 
lined with trees. Killdeer note. Saw Meadowlarks — in song. Cow- 
birds absent at 3:45; present in the poplar at 4:30; Grackles 
heard here also. Saw Goldfinches and heard their call-note. A 
note of the Flicker. White-throated Sjiarrows plentiful in low 
land covered with bushes; heard their call-note. Caw of Crows. 



a correction 29 

September 28, 1912. 

9 to 10 a. m. — Crows cawing. Jays calling. Call-note of Song 
Sparrow. Notes of Meadowlark and Grackle. A few Swifts seen. 
Call-note of Goldfinch; note of young birds. A White-breasted 
Nuthatch seen. Note of Downy Woodpecker. Golden-crowned 
Kinglet arrived — 3 days ealrier than last autumn. The Snowbird 
arrived — 12 days later than last fall. 

3:45 to 4:30 p. m. — Saw some Crows. Jays calling. Call-note 
of Song Sparrow. Note of Meadowlark. Call of Robin. 

September 29, 1912. 

II to 1 1 :45 a. m. — Jays calling. Saw one Robin Feeble notes 
of a Song Sparrow. Note of Downy Woodpecker; saw the bird 
on a telephone pole. A Goldfinch in autumn plumage. 

3:30 to 5 p. m. — Caw of Crow. Call of Bluebird. Song of 
Meadowlark. A flock of Vesper Sparrows — first seen since Aug. 16. 
Two flocks of Cowbirds passed at 4:30. A Phoebe perched on the 
back of a bench. Call-note of White-throated Sparrow. A Snowbird 
in a spruce tree. 

September 30, 1912. 

9 to 9:45 a. m. — Few notes of Song Sparrow. A Phoebe in a 
young walnut tree. In same kind of trees nearby saw the first 
two Myrtle Warblers, which were driven away by the Phoebe. A 
little farther on I met many of these warblers. Last autumn the 
Myrtle Warbler arrived Oct. 11. 

3:30 to 4:30. — A flock of Goldfinches in an osage hedge. A 
Red- winged Blackbird flew overhead — first seen since Aug. 12. 
Call of Song Sparrow — saw the bird in some brush. 



A Correction. 



There seems to be a rather general tendency on the part of 
very recent phytographers to decapitalize proper names of persons 
used as specific terminations of plant names. Presumably this 
error arose from a misinterpretation of §4, Art. 26, Rec. X. of 
the Vienna Code. The rule says that "specific names begin with 
a small letter except those that are taken from names of persons 
(substantives or adjectives). 

Formerly it was the custom though an unwarranted one, 



30 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

of writing the name, Sanguinaria Canadensis. The last word 
should be written with a small letter, i. e., Sanguinaria canadensis. 
Proper adjectives at least of places are not capitallized in Latin. 
Why the rule should have been interpreted thus for specific names 
of persons does not seem clear. As the breaches of rule seem to 
be made by botanists not apparently in sympathy with the Vienna 
Code and its demands in general, it would appear that occasion 
is made to show this want of sympathy in the case in question. 
We are expected to write the names Lisimachia Hemsleyi, Asple- 
nium Andrewsii, Cenchrus Pabneri not because the Vienna Code 
or any other botanical code demands it, but for the same reason 
that we are supposed in English to write the man's name John 
Smith with capitals. It is required by the dictates of correct 
grammar. Even the older botanists, well versed in Latin as they 
usually were, have always written adjective local names decapital- 
ized, and likewise have written personal names as nouns in the 
genitive with capital letters. Of course it is possible through the 
blundering example of some to carry the abuse to the contrary 
so far that it may come to be a custom in America or even else- 
where, but it will, by competent or educated people at least, be 
relegated to the same class of customs as that of using a singular 
verb in connection with a plural subject. In fact misuse of prin- 
ciples that ought to be familiar to every high school student of 
Latin can scarcely result in much credit to our modern phytography. 



Obituary. 

The Two Howells, Botanists. — In the death of Th<>mas 
Howell, which occurred at Portland, Oregon, on the third of 
December, 19 12, there passed from this life one of the most re- 
markable men who has had part in the making of West North 
American botany. Mr. Howell was born in Missouri, 9 Oct., 
1842, and was therefore only some weeks past seventy years of 
age. It was as a boy of eight years that he entered the country 
of the Far Northwest in 1850; his parents, with their several 
children, having traversed the wide wilderness between Missouri 
and Oregon, by ox team at that early period. 

Well though the name of Howell is known in botany, I have 
no information as to just when, or under what influence his at- 



OBITUARY 31 

tention was drawn to the study of plants, and the collecting of 
specimens; but from about 1880 forward he, and for a time his 
brother Joseph made extensive collections in many parts of Ore- 
gon, their labors being rewarded by the discovery of many new 
species. These rich accessions to the Northwestern flora were 
published by Engelmann, by Gray, by Watson, and many of the 
later by myself; though still later a great number were presented 
in Mr. Howell's monumental Flora by himself. 

That which is most peculiar and noteworthy about Mr. Howell's 
career is, that he accomplished the greatest amount of meritorious 
and valuable scientific work that was ever done by any man 
of any epoch, on so very rudimentary an education in letters. 
I am informed by Mr. Howell's and my own very valued friend, 
Mr. M. W. Gorman of Portland, that this man's educational oppor- 
tunities were limited to six months attendance at log school 
house on Sauvier's Island in his boyhood as a pioneer. The cor- 
respondents of Mr. Howell all must have noted that his hand- 
writing always was like that of some child of four or five years, 
first learning to form letters and connecting them into words; 
nevertheless, as to spelling, and grammar in general, the lapses 
were rather few. 

Respecting Mr. Howell's abilities as a botanist I had always 
a very high opinion, but the indications of these, as well as the 
fuller account of his career, must await further study. 

Mr. Joseph Howell, a brother of Thomas, and his senior by 
something like a dozen years, had been claimed by death only a 
few weeks earlier. He died, so Mr. Gorman informs me, at Sau- 
vier's Island, 7 October, in his eighty-third year. The interest 
of both had at first been engaged in botanical exploration and 
research; but the elder of the two, having a family to provide 
for, soon withdrew from that pleasant scientific avocation which 
took up much time, and brought no emolument; and this 
one, at his recent death left his family in comfortable circumstances; 
but not so the other, who had given the best of his life to botany, 
and then died penniless. 

Most readers of the work of Thomas Howell naturally attri- 
bute to him all the species bearing the Howell name; but this 
will not be quite correct; and I gladly present here Mr. Gorman's 
manuscript list of plants the discovery of which was due to the 
labors of the elder brother, Joseph Howell. 



32 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

Isoetes Howellii, Engelm. June, 1885. 

Trite leia Howellii (Wats.) June, 1878. 

Montia Howellii Wats. April, 1881. 

Saxifraga Howellii, Greene, April, 1891. 

Astragaliis conjunctus, Wats. May, 1880. 

Astragalus Hoodianus, Howell. June, 1883. 

Epilohium Hammondi, Howell. Aug. 1888. 

Velaea glauca, C & R. April, 1889. 

Coelopleurum longipes, C. & R. 1891. 

Gentiana Orfordii, Howell, Oct. 1892. {Edward L. Greene.) 



Michigan Bird Life. 



Professor Walter Bradford Barrows has placed every student 
of birds in our country under lasting obligations for his very 
complete work entitled "Michigan Bird Life." With the pains- 
taking care that only a true lover of birds can show, he has written 
biographies of our birds that are very satisfactory to the observer 
of bird life. His own extensive observations and a very wide 
reading of books on ornithology, with a pleasing style, have made 
an excellent reference book on this branch of natural history. . 

The introduction to the book is a very valuable paper covering 
the following topics: — CHmate, Distribution of Plant Life, Dis- 
tribution of Animal Life, Bird Life in Michigan, Recent Changes 
in Bird Life, How To Study Birds, Migration. The body of the book 
has two divisions: Water Birds and Land Birds. 

Professor Barrow's description of his work is as follows: 

"Special Bulletin of the Zoological Department of the Michigan 
Agricultural College. Just Published. 822 pages, 70 uncolored 
plates and 152 text figures. Weight about 4 lbs. Contains full 
descriptions of all birds found in the state, with an account of the 
migration, food, song, nest, eggs and general habits of each species. 
This bulletin can not be distributed gratis but will be supplied 
at actual cost plus transportation. It is sold at the College for 
45 cents, in paper covers, or 60 cents, bound in cloth; transpor- 
tation 35 cents additional and must be prepaid. 

Applications should be sent to Secretary A. M. Brown, East 
Lansing, to whom all checks, drafts, and money orders should 
be made payable. Please do not send stamps." 



Series of Reprints of the 
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No. 2. 

Rafinesque, C. S. Monographie des 
Coquilles Bivalves et Fluviatiles de la Riviere 
Ohio. Remarques sur les Rapports Naturels 
des Genres Viscum, Samolus et Viburnum. A 
Bruxelles, De rimprimerie de Weissenbrugh pere, 
Rue du Musee, No. 1057 (1820). [Part of 
Annals of Nature,] pp. I 7 to 60 (4 1 pages). 

Price, $1.50 per Copy 

Postagie 2 cents extra. 



Probably the most sought for classic on American 
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seen an original copy for sale! This reprint is as good as 
the original for the working conchologist. The title page 
and 2nd page and the three plates are fac-simile repro- 
ductions and the text is a word-for-word reprint with 
the exact paging of the original. A number of new genera 
-and species were published in this first important mono- 
graph, and it is therefore indispensable to the practical 
student of American shells. 



Duplicate Old Books for Sale. 

Marshal! , H. Catalogue des Arbres et Arbrissaux. 17S8. Price $2 
Pi-RSK, J'. Donn's Hortus Cantabrigiensis, London 1819. Newly bound ?2 

Dri MoLiN, J. B. Flore Poetique Ancienne, 1S56 $2 

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Guide to Nature. Vols. I and II. Complete ?i.y> 

Publications 

NiEi'WLA\n, I. A. vSomc Reactions of Acetylene, 1904 ])p. 160 i^ .75 

" " Some Linnaean Trivial Names. 1911. pp. 2(> 15 

" The Laboratory Aquarium, Notes on Seedlings of 

Bloodroot.' 1910. pp. 16 15 

" " Notes on Collecting and Grooving Algae for Class- 
work. 1909. 13 pp H) 

" Our Amphibious Persicarias, I., II., 191 1. 63 pp. .30 

Hahx, AV. Analytic Study of Faunal Changes in Indiana, 2 plates, 

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" " Bubani's Flora Pyrenaea, 191 1. 19 pp 10 

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KiKSCH, A. M. BiologicAl Study of Noctiluca. 1 plate. 1909. .Sjip. . . .10 

Fresh Water Sponges of the United States, 1909, 10 jij). .10 



Reprint 

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III 

Vol.111. MARCH, 1913. No. 2. 



ahIr% midland 
naturalist 



Devoted to Natural History, Primarily 
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Published by the University of Notre Dame, 
Notre Dame, Indiana 

J. A. NIEUWLAND, C. S. C, Ph. D., Sc. D., Editor 



CONTENTS 

A Question of Nomenclature. — (Plate I) S. W . Geiser 33 

Notes on Our Local Plants. — III /. A. Nieuwland 41 

Song Season of Our Birds in 1912 Brother Alphonsus, C. S. C. 48 

Our Birds in the Spring of 1912 Brother Alphonsus, C. S. C. 50 

Some Midland Dogbanes /. A. Nieuwland 53 

Evactoma J- A. Nieuwland 57 

Nesting Habits of Our Birds Brother Alphonsus, C. S. C. 60 



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VOL. III. MARCH, 1913. NO. 2. 

A Question of Nomenclature. 

{With one Plate.) 



BY S. W. GEISER. 



An unique point of nomenclature may be found in an inaugural 
thesis presented by Laurent M. Philipsson, at Lund, in Sweden, 
in 1788. The thesis engages itself in the description of a number 
of new genera and species of mollusca. Because, chiefly, of a 
university usage of the day, by which the authorship of all theses 
defended was referred to the professor under whom the work 
was done, much confusion has arisen in regard to the one who is to be 
considered responsible, nomenclatorially, for the new zoological 
names; and by some authors they are referred to Retzius, the 
master, while others hold Philipsson, the respondent, as the 
author. A year ago. Dr. C. W. Stiles pointed out the unique nature 
of the questions involved in determining the authorship of the 
thesis, and urged me to furnish a brief of the case, with references, 
to the International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature for 
an opinion. The following is presented as the evidence as to whom 
we should consider the authority, according to the International 
Zoological Code, for the new names contained in the thesis noted. 

Briefly, as may be seen from the facsimile title page herewith 
presented, the thesis is a natural-history dissertation, on new 
genera of shells, which was presented at a public examination, 
10 December, 1788, by Laurent M. Philipsson, under the presi- 
dency of his master. Professor Regius and Ordinary, A. J. Retzius, 
M. D., of the University of Lund. It contains iv + 23 small octavo 
pages. It is dedicated to Baron Frederic von Dalman and to 
Countess Dalman.^ 

' Sacrae Regiae Majestatis | Magnae Fidei Viro et Cubiculario | Nobil- 
issimo et Generossissimo I Domino I FRIDERICO a DALMAN I D:no de 



34 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

After a number of pages devoted to general observations 
on the mollusca, we find descriptive notices of the new genera 
and species. These new genera, with their new and transferred 
species are given below, together with a citation to the page upon 
which the original diagnosis may be found. They are as follows: 
Tricla n. g. [ = gizzard plates of Scaphander], p. 8. 

T. Gioeni, n. s., p. 8. 
Placenta n. g., p. 15. 

P. orbicularis n. s. {=^Anomia placenta L.), p. 15. 
P. quadrangula n. s., p. 16. 
P. Ephippium n. s., p. 16. 
Unio n. g., p. 16. 

U. Margaritiferus (L.) p. 16. 
U. crassus n. s. p. 17. 
U. tumidus n. s. p. 17. 
U. pictorum (L.) P- i7- 
U. ovalis n. s. p. 17. 
U. corrugatus (Schroter) p. 18. 
Chaena n. g., p. 19. 

C. Mumia (Spengler) p. 19. 
C. cuneiformis (Spengler) p. 19. 
C. Cymbium (Spgenler) p. 20. 
PERNA n. g., p. 20. 

P. Magellanica {=Mya Perna L,. =Magellana major Ar- 

geno.) n. s., p. 20. 
P. striatula (T.) p. 21. 
P. mediterranea { = Mytilus bidens L.) p. 21. 



Fledingstorp etc. I MaecinatiGratiosissimo | Grata et Submissa Mente | Hanc 
Opellam I D. D. D. | Devotissimus cultor | Laur. M. Philipsson.] 

^ I Madame | CHARLOTTE JEANNE | DALMAN, | nie Comtesse 
de SNOILSKY, \ Madame la Comtesse] | Qu'il soil perniis trks gracieuse 
Comtesse de I vous offrir cet ouvrage Academique, qui renferme | la description 
d'une partie des plus belles & des | plus precieuses productions de la nature. 
Si vous I daignez lui accorder la protection de votre nom | illustre, je serai 
d'autaut plus au comble de mes | voeux, que f aurai en meme terns Vhonneur 
de I "VOUS rendre une marque publique du pro fond re | spect avec le quel je suis | 
MADAME LA COMTESSE \ 
votre I 

tr^s humble & tres obeissant | 
I Serviteur | 

I Laurent M. Phiupsson. I 



QUESTION OF NOMENCLATURE 35 

P. viridis (L). p. 21. 

P. marmorata n. s. p. 21. * 

P. biocularis (L.) p. 22. 

P. sulcata n. s. ( — Mytilus exustus L.) p. 22. 
Melina n. g., p. 22. 

M. semiaurita (L.) p. 22. 

M. perncB/ormis n. s. {=Ostrea Perna L.) p. 23. 

M. Isogonum (L.) p. 23. 

M. Ephippitim (L.) p. 23. 
It will be seen from the foregoing that there are quite a 
number of names that are by some authors referred to one author- 
ity and by others to another. The question is therefore of some 
importance. Inasmuch as most of my study has been upon the 
freshwater mussels and, as a consequence, I am more familiar 
with the literature of the Unionidae than with any other mol- 
luscan family, and as an important genus of the Unionidae is 
described in the thesis in hand, I will take the part for the whole 
and deal with the authorship of Unto. In order to state properly 
the problem confronting us, I shall quote from various authors, 
published and manuscript regarding the authorship of Unto: 

1. "Genus UNIO Retzius. 

" It seems impossible to ascertain with certainty who is the 
author of this genus. In 1788, Laurentius Miinter Philipsson 
described it in a thesis delivered under the presidency of his master, 
Retzius, [reference] at the University of Lund, in Sweden, at a 
public examination for a doctor's degree. Whether Philipsson 
or Retzius should be credited with the genus can not be positively 
known, as it is believed by some that the master was the author 
of the dissertation, which the student merely defended. I am 
inclined to take this view of the matter, for the reason that Retzius 
was an author of repute, while it is not known that Philipsson 
ever gave any attention to natural history or was the author of 
any genera or species before or since." — Simpson, Charles T., 
in The Classification and Geographical Distribution of the Pearly 
Fresh-water Mussels. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. XVIII: 300 [1896]. 

2. "This genus was described in a thesis by Laurentius 
Miinter Philipsson under his master Retzius, in the University of 
Lund, Sweden, and it is often credited to the former. I am in- 
formed by Professor Joh. Chr. Moberg, of Lund, that by a former 
law or custom of the University, the professor was considered the 



36 AMERICAN MIDLAND N'ATURALIST 

author of all papers which a student under him defended. Accord- 
ing to this, Retzius must be credited with the genus. This law 
was repealed in Lund in 1852." — Simpson, Charles Torrey, in 
Synopsis of the Naiades, or Pearly Fresh-water Mussels. Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus. XXII.: 679, footnote. [1900]. 

3. "The real author of the 'Dissert, hist. nat. nova test, 
genera' was A. J. Retzius, the respondent, Philipsson merely took 
his degree for undergoing examination on the subject after the 
custom of those times, especially in Sweden." — B. Woodward, 
(British Museum) in letter to Librarian. Upper Iowa University, 
7 May, 191 2. 

4. "The genus Unio was defined in a thesis written by 
Retzius the praeses and Philipsson got his degree for defending 
it in public as was the practice of the time. Frequently the thesis 
would be apportioned out to two or more students and frequently 
one half of a word will appear at the end of one respondent's part 
and the rest of it in the next man's and the two separated by the 
new title page and dedication to parents. 

" Occasionally only did a brilliant student write his own thesis 
and then there usually appears on the title page "auctor respon- 
dens" — or some such phrase. 

"That this was the custom, you will find set forth in Lin- 
naeus' 'Bbl. Bot.' 1736, p. 52. 

" There is not the slightest doubt as to Retzius being the 
author of the thesis in question." — ^B. Woodward (British Museum), 
in letter of 10 June, 1912. 

5. " As to the authority for Unio, it is well established that 
it is due^to'^Retzius. If his name does not appear as author on 
the printed thesis, neither does Philipsson 's. The paper is merely 
said to be 'presented' (defert) by Philipsson. When a paper was 
presented by its author, 'auctor' was used. These theses were 
presented and defended, (and still are) before the examining 
board of the University without reference to authorship. Phil- 
ipsson's thesis was not 'published.' It was printed by the Berling 
Press at Lund, but bears no publisher's name. So, as he claims 
no authorship, and there is no publisher, and we know from con- 
temporary usage that Retzius did write it, it seems to me to be 
stretching a technicality to the breaking point to say that we 
must credit the genus to Philipsson. I shall never do it, and so 
advised Simpson."- — Dr. W. H. Dall, in Letter of 13 Feb., 191 2. 



QUESTION OF NOMENCLATURE 37 

Such is a statement of the problem by some of the mala- 
cologists of America, and of England. It is indeed one interesting 
and unique. 

To what extent continental and English authors are in- 
clined to credit Retzius with these genera, I can not say. Certain 
it is that a number of German systematists have referred the 
gejiera involved to Philipsson. But one author comes to me now: 
Dr. Rudolf Hoernes, in his Paldoniologie, who considers Phil- 
ipsson as the author of the thesis (cf . genus Unio) . Most American 
authors, following in the steps of Mr. Simpson, Dr. Dall, and Dr. 
Ortmann,^ refer Unio and the other genera described in the thesis 
to Retzius. But before taking up the discussion of the various 
points in issue, the provisions of the code governing such usage, 
may be quoted : 

International Zoological Code, Art. 21. "The author of a 
scientific name is that person who first publishers that name 
in connection with an indication, a definition or a description, 
unless it is clear from the contents of the publication that some 
other person is responsible for said name and its indication, defi- 
nition or description." And in commenting on this section of the 
Code, Dr. Stiles remarks in part: 

"This point of view lays stress upon holding an author re- 
sponsible for the names he publishes, rather than upon ' giving 
him credit' for those names. 

" The chief idea we have in citing the author of a name is 
to aid in tracing it. If now we cited Smith & Kilborne, instead of 
Wandolleck, as author of Apiosoma, or instead of Patton as author 
of Piro plasma, we might lead our colleagues to search long in 
writings of Smith & Kilborne for a name which they perhaps 
never used even in correspondence." — Stiles, Ch. Wardell, in 
The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature as Applied 
to Medicine. Hyg. Lab., U. S. Pub. Health & Mar.-Hosp. Serv., 
Bull. XXIV: 21 [1905.] 

Questions to be answered satisfactorily are then: (i) Was 
the thesis published? What constitutes publication? (2) The 
purpose of author-citations in zoological names. An interpreta- 
tion of Art. 21, International Zoological Code. How does it apply 
in the present case? (3) The validity of a tacit or written law of 

' Ortmann, A. E. The Use of the Generic Names Unio, Margaritana, 
Lymnium and Elliptio, etc. Nautilus XXV: 89 [De 1911]. 



38 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

a University affecting the authorship of zoological names under 
the Code. (4) Do we have any internal, specific statement or 
evidence that Retzius is the author of the thesis? Upon the evi- 
dence adduced, we must draw our conclusions. 

(i) Dr. Dall in his letter of 13 Feb. 191 2, expresses the opinion 
that the thesis is not "published." He does this upon the basis 
that no publisher's name appears upon the title page, the ablative 
phrase alone "Typis Berlingianis" being used. But he clearly 
involves himself, since, while denying the publication of the 
thesis thus, in 1788, he would assign the genera to Retzius, of that 
year. Again, if we were to reject as unpublished, all zoological 
names contained in theses upon whose title pages the word " pub- 
lished " or its equivalent, in Dr. Dall's opinion, did not appear, 
we wou d be obliged to reject names wholesale. If Doctor Dall's 
contention were valid, then the authorship of these molluscan 
genera should be referred to the next author who used the names 
given by Philipsson. The genus Unio, for example, if I mistake 
not, would then be referred to Bruguiere, 1792. Even the obsolete 
provision of the old codes regarding manuscript names recognized 
and used by authors, and in the first publication, recognized and 
credited to the manuscript author, would not operate. If we 
can accept as evidence of publication "the act of making known, 
or offering to the public by sale or gratuitous distribution," clearly 
this thesis is as truly published as any thesis ever was. 

(2.) As Doctor Stiles states, in his remarks on Art. 21, of 
the Code, previously quoted, while primarily the International 
Zoological Code aims to give to each author of a scientific com- 
bination the fullest justice possible, yet the purpose of the Code 
in its rules regarding authority for names is chiefly to assist in 
tracing names generic and specific to their sources in zoological 
literature. 

We have considered that the thesis was published. The next 
question is, who is the publisher. As will be seen from the title 
page, the name of the master Retzius appears in the largest type, 
and hence it has been inferred by some that the authorship of the 
master is thus intimated. Passing this contention, which is with- 
out any objective foundation, we come to the question of the 
publisher of the thesis. We may well consider, it seems to me, 
the person who bore the expense of the thesis-publication as the 
publisher, everything else being equal. And as the code recog- 



QUESTION OF NOMENCLATURE 39 

nizes as the author, the "one who first publishes the name * * unless 
it is clear, from the contents of the publication that someone else 
is responsible for said name," we must consider PhiHpsson the 
author. For by universal contemporary usage, and by university 
usage everywhere before and since, the candidate publishes the 
thesis, bearing all expense if the manner of publication is inde- 
pendent, as in the present case. So universal has been this usage 
in acad mic circles that we have no reason for questioning Phil- 
ipsson's publication of the thesis. Furthermore, inasmuch as no 
one else than the respondent and publisher is specifically cited 
as the author of the thesis, we must consider the defendant and 
publisher as the nomenclatorial author. In th s connection, Mr. 
B. Woodward, of the British Museum, feels that "Art. 21 of the 
Internat. Z. Code — or at least the latter part of it seems to refer 
to such case where one man's description of a genus or species 
is incorporated in another man's paper and consequently does 
not apply to the case in point." But it seems to me that the 
spirit of the Article is plain: that it applies in the present case, 
and that its operation is not restricted to such cases as Mr. Wood- 
ward cites, such as we find, for example, in the case of Lampsilis 
fallaciosus H. M. Smith, 1899. 

(3.) In Mr. Simpson's papers, he contends that a local or 
provincial university law or custom should suspend or supersede 
the operation of the Code. As quoted before, Mr. Simpson refers 
to a communication from Professor Moberg, of Lund, in which 
the latter says that by a former law or custom of the University, 
the professor was considered the author of all papers defended 
under him. And then, he, as it seems to us, unwisely, added: 
''According to this, Retzius must be credited with the genus." This 
too in the face of the fact that there is nothing in the thesis itself 
to indicate that anyone other than Philipsson should be considered 
the author. I am informed that such a law with regard to work 
in chemistry has been in force among German universities up to 
very recent times. The vital question is whether the existence 
of such a custom satisfies the provision of the code section: " unless 
it is clear from the contents of the publication that some other person 
is responsible" for the work presented. To me, it seems that it 
does not. Unless the credit is given so that a student in a foreign 
country, unacquainted with local customs and regulations, can 
understand who is to be held responsible, such provision is not 



40 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

satisfied. Nor can the at best negative evidence adduced by Mr. 
Woodward and Mr. Dall be considered a.s satisfying the provision, 
for the name "auctor" was not universally used in case the re- 
spondent was actually the author of the thesis. What is on the 
thesis title page or in the thesis itself is the only thing which should 
determine the systematist's judgment. As Dr. vStiles has said, 
" I do not see how I could be supposed to know the regulations 
regarding the theses presented at the foreign Universities, X, 
Y, Z." 

(4.) The argument of probabilities as to authorship is brought 
forward. Yet it must be remembered that we are not dealing 
with possibilities or probabilities — should not, indeed — in the fixing 
of the responsibility for the names in question. Whether Phil- 
ipsson did or did not publish any other zoological contributions 
either before or after 1788 is a matter that does not concern us 
here. The chief reason for ascribing the genera to Retzius is 
simply this: the argument of probabilities. This, together with 
the university usage of Lund, is the sole ground for erroneously 
referring the genera to Retzius as the nomenclatorial authority. 

Despite the recent discussions in German zoological circles 
relative to the work of the International Commission of Zoological 
Nomenclature and the Code, the work of the Commission has 
been most helpful and of far reaching value. It is highly important 
that we should have an International court of last appeal in things 
nomenclatorial, in order that we may progress from conflicting 
codes and a chaos of scientific names to order and uniformity of 
usage. The International Code, while it may be in some cases 
apparently unjust in its verdicts, if universally followed, would 
bring us to the haven of nomenclatorial uniformity, and remove 
one of the most wearisome and useless tasks of the zoologist, 
the untangling of the skein of synonyms and homonyms. 



Then, clearly, because of the assumed responsibility for the 
publication of the thesis, Philipsson must be considered the pub- 
lisher. Since no other person is indicated in the thesis as responsi- 
ble for its contents, we must consider him the author. Neither 
the absence of the words "auctor respondens" from the thesis 
titlepage, nor the tacit law of the University of Lund satisfies 
the requirements of Art. 21 of the Code. Consequently, again we 
must consider him the author. The argument of probabilities does 



NOTES ON OUR LOCAL PLNATS 4I 

not enter into the consideration of the problem whatever. It is 
not primarily a question with us whence Philipsson gained his 
knowledge of these genera, which in the thesis above noted he 
described as new. That was a matter of interest almost alone 
to Philipsson. What we are interested in is whence biological 
science first learned of the genera described. And in answer to 
our inquiries we find that Philipsson is to be considered as the 
authority for these molluscan names. The genera, then, and their 
included species of this thesis, should be cited, Placenta, Chaena, 
Melina, Perna, Unio, all of Philipsson, 1788. 

The Consolidated Schools 

of Brandon, Iowa. 
Independence, Iowa. 



Notes on Our Local Plants. 



BY J. A. NIKUWLAND. 



Order lo. LEMNALES. 

Family 20. LEMNADEAE S. F. Gray, Nat. Arr. 
Br. PI. II, p. 729, (1821). 

Lenticulaceae Dumortier, Comment. Bot. p. 67 (1823). 
Lemnaceae Dumortier Flor. Belg. p. 165, (1827), also An. 
Fam. PI. p. 61, (1829). 

BRUNIERA Franch. in Billotia 25 (1864) Woljia Horkel 
ex Bartling, Ord. Nat. PI. p. 76, (1830.)' Wolffia Horkel ex Schlei- 
den, Linnaea, XIII, p. 389, (1839). Wolffia Kunth, Enum. PI. 
Ill, 4, (1841), not Woljia Dennst. Schluess. Hort. Malab. 38, 
(1818), nor Wolfia Sprengel, Syst. I, 808, (1825), nor Wulffia 
Necker, Elem. I, 35, (1790). 



' Since my last notice on the synonymy of these plants, I have found, 
that the first publication of the name Wolfia as applied to the Lemnaceous 
plants was spelled with one f. In this form which has priority over the 
name spelled with two f's, it is therefore an unequivocal synonym to the 
pre-existing names also spelled in the same manner with one f. There can 
then be no excuse for retaining the name in our floras. 



42 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

Grantia Griff, ex Voigt. Hort. Suburb. Calc. 692, (1845), 
et Notul, III, p. 223, (185 1), not Grantia Bois. Diag. Ser. I, VI, 
p. 79, (1845). 

Horkclia Reichenb. ex Bart. Ord. p. 76, (1830), not Horkelia, 
Cham. & Schlecht. in Linnaea, II, p. 26, (1827). 

Bruniera columbiana (Karst.) Nwd. Am. Mid. Nat. Vol. II, 
p. 306, (1912). 

Wolffia columbiana Karsten, Bot. Untersuch. I, p. 103, 
(1865-67). 

Grantia columbiana (Karst.) MacM. Metaspermae Minn. p. 
134, (1892). 

Very common everywhere especially with Hydrophace minor. 
Notre Dame, Lakeville, Chain Lake, Benton Harbor, St. Joseph, 
Millers, Tamarack. It is never found in pools that dry up com- 
pletely even part of the season. 

Bruniera punctata (Griseb.) Nwd. 1. c. 
Wolfia punctata Griseb. Fl. Br. W. Ind. p. 51, (1864). 
Wolffia brasiliensis Wedd. Am. Sci. Nat. Ill, 12, p. 170, (1849) 
Notre Dame, Ind., rather scarce. South Bend, Pond near 
Rum Village. 

HYDROPHACE Haller, Helv. 3. p. 68, (1768). [Buxbaum, 
cent. 11. t. 37, f. 2.] 

Lenticula and Lcnticularia Micheli Nov. PI. Gen. p. 15, p. 
II, not always that of the other pre-Linnaean older authors.' 
Lens palustris and Lenticula palustris or aquatica of the older 
botanists; but perhaps a generic specific binary name. Lemna 
Dalechamps (1580) Linnaeus Syst. Nat. (1735). Gen. PI. p. 325, 
(1737), also p. 417, (1754)- Sp. PI. p. 970, (1753) not Lemma 
or Lemna Theophrastus = Mam/m vulgaris Linn. Staurogeton 
Reichb. Norm. 33, (1841) in part. 

' The name Lenticula palustris or Leus palustris of the pre-Linnaean 
writers seems to me to be inadmissable because of the similarity to the 
recognized genus Lens. Lemma Theophrastus was certainly not Lemna 
Linn., but rather Marsilia vulgaris. Lemna Linn, is the (fa/.u'^ u l-\ riuv 
reXridrwv of Dioscorides. It seems best to disregard Lenticula and Lens 
also because the names seem to be generic-specific binary names like Lilium 
Convallium. Spe. Bubani, P. Flora Pyrenaea 4, p. 22, 23, (1901). 



NOTES ON OUR LOCAL PLANTS 43 

Hydrophace trisulca (Linn.) Bubani, Fl. Pyr. 4, p. 23, (1901). 

Lemna trisulca Linn. Sp. PI. p. 970, (1753), Lenticula 
palustris of the pre-Linnaeans. Lenticula aquatica trisulca C. 
Bauhin, Pin. p. 362, (1623) Hederula aquatica Lobelius, Ic. (1579) 
Staurogeton trisulcus Schur. Verh. Siebenb. Ver. Naturw. IV, 
p. 70, (1853). 

Very common on all stagnant ponds and pools that do not 
dry up part of the season. Notre Dame, Ind. No. 10568, (St. 
Joseph Co.) also South Bend, Mishawaka, Lakeville, Pine, Warwick 
near the Michigan State boundary. Springbrook Park, Wharton 
Lake, Dollar Lake and Chain Lakes. Hudson Lake, (Laporte Co.) 
Michigan City. Tamarack and Smith (Porter Co.), Millers and 
Dune Park (Lake Co.), also near Granger (Elkhart Co.), New 
Buffalo, Michigan, Bertrand, Niles, St. Joseph, Benton Harbor, 
Baroda, Stephens ville, (Berrien Co.), Bankson Lake and surround- 
ing ponds (Cass Co.), Lake Maxinkuckee, (Marshall Co.) H. W. 
Clarke. I have never been able to find it in bloom. 

Frequently when submerged it continues to grow vigorously 
but fails to produce any roots for generations under these conditions. 
This condition I have noticed for several years in specimens pre- 
served in the laboratory. 

Hydrophace minor (Linn.) Bubani, do. 

Lemna MINOR Linn, do Lenticula aquatica Brunfels, Lenticula 
palustris Tragus Lens palustris Camerarius Epit. 852 also Ray. 
Angl. 3, p. 129, t. 4, f. I. 

Very common like the preceding. I have found it in bloom 
at Notre Dame, along the L L I. R. R. in May, 1907. No. 10564, 
but not since then. The flowers appeared from a cleft in the edge 
of the thalloid shoot and consisted of one or two stamens, when 
latter of different ages. The anthers were subglobular papillose 
and pure white in color. The pistil is short styled and almost 
completely embedded within the cleft and bractlike covering at 
the base. Flowering specimens were not abundant, only one in 
about 150 to 200 plants producing flowers. These were, however, 
perfectly evident to the naked eye because of the whiteness of the 
stamens. Collecting and separating out the following plants 
was a very tedious operation. 



44 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

SPIRODELA Schleiden, Linnaea, XIII, p. 391, (1839). 

Lemna Linn. 1. c. in part. Tclmatophace Godr. Fl. Lorr. ed. 
I, t. 3, p. 18, also Mey, Fl. Hanov., p. 543, No. 2, also Bubani, 
Fl. Pyr. IV, p. 24, (1901). 

Spirodela polyrhiza (Linn.) Schleiden 1. c. p. 392. 

Lemna polyrhiza Linn. 1. c. 

Common in pools. Notre Dame No. 10567, South Bend, 
near Nutwood, Lakeville, Dollar Lake, Chain Lakes (St. Joseph 
Co.). Hudson Lake, Sagunay, Laporte, Michigan City, (Laporte 
Co.). Millers (Lake Co.), Mineral Springs, Tamarack, and Smith 
St. Joseph, Bertrand, Benton Harbor, Mich. (Berrien Co.); San 
Jose Park near Lawton ,Mich., (Cass Co.). 

Order 11. AROIDEAE. 

Jussieu Gen. PL p. 23, (1789) also BartUng, Ord. Nat. 

PI. p, 25, (1830). (Under name of Class.) 
Arales Britton, Man. Fl. 2nd Ed. p. 5, 229. 
Family 21. ARACEAE Necker, Act. Acad. Theod. 

Palat. 2, p. 462, (1770). 
Piperiiae Linn. Phil. Bot. p. 27, (1751) in part, also do. (1755). 
Callaceae Bartling, 1. c. pp. 25 and 67, in part. 
• ARISAEMA Martins, '' Flora, 14 p. 459, (1831). 

Arum Linn. Syst. (1735) Gen. PI. p. 277, (1737), p. 431, 
(1754) Sp. PI. p. 964, (in part). 

Arisaema triphyllum (Linn.) Torrey, F'l. N. Y. 2, p. 239, (1843). 

Artim triphyllum Linn. Sp. PI. p. 965, (1753). 

Notre Dame, Ind., Nos. 10566, 3304, 2491, 831. Near St. 
Mary's Academy along the St. Joseph River, (Dr. F. Powers). 
I have found it also at Lakeville, Sagunay, Granger, Sweeney's, 
Nutwood, Mishawaka, South Bend, Woodland, Pine, Terrc Coupee, 
Chain Lakes, in the Kankakee Marsh (St. Joseph Co.), Smith, 
Tamarack, Warren, Mineral Springs (Porter Co.), Millers, Dune 
Park, Michigan City, Munich, Mich., St. Joseph, Benton Harbor 
Niles, Bertrand, Bankson Lake, Grand Beach, Galien, Mich. 
Also in Elkhart Co. Lake Maxinkuckee, H. W. Clarke. 

MURICAUDA Small, Fl. S. E. U. S. p. 227, (1903). 
Arisaema Martins 1. c. in part. 



NOTES ON OUR LOCAI, PLANTS 45 

Arum Linn., 1. c. in part. 
Muricauda Dracontium (Linn.) Small, 1. c. 
Arisaema Dracontium (Linn.) Schott. Melet., i, p. 17, (1832). 
Arum- Dracontium Linn. Sp. PI. p. 964, (1753). 

Near St. Mary's Academy, both west and east in low grounds. 
No. 593, U. N. D. Herb., also Nos. 9284, 9323, 2196, 1878, 3192, 
592. No. 1997 near the St. Joseph River, Notre Dame, collected 
by Dr. F. Powers (1889). Also at Munich, Mich., Bertrand, Lawton, 
St. Joseph. Rum Village south of South Bend, University Farm 
near Granger, North Liberty, Lake Maxinkuckee, H. W. Clarke. 

The seedlings of this plant I have not in early stages been 
able to distinguish from those of Arisaema iriphyllum. They 
begin to germinate from the seeds of the preceeding year about 
the same time that the older plants appear, and somewhat later 
than those of A. triphyllum. The corn seems to arise from the 
endosperm part of the seed which persists along time, and so 
layer after layer sloughs off from as the bottom the true corm 
appears. 

PELTANDRA Rafinesque, Jr. Phys. 89 p. 103, (18 19). 

Artim Linn. 1. c. in part. 

Peltandra virginica (Linn.) Kunth, Enum PI. 3, p. 43, (1841). 

Peltandra undid at a Raf. 1. c. Arum virginicum, Linn. Sp. 
PI. p. 966, (1753)- 

Common in our marshes. No. 9149 St. Joseph, Mich., also 
Bertrand, Benton Harbor, San Jose Park. At the first named 
locality the plant is extremely abundant south of the city along 
the Pere Marquette R. R. I have never seen so much before at 
any one place. Chain Lakes, Lakeville, N. Liberty, Michigan 
City, Tamarack, Smith, also Lake Maxinkuckee. (H. W. Clarke.) 

The fruit of our Midland specimens as I have collected them 
late in fall and quite ripe are green, less than half as large as those 
of the East, Maryland and the District of Columbia. The seeds of the 
eastern plants are of a deep purple black to violet color and ripen 
much earlier. The fruit clusters too of our western plant are but 
one half as large. The leaves are sometimes narrow, and with 
small lobes or auricles at the base. It is quite possible that 
study of fresh material will show our midland plant to be a 
distinct one. 



46 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

Family 22. CALLACEAE Bartling 1. c. in part also 
Spach, Hist. Nat. Veg. 12, p. 35, (1846). 
Calladea Salisb. 

Tribe Calleae Spach. do p. 41. Tribe Arisareae Dum. Flor. 
Belg. p. 162, (1827). 

PROVENZALIA F. Petit, Gen. p. 45, (1710), also Adanson 
Fam. des Plantes, 2, p. 469, (1763). 

Calla Linn. Syst. PI. (1735). t>en. PI. p. 276, (1737), p. 
414, (1754), Sp. PI. p. 968, (1753). Anguina Trew Commerc. 51. 
ex Linn. Ario'idcs Boerhaave, Ind. Alt. PI. 2, p. 74, (1727)- 

Provenzalia palustris Raf., New. Fl. N. Am. I, p. 90, (1836), 
also Fl. Tell. Ill, p. 67. 

Calla palustris Linn. Sp. PI. 1. c. 

Chain Lakes (St. Joseph Co.), Tamarack (Laporte Co.), 
Swamp 2 miles E. of Bankson Lake (Cass Co.), Mich. 

The plant does not thrive well in these localities and is dis- 
appearing. I have been unable to find vigorous or blooming 
specimens. 

Family 23. ORONTIACEAE Spach, Hist. Nat. Veg. 
Vol. 12, p. 32, (1846) in part. 

Orontiaceae R. Brown ex Dum. Fl. Belg. p. 162, (1827) as 
a tribe. 

SPATHYEMA Raf. Med. Rep. II, 5, o. 352, (1808). 

Symplocarpus Salisbury. Trans. Hort. Soc. Vol. I., p. 266 
(1812.) 

Symplocarpus (O. Rich.) Syn. Gen. Am. PI. p. 17 (1814.) also 

Nuttall, Gen. i, p. 105, (18 18). Ictodes Bigelow, also Med. 
Bot. 2, p. 41, t. 24, (1818). 

Spathyema foetida (Linn.) Raf. 1. c. 

Dracontium foclidum Linn. Sp. PI. p. 967, (i753)- 

Symplocarpus foetidus (Linn.). 'Salisb. 

Ictodes foetidus (Linn.) Bigelow 1. c. 

Common in swamps, near springs, and small streams. No. 
9370 U. N. D. Herb., Notre Dame, near St. Joseph River, Lakeville, 
North Liberty, Woodland, Mishawaka, Granger, also (Elkhart 
Co.). Tamarack, Mineral Springs (Porter Co.), also [Deam] Millers, 



NOTES ON OUR LOCAL PLANTS 47 

Dune Park (Lake Co.), Grand Beach, Mich., St. Joseph, Bertrand, 
Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke). 

ACORUS Dioscorides ' also nearly all pre-Linnaean 
authors, Dodonaeus Pempt. p. 249 or 2, 3, 7, (1583), Marcellus 
Vergilius, Diosc. p. 10, (1529). Clusius, Hist. Stirp. Com. p. 5, 
(1546). Lobelius, Obs. p. 30, (1576). Adv. p. 29. Acorum Matthioli, 
Com. Diosc. p. 20, (1554). Ca/aww5 Auguillara, /I cort*m Dodonaeus 
Hist. PI. p. 577, (1557). Acorum Caspar Bauhin, Pin. p. 34, (1632), 
also Lonicer, Camerarius, Tabernaemontanus. Acorus Linn. 
Syst. (1735)- Gen. PI. p. lo, (1737); P- 151. (i754), Sp. PI. p. 
324- (1753)- Hort. Cliff, p. 137, (1737)- 

Acorus verus Morison. Hort. Reg. Bless, p. 5, (1669); Black- 
well, Herb. Vol. I, No. 466, (1739). 

Acorus palustris Linnaeus Pan Suecus Amoen. 2, p. 245, (1749). 

Acorus Calamus Linn. Sp. PI. 1. c. Acorum legitimum Clusius 
Rar, Stirp. Hist. p. 257, (1583); Calamus odoratus Hermolaus 
Barbarus (1530); Acorum Dioscordis Camerarius Hort. Med p. 
5, (1588); Acorus undulatus S. F. Gray Nat. Arr. Br. PI. 2, p. 
159, (182 1) ex Stokes Mat. Med. 2, p. 282. Calamus aromaticus 
Petit. Com. (17 10). 

Smith, Ind. (Laporte Co.), in a small brook, No. 9397. Low- 
land 2 miles from Nutwood, Ind. (St. Joseph Co.). St. Joseph, 
Mich. (Berrien Co.); also Stephensville, No. 2725. Sweeney's 
Crossing on N. J. I & L R. R. No. 929. (St. Joseph Co.); Lake 
Maxinkuckee, H. W. Clarke (Marshall Co.). 

Dept. of Botany. 

Univ. Notre Dame. 

(To be Continued.) 



Insert after line 2, p. 282, Val. II. Am. Mid. NaT. 

Order 4. LYCOPODINEAE. 
Bartling Ord. Nat. PL p. 19, (1830). (Used as a "Class" Name.) 

Insert before line i, p. 281. 

Order 2. RHIZOCARPEAE. Bartling do. p. 16. 

Insert after line 6, p. 281. 

Order 3. EQUISETALES. 
Britten, Man. Ed. 2, p. 21, (1896). 

' Acoron Dioscorides. See Daubeny, C. Lectures Roman Husbandry, 
(1857). App. according to determinations from the Vienna Codex. 



48 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

Song Season of Our Birds in 1912. 



BY BROTHER ALPHONSUS, C. S. C, 

Some species are in full song on the day of their arrival. 
When that date is later than usual, the song season is just so 
much shorter; for most birds cease singing at the close of the 
nesting season, which occurs ar regular tim.es each spring. The 
following species begin to sing on the day they arrive: Meadow- 
lark, Song Sparrow, Vesper vSparrow, Field Sparrow, Towhee, 
Cowbird, Red-winged Blackbird, Ruby-crowned Kinglet, Yellow 
Warbler, Warbling Vireo, Yellow-throated Vireo, Red-eyed 
Vireo, Baltimore Oriole, Orchard Oriole, Rose-breasted Grosbeak, 
Bobolink, Wood Pewee, Redstart, Maryland Yellowthroat, Purple 
Martin, Wood Thrush, Cardinal, Fox Sparrow. 

Birds whose song usually begins after some days of residence 
are: Catbird, Brown Thrasher, Scarlet Tanager, Goldfinch, Indigo 
Bird, House Wren, Hermit Thrush, Mourning Dove and White- 
throated Sparrow. 

The species whose song ends in August or September are 
those that sing all summer. These are: Robin, Song Sparrow, 
Vesper Sparrow, Field Sparrow, Cardinal, Towhee, House Wren, 
Yellow Warbler, Warbling Vireo, Red-eyed Vireo, Indigo Bird, 
Purple Martin, Goldfinch, Wood Pewee. 

The writer was unable to obtain the date of the closing of 
the song season of the Wood Thrush and the Rose-breasted Gros- 
beak. This was due to the fact that these species were seen only 
a few times in spring. On the other hand, the date — July i8 — 
given as the beginning of the song of the Maryland Yellowthroat 
must be two months later than the usual time the bird arrives 
and commences to sing. In 1910 the actual date of arrival was 
May II. 

The bird whose song season was the longest was the Song 
Sparrow. Other species whose time of singing approached in 
length to that of the Song Sparrow were: Robin, Cardinal, Vesper 
Sparrow and Field Sparrow. 

Those species whose song lasted but a few days were migrants 
going farther north and remaining here a very short time. Such 
were the Purple Finch and the Ruby-crowned Kinglet. 



SONG SEASON OF OUR BIRDS 



49 



The dates given as the ending of the song season of the birds 
are the time when they were no longer in full song. No bird ceases 
to sing all at once. After the date recorded as the ending of the 
song, there is a period, longer or shorter, during which the bird 
will sing a few notes, but with less heartiness. vSome days the 
song may be as vigorous as at any time during the song season; 
but the efforts at singing gradually come to an end, and the woods 
and fields grow silent. 

Even the casual observer will notice the absence of nearly 
e\ ery species at the end of August, with hardly a note to be heard. 
The closing of the song sesaon of our birds can not but cause a 
void in the heart of the bird-lover, who has gone out morning after 
morning to meet his feathered friends, and now — he hears or sees 
them no more. 



Xame of Species 


Song Began 


Song Ended 


Robin 


Mar. 27 


Aug. 6 


Bluebird 


Mar. 25 


July 20 


Meadowlark 


Mar. 19 


July 17 


Song Sparrow 


Mar. 22 


Aug. 20 


Vesper Sparrow 


Apr. I 


Aug. 14 


Field Sparrow 


Mar. 31 


Aug. 20 


White-throated Sparrow 


May 2 


May 15 


Fox Sparrow 


Apr. 2 


Apr. 3 


Tree vSparrow 


Apr. 3 


Apr. 10 


Cardinal 


Mar. 18 


Aug. 5 


Towhee 


Apr. 2 


Aug. 12 


Red-winged Blackbird 


Apr. 2 


. July 24 


Mourning Dove 


Apr. 10 


Aug. I 


Hermit Thrush 


May 5 


May 29 


Wood Thrush 


May 15 




Cowl^ird 


.\]n. 6 


July 23 


Ruby-cr(jwncd Kinglet 


May 2 


May 4 


House Wren 


May 8 


Aug. 15 


Purple Finch 


May 2 (1910) 


'^lay 5 


Yellow Warbler 


May 5 


Aug. 5 


Warbling Vireo 


Apr. 30 


Sept. 7 


Yellow-throated Vireo 


May 19 


July 29 


Red-eyed Vireo 


May 19 


Aug. 5 


Baltimore Oriole 


May 2 


July 17 



50 



AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 



Orchard Oriole 


May 4 


July 13 


Rose-breasted Grosbeak 


May 14 


May 16 


Indigo Bird 


May 14 


Aug. 12 


Catbird 


May 3 


July 21 


Brown Thrasher 


Apr. 15 


June 24 


Maryland Yellowthroat 


July 18 


July 27 


Bobolink 


May 13 


June 19 


Purple Martin 


June I 


Aug. 18 


Scarlet Tanager 


May 2 


Aug. I 


Redstart 


May 3 


May 24 


Goldfinch 


Apr. 21 


Aug. 23 


Wood Pewee 


May 6 


Aug. 30 



Our Birds in the Spring of 1912. 



BY BROTHER APLHONSUS, C. S. C. 



The average temperature for the first fourteen days in March 
was about 28°, and during the rest of the month it was slightly 
over 40°. To these conditions in the weather is due the small 
number of migrants that arrived in March. Besides the absence 
of a number of spring migrants, such winter birds as the White- 
breasted Nuthatch, Brown Creeper, Hairy Woodpecker, and 
Chicadee were not once recorded. This observation establishes 
the fact that these species have a time of migration. The Nut- 
hatch was absent from February 25 until April 10 — 45 days. 
The Downy Woodpecker migrated on February 14 and returned 
on April 6 — 42 days. The only dates the writer observed the 
Chicadee were Sept. 8 and Oct. 8, 1911, no record having been 
made in 191 2 until August i. The Hairy Woodpecker was re- 
corded once — March 2, 1912. The Snowbird is also a winter 
migrant. The bird disappeared this year on Jan. 29 and reappeared 
on March 20 — an absence of 50 days. 

The Hermit Thrush was recorded but twice in April, although 
the species is usually very common in this month. The Tree 
Sparrow was seen on the 22 of April, which is late for this species. 
The cold weather may account for this record, but sometimes a 
belated individual or two of any species may be seen long after 
all the others have departed. The solitary record in April of the 



BIRDS IN THE SPRING OF 1912 



51 



Red-headed Woodpecker was remarkable. Fox Sparrows were 
plentiful this year during the few days they were seen. 

The record for May goes only to the 19, for the temperature 
rose to 81° on that day, and continued at summer heat for the 
remainder of the month. The presence of an unusually large number 
of warblers in May gave the writer a splendid opportunity to 
observe this family. The Magnolia, Tennessee and Myrtle Warblers 
were seen on 9 days. The Wood Thrush was recorded for the first 
time in my observations, covering 8 years. 

March. 
Birds seen on the dates after their names: 



Killdeer, 14. 

Purple Grackle, 19, 23, 24, 25, 

27, 28, 30, 31. 
Goldfinch, 21, 31. 

Song Sparrow, 22, 24, 25 to 

29, 31- 
Loggerhead Shrike, 31. 
Crow, 16, 18, 19, 21, 22, 24 to 

28, 31. 

Snowbird, 20, 21 to 24, 27, 28, 

30, 31- 



Cardinal, 18. 

Meadowlark, 19, 22, 24, 25, 26, 

27, 28, 30, 31. 
Bluebird, 25, 30. 
Chicken Hawk, 26. 
Herring Gull, 27. 
Field Sparrow, 31. 
Blue Jay, 16, 18, 19, 21, 22, 23, 

26, 27, 28, 30. 
Tree Sparrow, 31. 
Downy Woodpecker, 31. 



Total number of species seen, 16. 

April. 
Birds seen on the dates after their names: 



Crow, I to 6, 8, 10 to 16, 18, 19, 

22 to 25, 27 to 30. 
Song Sparrow, i to 30. 
Snowbird, i to 25, 27 to 30. 
Tree Sparrow, i to 4, 6 to 10, 22. 
Robin, I, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8 to 30. 
Fox Sparrow, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. 
Bluebird, 2, 3, 5, 6, 10, 11, 18, 

19, 23, 24, 25, 27, 30. 
Vesper Sparrow, i, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 

10 to 17, 19 to 30. 
Phoebe, 2, 6. 
Hermit Thrush, 5, 18. 



Blue Jay, i to 25, 27, 29, 30. 
Meadowlark, i to 17, 19 to 30. 
Purple Grackle, i, 2, 3, 5, 6, 

8 to 30. 
Killdeer, i, 4, 5, 6, 14, 15, 17. 
Cardinal, 2, 3, 6. 
Towhee, 2, 11, 15, 20. 
Field Sparrow, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8 

to 17, 19 to 21, 23, 25, 26, 

28, 30. 
Red-winged Blackbird, 2, 5, 9, 
^ II, 13, 15, 16, 20, 22 to 25, 

27 to 30. 



52 



AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 



Mourning Dove, 3, 10, 14, 15, 

19, 20 to 25, 27 to 30. 
Golden-crowned Kinglet, 6, 8 to 

13, 16, 17, 18, 20, 25. 
Kingfisher, 8, 10, 13, 17. 
Goldfinch, 10, 21, 25. 
Loggerhead Shrike, 10, 11. 
Downy Woodpecker, 11, 12, 13, 

15, 16. 
Chipping Sparrow, 5, 7, 11 to 

30. 
Brown Thrasher, 15, 16, 19, 20, 

22, 23 to 28, 30. 
Bobwhite, 21. 
Spotted vSandpiper, 22, 23, 26, 

28, 29. 
Golden-crowned Kinglet, 27. 



Cowbird, 6, 8, 9 to 30. 

Screech Owl, 7, 18. 

Brown Creeper, 6, 8 10, 12 

15. 23, 25, 29. 
Flicker, 10 to 18, 20 to 23, 25 

26, 28, 29, 30. 
White-breasted Nuthatch, 10 

12, 13, 23, 27, 28, 30. 
Sapsucker, 12 to 15, 17, 18, 22 

23, 26. 
Barn .Swallow, 13, 1.5, 21, 24 

29, 3«- 
Myrtle Warbler, 16, 24, 25, 28 

29. 
Red-headed Woodpecker, 26. 
Bleak and White Warbler, 29. 
Warbling Vireo, 30. 



Total number of species seen, 40. 

May. 
Birds seen on the dates after their names: 



Crow, 2, 9, II, 13, 14, 16, 17. 

Bobolink, 13, 14, 15. 

Robin, I to 19. 

Meadowlark, i to 8, 10 to 19. 

Snowbird, 3. 

Towhee, i, 3, 4, 6. 

Vesper Sparrow, i to 11, 13 to 

19. 
Mourning Dove, i to 10, 12, 13, 

14, 16 to 19. 
Cowbird, i to 19. 
Ruby-crowned Kinglet, 2, 4. 
House Wren, 3, 4, 8, 10, 11, 13, 

14, 15, 16, 18. 
White-throated Sparrow, 2, 3, 

4. 5. (>. 7, I". 15. 16, 17- 
Yellow Warbler, 3, 4, 5, 7, 16, 

19- 
Baltimore Oriole, 2 to 19. 



Blue Jay, i to 7, 10 to 19. 

Bluebird, 5, 26. 

Song Sparrow, i to 19. 

Purple Grackle, i to 19. 

Killdeer, i, 5, 15. 

Field Sparrow, 2 to 11, 12, 13, 

14, 16, 17, 18. 
Red-winged Blackbird, i, 3, 4 

to 8, II, 12, 13, 16, 19. 
Hermit Thrush, 3 (o S, 10, 12 

to 19. 
Kingfisher, i, 3, 4, 6, 12, 13. 
Redstart, 3, 4. 
Yellow I'alm Warbler, 5. ^>, if), 

12, 13, 15, 16, 19. 
Chimney Swift, i to 8, 10, 14, 

15, 16 to 19. 

Warbling Vireo, 2 o 7, 10, 11, 
13 to 19. 



somS midland dogbanes 



53 



Rose-breasted Grosbeak, 13 to 

16. 
Orchard Oriole, 4 to 7, 8, 10, 

11, 13, 14, 18, 19. 
Black-throated Green Warbler, 

3, 4, 10, 13, 19. 
Blackburnian Warbler, 3. 
Least Flycatcher, 12, 13. 
Creasted Flycatcher, 6, 19. 
Black and White Warbler, 5, 

7, 14- 
Sandpiper, i, 4 to 19. 
Chipping Sparrow, i to 19. 
Brown Thrasher, i to 19. 
Downy Woodpecker, 5, 10, 13, 

15- 
Goldfinch, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10 to 19. 

Flicker, i to 7, 10, 12, 13, 14, 

17, 18. 

Tennessee Warbler, 2, 4, 5, 7, 

12, 13, 14, 15, 16. 
Yellow-throated Vireo, 19. 
Red-breasted Nuthatch, 4, 16. 
Wood Pewee, 6, 7, 15, 18, 19. 
Cape May Warbler, 5, 15, 16, 18. 
Yellow-throated Warbler, 13, 14 

18. 19. 

Total number of species seen. 
Total number of species seen 



Indigo Bird, 14 to 19. 

Catbird, 2 to 19. 

Kingbird, 2 to 11, 13 to 19. 

Black-throated Blue Warbler, 4. 

White-crowned Sparrow, 15. 

Canadian Warbler, 19. 

Scarlet Tanager, 2. 

Wood Thrush, 15, 16. 

Nighthawk, 19. 

Red-headed Woodpecker, 2 to 

8, 10 to 19. 
Myrtle Warbler, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 

13, 16, 17. 
Barn Swalllow, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 

13, 16, 17. 
White-breasted Nuthatch, 7, 13. 
Bay-breasted Warbler, 13, 14,17 
Bittern, i, 12. 

Black-poll Warbler, 3, 4, 10, 

18. 
Nashville Warbler, 3. 
Red-eyes Viroe, 19. 
Chestnut-sided Warbler, 5, 13, 

14, 17. 

Magnolia Warbler, 5, 10 13, 14, 

15, 16, 17, 18, 19. 

66. 

in spring, 77. 



Some Midland Dogbanes. 



BY J. A. NIEUWLAND. 



Apocynum Carolini Nwd., nov. sp. 

Planta verisimiliter metralis foliosa glabra, cum caule viridi 
et ramis multis rubescentibus inforescentiam primam longe' ex- 
cedentibus circa 3.5 dm. Folia suberecta 9-10 cm longa et 2-2.5 



54 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

cm. lata, in ramis et ramulis minora, lanceolata, vel anguste 
elliptico-lanceolata, vel etiam oblonga, glabra, viridia superiore 
facie, pallida vel glaucescentia inferiore. Folia cum venis divar- 
icatis, apice acuminato aristato, (arista saepe 5 mm. longa, vel 
longior) basi cuneato vel etiam anguste cuneato. Petioli circa 
5 mm. longi; internodi 2.5-6 cm. longi. Pedunculi circa 1.5 cm. 
longi, et pedicelli 2-4 mm. longi cum bracteis scariosis linearibus 
ad basim ornati. Flores pauci tubulati 3 mm. longi et i mm. 
lati in caulis summitate tantum aggregati. (Quando vero flores 
in prima inflorescentia vel defloruerunt vel jam lobos fecerunt 
adhuc submaturos, deinde alii quidam (2 vel 3) cymi in ramis 
apparent^) CoroUae segmenta i mm. longa, margine involuti, 
triangularia, incurvata etiam arescentibus post floribus. Sepala 
anguste lanceolata vel aristiformia supra mediam partem. Lobi 
circa 13 cm. long (adhuc quidem immaturi) et verisimiliter per- 
pauci. 

Plant probably and apparently a meter high rather leafy, 
glabrous, with greenish stems and rather numerous long red or 
reddish branches. Branches and twigs much exceeding the ter- 
minal inflorescence (about 3.5 dm.) Leaves of the stem 9-10 cm 
long and 2-2.5 cm. wide, smaller and suberect on the branches, 
lanceolate or narrowly elliptic-lanceolate or oblong, green above 
pale or glaucescent beneath with veins diverging from the mid- 
rib. Apex acuminate, plainly aristate, bristle sometimes 5 mm. 
long or more. Base cuneate or sharply and narrowly so. Petioles 
about 5 mm. long; internodes 2.5—6 cm. long. Peduncle about 
1.5 cm. long at flowering and much longer in fruit. Pedicels 2-4 
mm. long arising from a number of scarious bracts at the base. 
Flowers few (about 12 or 13) tubular 3 mm. long, i mm. wide. 
Inflorescence strictly terminal to the main stem and 2 or 3 others 
produced only later when the terminal has run to fruit or failed to 
produce fruit. Corolla segments triangular involute on the margins, 
scarcely opening, never spreading in the slightest manner, nearly 
I mm. long. Sepals narrowly lanceolate or apparently aristate 
beyond the upper half. 

Pods few, 13 cm. long (in the specimen still immature.) 

This plant belongs to the Cannahinum group, but is not closely 

related to A. cannahinum itself. The type of the species consists 

of two sheets, No. 10563 of my herbarium, sent me from somewhere 

near Detroit, Mich., by Mr. R. Carolin. This enthusiastic collector 



SOME MIDLAND DOGBANES 55 

of plants of that region was formerly a student in the Botanical 
Department of the University. The specimens bear his number 
880. He had intended sending me further details of this and other 
interesting plants of that locality forwarded with these specimens 
referred to, but his sudden, early death intervened. I was unable 
to obtain any more exact knowledge of date, habitat or location 
beyond what I have mentioned. The plants were probably collected 
in the summer of 19 12. 

The very narrow characteristically pointed aristate leaves, 
and the tubular whitish rather small flowers serve to distinguish 
the plant from all others. The habit of flowering with few cymes 
of different ages is striking. The pods are rather long and often 
apparently united at their apex bearing the minute remains of 
the wilted corolla. 

Apocynum tomentellum Nwd., no v. sp. 

Planta i m. alta vel altior foliosa: caulis glabra: ramuli 
sparse hirtelli. Folia plus minusve erecta, 7-12 cm. longa, 3-6 
cm. lata in caule, 3-7 cm. longa, 1-4 cm. lata in ramis et ramulis. 
Folia ovata, ovalia, elliptica-vel etiam obovata, apice mucronato- 
cuspidato, obtuso vel rotundato vel aliquando subacuto; basi 
rotundata vel obtusa vel aliquanda cuneata. Folia in superficie 
ad marginem et in venis sparse pubescentia, inferiore quidem 
facie dense tomentulosa pilis albis recurvatis, et praesertim ju- 
venilia dense et molliter tomentella. Petioli dense tomentosa 
2-5 mm. longi. Cymi permulti subsessilia vel cum pedunculo 
usque I cm. longo: pedicelli tomentoso-hirtelli. Bracteae per- 
multae, lineares, hirtellae. Sepala lineari-lanceolata, hirtella vel 
tomentulosa, corollae segmenta fere aequantia. Corolla late 
campanulata cum segmentis divaricatis, rotundatis albentibus 
2-3 mm. longa et lata. Lobi bini ex cymis oriuntur, pro 
planta breves 6.5-1 1 cm. long, subaequales et ii in ramis et ramulis 
successive longiores. 

Plant I meter high or more, very leafy. Stem glabrous, 
branches and twigs especially sparsely hirtellous. Leaves more 
or less erect 7-12 cm. long and 3-6 cm. wide on the main stem; 
3-7 cm. long and 1-4 cm. wide on branches. Leaves ovate, oval, 
elliptic or sometimes obovate; apex mucronate cuspidate, obtuse 
or rounded or sometimes subacute; base rounded or obtuse or 
even broadly cuneate. Surface of the leaves sparsely pubescent 



56 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

on veins and near the margin, the lower face densely tomentulose 
with white somewhat tangled hairs, and when young particularly 
softly and densely white tomentulose. Petioles rather densely 
tomentose 2-5 mm. long. Cymes numerous subsessile or with a 
peduncle of almost the length of one centimeter. Pedicels densely 
tomentose-hirtellous. Bracts numerous, linear, hirtellous. Sepals 
linear-lanceolate, hirtellous, or tomentulose almost or equaling 
the corolla segments. Corolla 2-3 mm. long and wide, broadly 
campanulate with spreading whitish segments rounded at the apex. 
Pods arising in pairs successively from stem and branch cymes, 
rather small 6.5- 11 cm. long subequal, those produced later being 
larger. 

I select as type No. 9733 of the Herbarium of the University 
collected along a branch of the Michigan Central Railroad near 
the boat house at Notre Dame. The specimen was collected July 
8, 19 1 2. As fruit-type I may designate No. 10304 gathered along 
the road between Cartier Athletic Field and the Ice-house. The 
plant is very abundant in this locality, but fruiting specimens are 
never numerous. What will probably prove to be the same species, 
I have found on the east shore of Upper Chain Lake, about 10 
miles west of South Bend, Ind. I noticed and carefully examined 
this plant several days before I found the flowering type referred 
to, but failed to collect specimens. I expected to gather such on the 
return from the north end of the lake and later decided to botanize 
on the west shore. As I left this part of the country shortly after, 
and did not return until late in fall, I have had as yet no occasion 
to obtain specimens from the Chain Lake region. 

Apocynum cinereum Nwd. nov. sp. 

. Planta foliosa cum foliis perparvis A. isophylli quoad formam 
et magnitudinem, sed dense cinereo-glauca vel etiam pulveru- 
lenta et pallida praecipue in facie inferiore, in superiore quidem 
pallida vel viridescentia. Internodi breves 2.5-4 cm. longi; rami 
quoque pallidi qui inflorescentiam superant. Cymi pedunculati; 
flores multi, 3-4 mm. longi campanulati. CoroUae segmenta an- 
gustata, apice obtuso vel rotundato, Corolla infra mediam partem 
fissa. Sepala lineari-lanceolata, vel lanceolata sinum corollae 
superantia. Flores albescentes vel viridescentes. 

Plant leafy with the foliage of A . isophyllwm Greene, as regards 
shape and size, but densely cinereous glaucous or even pulverulent, 



EVACTOMA 57 

pallid especially on the lower face: upper face pallid or slightly 
greenish. Internodes short, 2.5-4 cm. long; branches also whitish 
glaucous surpassing the first inflorescence. Cymes peduncled: 
flowers numerous 3-4 mm. long, campanulate. Corolla segments 
narrow, obtuse or rounded at the apex and cleft below the middle. 
Sepals linear-lanceolate or lanceolate surpassing the sinus of the 
corolla lobes. Flowers whitish or greenish. 

Although the foliage of this plant as to size and shape resembles 
that described by Dr. Greene for A. isophyllum,^ the dense white 
powdery glaucousness of the leaves is strikingly characteristic as 
vegetative mark. The flowers are very different, campanulate 
creamy white to greenish with long corolla lobes, and .sepals reaching 
above their sinuses. The plant is one of the most leafy I have 
seen in the genus. I designate as type a single specimen No. 9167, 
gathered by myself in the dune region of Lake Michigan at Millers, 
Lake Co., Indiana. The plant was collected July 8, 191 1, and is 
in the Herbarium of the University of Notre Dame. 

Dept. of Botany. 

Notre Dame, Ind. 



Evactoma. 

BY J. A. NIEUWLAND. 



The plant now generally called Silene stellata (Linn.) Alton, 
has held a rather uncertain place in botany according to the opinions 
at least of the older phytographers as is evident from the fact 
of its having been relegated several times from one genus to another 
and back again. Linnaeus himself had the plant in Cucubalus} 
Alton transferred it to Silene} Rafinesque"' considered it as 
sufficiently characteristic to constitute the type of a new genus 
which he called Evactoma. 



' Linnaeus, C. Species Plantarum p. 414, (1753). also 2nd Ed. p. 
592, {1762). 

Hort. Ups. p. no, (1737) " Cucubalus foliis quaternis." 

^ Aiton, f. Hoetus Kewensis, 3: p. 84 (181 1). 

■' Rafinesque, C. S. Autikon Botanikon, pt. i, Cent. III., p. 23, 
(181 5-1 840). The word evidently according to his own explanation of 
derivation should be written Euactoma, from the Greek en, well riijyw, 
k'riifKry, (root r(>;a)-cut azrts", ray or petal, referring to the deeply cleft petals. 



58 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

The habit of the plant and certain important characters of 
the flower, such for example as crownless corolla lend favor to that 
author's view. The following is Rafinesque's diagnosis: 

" Evactoma Raf. diflf. Silene et Cucubalus cal. infl. camp. 
5 fid. membranosis petalis 5 flabellatis, multifidis non coronatis, 
stylis 3, caps 3 loc. 3 valvis, fal. verticill. fl.subracem. This deserves 
to be a G. by habit and characters, the name means well cut star." 

Evactoma stellata Raf. Cucub. et Sil do. O. N. America." 
Silene stellata (Linn.) Ait, 1. c. 
Cticuhalus stellatus Linn. 1. c. 

The type of the genus is with scarcely any doubt the glabrous 
membranous leaved plant of Virginia and farther South. The 
plant of the west and of farther North generally is scabrous pu- 
bescent especially on the inflorescence, stem, and leaves. The 
petals, are more deeply and unequally cleft and the narrow lobes 
more numerous. This latter character I have found difficult to 
determine to my utter satisfaction as the flow^ers of the herbarium 
specimens are, when not wanting, in rather poor condition. I 
have examined the specimens in the U. S. National Herbarium, 
but live material should be compared to obtain quite satisfactory 
results. I have therefore deemed it advisable to lay not too much 
stress on this character for the present and consider the northern 
and western plant as only a variety of the other. Though the 
specimens of the latter are more numerous in herbaria, I do not 
hesitate to designate the southeastern plant as the typical E. 
stellata} Most authors before Linnaeus are silent as to the pu- 
bescence of the plant and that author himself does not mention 
it. John Ray, however, one of the first if not the ver>^ first un- 
mistakeably to describe the plant designates it as "Lychnidem 
Caryophyllum Virginianum gentianae foliis glabris quatuor ex 
singulis geniculis caulem amplexantibus, flore amplo fimbriate. 
Ray, Hist. p. 1895 (1688). From this it is evident that the southern 
plant was first known in Europe, and found in the botanical 
gardens there. I need not hesitate then in describing the western 
and more northern plant as 

Evactoma stellata var. scabrella var. nov. 

Silene stellata var. scabrella. 



' Bot. Mag. p. 1 107, vol. 14. P. Miller, Card. Diet. Ed. 7, (1759) 
Morison, R. Hist. 2 p. 577. Banister's Catalogue in Ray 2, p. 1927. J. Ray, 
3 p. 246. Petiver. Sic. 30. Clay 7 no. 245 etc. 



NESTING HABITS OF OUR BIRDS 59 

Planta rigidior et ejus partes imprimis folia, caules, et inflor- 
escentia, scabrellae : folia quoque densiora quam in specie : petala 
multifida segmentis linearibus irregularibus linearibus: folia 
margine scabro-ciliata. 

The plant though as little branched is less slender than the 
type- 

The following are rather typical specimens of E. stellata in 
the U. S. National Herbarium. The plants were examined in the 
beginning of September, 1912. All the others with a few rather 
equivocal exceptions were found to be typical of the variety. 
I indicate the typical species specimens because they are not so 
numerous. R. Harper's iioi, Chatahoochie River, Ga. VH, 19, 
1 901. U. S. H. No. 400362. A. A. Heller's N. of Tucquan, Lan- 
caster, Co. Pa. Vn, 24, 1 901. U. S. H. No. 406955. Apparently 
the most northern limit. W. Palmer's, Bedford Co. Va. VII, 24, 
1906. U. S. H. No. 605061. W. Pollock's Bucklin Upshur Co., 
W. Va. VIII, 13, 1895. U. S. H. 261684. T. Kearney, Jr., 618. 
French Broad River. IX, 17, 1897. U. S. H. No. 313305. Albert 
Ruth's 197, Lookout Mountain, Ga. VII, 1898. U. S. H. No. 
345380. E. C. Townsend's, Spring Mtn. Polk Co., N. Carolina, 

VII, 23, 1897. U. S. H. No. 341735. C. H. Boynton's 37, High- 
lands, N. C, VIII, 1888, U. S. H. No. 8830. J. K. Small's Summit 
Iron Mts. Skull Cap. Symth Co., SW. Va. VIII, 11 and 21, 1892 
U. S. H. No. 8841. Miss A. Moore's No. 5 Cades Mt. Tennessee, 

VIII, 1895. U. S. H. No. 250437. C. L. Pollard's and W. Maxon's, 
De Kalb Co., Ga. Stone Mt. VIII, 12 and 18, 1900. U. S. H. No. 
443001. Thaxter's, CuUowhee, N. C. (ex Herb. A. Gray) 1887 
U. S. H. 415904. 

As types of the new variety I may designate No. 1054 1 gathered 
at Notre Dame, No. 3497 collected by W. W. Calkins, at Berwyn, 
111. (his own No. 181) is in bud and flower, another 7333 collected 
by the same at Hyde Park, 111. is typical, also No. 3491, by Dr. F. 
Powers at Notre Dame, and my own fruit specimens No. 2136 
are all examples from my herbarium. 

Notre Dame, Ind. 
Dept. of Botany. 



6o AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

Nesting Habits of Our Birds. 

BY BROTHER ALPHONSUS, C. S. C. 



Robin. 
Planesticus migratorius. 
The Robin is the earhest of our birds to build its nest. I 
have seen nests begun in the middle of March when the weather 
was mild. These early attempts at nesting, however, often prove 
disastrous, for very cold days are sure to follow, making it im- 
possible for the birds to sit continuously on the eggs. So the 
nest is abandoned, and another is built later. The Robin has 
more than one brood, young birds appearing as late as August. 

Purple Grackle. 
Quiscalus guiscu/a. 

The Grackle selects evergreen trees for its nesting place. 
A grove of pines or spruces will always have a number of Grackles 
nesting there, and they will soon let any intruder know that they 
are in possession by flying down toward him in a rather threaten- 
ing manner. The young appear early and make much noise while 
waiting for food. After the nesting season the Grackles gather 
in great flocks. 

Mourning Dove. 
Zenaidura macroura. 

The nest of the Dove is found usually in evergreens, and 
is built so very poorly of a few sticks that one would wonder 
how the eggs fail to fall to the ground. June is the month that 
the Do\e chooses for nesting, but the young may not be fledged 
until July. I have found young Doves much earlier, however, 
a fact that shows the nesting season of the species is sometimes 
earlier, or that there is more than one brood. 

COWBIRD. 

Molothrus ater. 
The Cowbird is our only bird that never builds a nest of 
its own. The eggs are stealthily deposited into the nests of other 
species, which have the additional care of rearing a lusty young 
Cowbird. Frequently such species as the Chipping Sparrow and 
the Song Sparrow are imposed upon in this manner, and the 



NESTING HABITS OF OUR BIRDS 6l 

larger Cowbird gets the greater share of the food. Sometimes 
the nest become so crowded that the stronger Cowbird will rest 
on the edge of the nest. 

Red- Winged Blackbird. 
Agelaius phoeniceus. 
The Red-wing is a bird of the swamps, where it builds its 
nest, which is built either on the ground or suspended from the 
rushes. The young are fledged late in June, there being but one 
brood. During the nesting season, the old birds manifest much 
concern whenever a pedestrian passes the place where the nest 
is situated. The males will follow the intruder, scolding all the 
while, until he has got away from the vicinity of the nest. 

MEADOWIvARK. 

Sturnella magna. 

This well-known species of the meadows places its nest on 
the ground in some grassy field. About haying-time the young 
birds are fledged, but sometimes they are still in the nests when 
the mowing-machine is working. Then there is great excitement 
among the Meadowlarks, and individuals may be seen flying 
hither and thither, and showing great alarm by their incessant 
calling. 

Yellow-billed Cuckoo. 
Coccyzus americanus . 

The Cuckoo builds its nest sometimes in the top of tall forest 
trees and again in such a low position as may be found in a young 
box-elder. A habit peculiar to the bird is laying one egg at a 
time and hatching it before laying another. To this character- 
istic is due the fact that young Cuckoos may be seen as late as 
the end of September. I was astonished one day to see an old 
Yellowbill feeding a young bird on the 30th of September. 

Red-headed Woodpecker. 
Melanerpes erythrocephalus. 

Holes in trees or telephone poles are made by the Red-headed 
Woodpecker as its nesting- place. Walking along a country road, 
one may find nearly every pole bored by the Red-heads. In this 
respect they are an injurious species, for the poles used for nesting 
are often easily broken by wind and weather. While feeding the 
young, the old birds make continuous trips to and from the nest. 



62 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

When the young have left the nest, or even before, the old birds 
are much given to scolding when any person passes by the loca- 
tion of the birds. 

Wood Pewee. 
Myiochanes virens. 

The nest of the Pewee is placed on a branch of some forest 
tree, and is made largely of moss. The old birds may be seen 
feeding their young in June. Frequently, a Pewee will sit on a 
low branch and fly out from it repeatedly for passing insects. 
Occasionally one of the birds will fly very near an observer, wholly 
intent on catching an insect. 

Baltimore Oriole. 
Icterus galhula. 

The nest of the Baltimore Oriole is the most ingeniously con- 
structed of all our birds" nests. Made of string, strips of bark and 
grasses, and hung from the slender branches of such trees as the 
maple, elm and willow, the nest is a thing that commands the 
admiration of every observer. Soon after the arrival of the species, 
early in May, the building of the nest is begun. The eggs are as 
beautiful, and similarly marked, as those of the Orchard Oriole. 
About the middle of June, the first piping notes of the young 
Baltimores may be heard in many places, for fortunately this 
beautiful bird is numerous. Within a week of the beginning of 
piping note, the young will essay an attempt to leave the nest. 
Some may succeed, while others will get as far as the edge of the 
nest, make sundry efforts to fly, and then return again to the 
nest. The last of the young Baltimores are not fledged until 
nearly the middle of July. 

I once saw a Baltimore's nest built in a weeping willow, 
just over a cement walk. The branches to which the nest had 
been hung were very slender and swayed greatly whenever the 
wind was strong. To obviate this obstacle to the safety of the 
eggs, the birds attached a piece of string to the nest and tied the 
other end to a branch of a neighboring tree. This feat, which was 
considered very remarkable to every passer-by, seemed almost 
a human act. 

(To be continued.) 



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Vol. III. APRIL, 1913. No. 3. 



AME^TcAN MIDLAND 
NATURALIST 



Devoted to Natural History, Primarily 
that of the Prairie States 



Published by the University of Notre Dame, 
Notre Dame, Indiana 

J. A. NIEUWLAND, C. S. C, Ph. D., Sc. D., Editor 



CONTENTS 

Midland Witch Hazels /. A. Nicnwland 6i 

Nesting Habits of Our Birds Brother Alphonsus, C. S. C. 65 

The Generic Name of the "White Pine /. A. Nieuwland 68 

Our Birds in the Summer of 1912 Brother Alphonsus, C. S. C. 70 

Seedless Oranges, A Historical Note •, 76 



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The American Midland Naturalist 

PUBLISHED BI-MONTHLY BY THE UNIVERSITY 
OF NOTRE DAME, NOTRE DAME, INDIANA. 

VOL. III. APRIL, 1913. NO . "^ 



Midland Witch Hazels. 



BY J. A. NIEUWLAND. 

Rafinesque had described various species of Witch Hazels 
as segregates from Hamavielis virginiana Linn., but none of these 
are now accepted by American botanists at large, as having suffi- 
ciently distinctive or constant characters to warrant recognition. 
All or nearly all were described from the southern or southeastern 
United States, and concerning their validity we need not concern 
ourselves here, as none are to be looked for within the region em- 
braced by this article. Their descriptive diagnosis has been made 
sufficiently plain and Rafinesque's original article may be consulted 
by such as wish to study them critically.^ Walter^ published 
several species and Pursh^ one, which all met the same fate as 
those of Rafinesque. Pursh even advanced the opinion that 
the northern common Witch Hazel was specifically different 
from the southern one. The only other species admitted by 
botanists generally beside H. virginiana Linn, are the oriental 
H. japonica Sieb. & Zucc,"^ also H. verna Sarg. which blooms in 
spring. 

The type of the genus came from Virginia whence Mitchell^ 
first indicated the plant as typical of a ne^v genus, though it had 
been known long before. He pointed out in criticism of the Genera 
Plantarum of Linnaeus of 1737, that a number of generic types 

1 Rafinesque, C. S. New Fl. Am. Ill, pp. 16 and 17, (1836). 

2 Walter, T., Fl. Car. p. 255. (1788). 

3 Pursh, F. Fl. Am. Sept. I, p. 116 (1814). 

4 Siebold, P., and Zuccarini, J. Abh. Akad. Muench. I\', II, p. 193, 
(1843)- 

5 Mitchell, J., Act. Ac. Leop. Carol. \'III, pp. 187, 224, also Mitchel. 
J. Dissert brevis de Prin. Bot. App. Xorimb. 1769. 



62 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

had been omitted from that work. Among these was his genus 
Trilopus called by Linnaeus Hamamelis, the latter name having 
been used by older botanists, and even the ancients for a vac- 
ciniaceous, or pomaceous plant. Linnaeus had in other cases 
caused confusion by assuming old classical names for newly dis- 
covered genera, as for example in case of Ilea, Ptelea, DodocatJieon, 
etc. 

Linnaeus was quite aware of Mitchell's work by correspondence, 
but before the latter had succeeded in having this article printed, 
Linnaeus^ had himself taken up most of these genera giving 
them names of his own. Moreover, there seemed to have been 
a questionable motive in "setting back" the date of some of his 
publications, apparently to make it appear that he had not gotten 
his information from Mitchell, so that the actual date of the Act. 
Ups. from title at least was not " 1741 " but 1746. Mitchell himself 
dated his observations " Dabam ex aedibus meis Virginiae 
II, 3, 1 74 1," so that the reprint of 1769 seems a further protest 
against the apparently unjust procedure of Linnaeus. The relative 
priority of all the names in question is discussed individually 
by Kuntze.^ Hamamelis was then first published in Linnaeus' 
Genera Plantarum where it was attributed to Gronovius' Flora 
Virginica. The name however, is not to be found in the latter 
work part I, and part II appeared only in 1743. The following 
is the synonymy : 

Hamamelis Linn. Gen. PI. Ed. 2, p. 54, (1742). 

Trilopus Mitchell Ac. Acad. Leop. Carol. VIII, app. 211, 
(1748), also (1769), 1. c. 

Hamamelis Linn. Gen. P. Ed. 5 p. 59, (1754). Sp. PI. p. 124, 
(1753)- 
Hamamelis virginiana Linn. Sp. PI. p. 124, (1753). 

Hamamelis corylifolia Moench, Meth. p. 274, (1794). 

Hamamelis virginica Linn., Syst. Ed. XII, p. 129, (1767). 

Trilopus virginicus Raf., New Fl. Am. Ill, p. 15. 

Trilopus riparius Raf. 1. c. 

Hamamelis riparia Raf. 1. c. 

Tr. or H .hyemalis Raf. 1. c. 

Rafinesque having attempted to make segregates extensively 

6 Linnaeus, C. Act. Ups. "Annum 1741" (1746). 

7 Kuntze, O., Revisio Gencrum Plantarum pt. II, p. 519, (1891). 



MIDLAND WITCH HAZELS 63 

from the species, has perhaps described what may be considered 
as the type in perhaps the most characteristic manner of any 
botanist, short though his diagnosis may be. We may quote 
the description in full: "510. Tr. or H. Virginica Raf. med. fl. 
tab. 45. Leaves ovate and obovate obtuse repand, base obliquely 
cordate, smooth; flowers sessile clustered by 3 to 5, calyx and 
fruit pubescent — the name of Tr. or H . riparia or hyemalis, would 
have been better, since it only grows on the margins of the streams 
from New England to Carolina. It is in bloom in December and 
January, even when the snow is on the ground, and the fruit is 
ripe in the spring. Branches punctate." In the Medical Flora 
he says that the fruit takes a year to mature. We have usually 
found ripe fruit with flowers. We should say that the leaves 
are membranous or at least thin, though Rafinesque seems to 
infer that they are coriaceous. He continues* in reference to the 
change of name already discussed: "This is a very singular genus, 
formed by Linnaeus with the Trilopus of Mitchell, which name 
he ought not to have changed for the actual, which is the Greek 
name of the Mespilus or Medlar tree." 

Hamamelis virginiana var. angustifolia nov. var. 

Frutex circa 2 m. altus sero in autumno florescens foliis adhuc 
praesentibus. Ramuli fusco vel atro-fuscato colore: folia glabra, 
grosse dentata, vel undulata, tenuia, venosa, apice acuto vel 
plerumque etiam acuminata, basi inaequali, cordata saltem in 
altero latere. Folia in ramulis sterilibus generatim ovata vel 
ovato-lanceolata ; lamina 6-12 cm. longa, 3-6 cm. lata aliquando 
sparse pilis brevibus albis inferiore facie pubescens. Petala 4 
circa 1.5 cm. longa et minus quam .5 mm. lata. Flores sessiles 
3-4 in ramulorum summitate aggregati. Bracteae et sepala dense 
tomentulosa. Sepala viridia. Fructum non inveni. 

This plant is easily recognized by its very narrow leaves 
compared with the type. The petals are lemon yellow, long and very 
narrow about one half as narrow usually as those of H. virginiana. 
The shrub shows less tendency to branch, the twigs are long and 
wiry, the petioles slender and comparatively long (1.5-2 cm.). 
The leaves are scarcely as thin as in the type, and present on 
blooming branches whereas in the species they have invariably 



Rafinesque, C. S. Med. Flora. Vol. I. p. 228, (182J 



64 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATUI^ALIST ( 

fallen off. I select as type No. 1043 1 of • my herbarium, found 
myself Oct. 17, 1912, one mile north of Hudson Lake (Laporte 
Co.), Ind., a short distance in a Tamarack- White Pine bog. The 
swamp formerly contained an abundance of Pinus Sirobus Linn., 
which has since disappeared almost completely by the woodman's 
ax. Though the plant possesses a number of good characters 
that led me at first glance in its native habitat to recognize it 
as very different from the other Witch Hazels of our region, I 
refrain from publishing it as a species not having studied it in 
all its seasonal changes, nor having found any trace whatever of 
fruit. 

Hamamelis virginiana var. orbiculata var. nov. 

Frutex cum ramis atro-cinereis glabris nisi in summitate et 
ibi tomentulosis. Folia orbiculata, firma, vel subcoriacea, parva, 
1.5-5 cm. longa, (saepe latiora quam longa, maxima nunquam 
longiora quam 5 cm.) apice obtuso vel rotundato, basi cordata plus 
minusve inaequali; margine dentato vel eroso-undulato vel crenato; 
folia subtus dense tomentulosa ferrugineis pilis, vel glabra, in 
superficie aliquando pubescentia, Petioli i cm. haud excedentes, 
crassi, tomentulosi. 

This plant differs from the preceding in shape and texture of 
the leaves very strikingly. The habit of the plant with its smooth 
gray branches and short internodes and numerous flowers is 
noticeable at first glance. The buds are pubescent and the outer 
bracts short, giving them the appearance of a minute acorn. The 
shape of the leaves is very constant and notable, the apex scarcely 
•larger than a marginal tooth and often undefined. The teeth are 
small. The plant called H. rotundifolia Raf. or H. macro phylla 
of the south could not be mistaken for it owing to the larger leaves 
of the southern plant, whether the latter be recognized ever as 
either species or variety. The leaves of the southern plant are 
described as 3-4 inches long. 

The type of H. virginiana var. orbiculata was found in the 
dune region of Lake Michigan at Tamarack about 7 or 8 miles 
west of Michigan City, Ind., on Sept. 22, igif"", and is No. 719 
of my herbarium. The flowers were not as yet in bloom and the 
plant perhaps deserves specific rank owing to its striking vegetative 
characters alone. 

Dept. of Botany, 
Univ. of Notre Dame. 



NESTING HABITS OF OUR BIRDS 65 

Nesting Habits of Our Birds. 



BY BROTHER ALPHONSUS, C. S. C. 



Song Sparrow. 
Melospiza cinerea melodia. 
This bird is sometimes called the Ground Sparrow, from 
its habit of building its nest on the ground. Sometimes the bird 
will place its nest in a bunch of lilies, without resting it on the 
ground. The eggs are whitish with brown spots. This species 
has two broods, the second being fledged about the middle of 
July. A Song Sparrow's nest is easily approached. The parting 
of the tall grass near the nest will not frighten the old bird. 

Flicker. 
Colaptes auratus. 
This interesting bird is sometimes called the High-hole, 
from its habit of building its nest in a hole high up in a tree. The 
adjective high, however, is frequently inapplicable, for the bird 
often selects holes that are low down. A very curious instance 
of the Flicker's variation in choosing its nesting-place came under 
my observation. The walls of a large ice-house were bored in many 
places and the birds entered and built in the ice-house. 

Crested Flycatcher. 
Myiarchus crinitus. 
This handsome flycatcher builds its nest in large holes in 
trees. The only nests I have ever found were in apple trees. -The 
young are fledged about the middle of July; and while in the nest, 
the old birds may be seen perched on a branch near by, waiting 
for a passing insect. When one appears the bird will dart after 
it; and if successful in catching it, the bird will take the insect 
to feed it to the young birds. 

Orchard Oriole. 
Icterus spurius. 
The Orchard Oriole's nest is very finely made of grasses, 
and is usually hid away in the foliage of maples, elms or ash trees. 
Often the only way to locate a nest is to watch the old birds carry- 
ing food to their young. Even then there is little likelihood that 



66 AMEjRICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

the observer may see anything more than the exterior of the 
nest, for it is generally attacked to the slender outer branches of 
the trees. I once found a nest in a young ash, and saw the eggs, 
which were white and marked irregularly with black streaks. 

Chipping Sparrow. 
Spizella socialis 
The chipping Sparrow is sometimes called the Hair Bird, 
from its habit of lining its nest with horse hair. The nest is always 
placed in shrubs or low evergreens, and so may be easily observed. 
I have found many abandoned nests containing two or three blue 
eggs, and have wondered what caused the birds to leave these 
nests. One of the sweetest sights in bird-life is four little " Chippies" 
in the nest, sitting two behind two, and all facing in the same 
direction. Put your finger near them and four little mouths will 
open for food. 

Field Sparrow. 
Spizella pusilla. 
The Field Sparrow builds its nest of a bunch of grass lying 
on the ground, which is oval in shape with a large opening at 
one end. The young may be seen, soon after being hatched, only 
featherless and shapeless forms. A nest may be discovered by 
watching the actions of the old birds, which well manifest concern 
on the approach of an observer. Retire a little and wait for the 
bird to fly with food for its young, and then you will know the 
location of the nest. 

Purple Martin. 
Progne subis. 

The Purple Martins choose church towers or boxes made for 
them as nesting-places. Sometimes wire-netting is put over the 
open spaces of towers to prevent birds from entering them. When 
this device to keep the birds out is resorted to, the Martins will 
leave the vicinity — perhaps for good. Their eggs are pure white, 
and there are two broods. When the second brood is fledged — 
towards the end of July — the Martins begin to flock in great 
numbers. 

Catbird. 
Dumetella carolinensis. 

Shrubbery is always chosen by the Catbird as the situation 
for its nest. Sometimes the same clump of bushes will have a 



NESTING HABITS OF OUR BIRDS 67 

nesting Catbird year after year. Does the same pair ever return 
again and again to one place? Who will answer this question? 
The eggs are somewhat smaller than, and of a similar color to, 
those of the robin — bluish. The young birds appear in June and 
are fledged before July. The Catbird is comparatively quiet 
whenever any one approaches its nest. 

Brown Thrasher. 
Toxostoma rufum. 
The Thrasher's nest is built as often on the ground as it 
is in hedges or bushes. The bird may be easily observed while 
sitting on its speckled eggs, which are large and never more than 
four in number. The nesting-season is in May and June, the 
bird being in song until the young are fledged. This species suffers 
more than any other of our song birds from bird-fanciers, who 
esteem it as our most gifted singer. 

White-breasted Nuthatch. 
Sitta carolinensis. 
Holes in trees are chosen by the Nuthatch as its nesting- 
place. May is the month in which the young are fledged. Previous 
to the appearance of the brood, the old birds are not much in 
evidence. Unless a nest is located by the observer, he may think 
they have migrated in order to rear their young; for this species 
sometimes disappears for many days. 

Chickadee. 
Penthestes atricapillus . 
The Chickadee is a bird of the deep woods, seldom visiting 
smaller woods or groves. A trip to the country in spring would 
likely afford one the pleasure of finding a nesting Chickadee. When 
the bird is found, watch it for a while and you will soon discover 
the nest. Probably a cavity in a rotting fence-post will be used 
for the purpose. If you can see into this cavity, you will find 
many eggs or young birds, for the Chickadee always has a large 
family. 

Bluebird. 

Sialia sialis. 

Few birds are more interesting during the nesting-season 

than the beautiful Bluebird. Like the House Wren, the Bluebird 

always builds in a cavity. I once saw a pipe standing end-wise 



68 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

in some soft marl, and in the pipe I found a nest. Observing the 
pipe later, I saw some Bluebirds resting on its edge. Unfortunately, 
the pipe was removed, and the birds had to build elsewhere. There 
are two broods; the first being fledged in June and the second, 
in July. After the nesting-season the Bluebirds wander about 
and may be seen very seldom. 

House Wren. 
Troglodytes acdon. 
The nesting habits of the House Wren are very interesting. 
Although boxes are made for the bird both in city and country 
to attract the Wrens, still they are not partial to the pretty bird- 
houses, but will often select any cavity in fence posts or stumps. 
Some very curious locations of Wren's nests have l)een foimd. 
An unused vest hung in a room with windows always open was 
chosen by one individual. Walking in a wood one day, a friend 
of mine saw a Wren fly out of the skull of a heifer, and on looking 
closely at the skull, a nest was discovered. There are two broods, 
the last being fledged late in July. 



The Generic Name of the White Pine. 

BY J. A. NIEUWLAND. 

When discussing the occurrence of the White Pine in our 
region under the heading, "Notes on Our Local Plants,"^ we 
have had some hesitancy in regard to not accepting the plant 
as a member of a genus separate from Pinus. Moreover, we were 
persuaded the name Sirohus of Pliny could scarcely have been 
the same plant, as that typified by Pinus Strobus Linn, nor even 
Pinus excelsa Wall, of the Himalayan Mountains, nor in fact, 
any plant closely related to either of these. It was therefore 
indicated as doubtful whether the name could in any degree of 
accuracy be used for a group of plants containing the American 
White Pine. The tree was accordingly left provisionally in the 
genus Pinus. 

There are, however, very good reasons indeed for considering 
Pinus Strobus as separate from the other pines as was shown by 

I Am. Mid. Nat. Vol. II."'p.^283. 



GENERIC JiJAME OF J^HE WHITE FINE 6(/ 

Small" in his Flora of the vSoutheastern United .States. The 
generic name Slrobus accepted by that author is objectionable 
not only for the reason shown above, but it is a homonym to 
Sirohon Raf.,' and apparently neuter gender form of a noun 
of similar appearance, and certainly more like Slrobus than the 
Galcaris he objects to resembles Galearia^ Historical priority 
being the rule followed in the "Notes" this problem did not really 
concern us, yet it is worth while to point out that even assuming 
1753 as the "starting point" for botanical nomenclature, Slrobus 
is still inadmissable as a generic name for the White Pines. 

We were also aware that Apinus Necker^ demanded consid- 
eration, but a curious confusion presents itself here for which at 
first we were unwilling to suggest a solution or propose a definite 
opinion. Necker seems to have proposed the name Apinus for 
the "group" containing Pinups Cembra Linn, and Pinus Pima 
Linn. Pinus Slrobus Linn, itself is by him actually put under 
Larix^' and therefore positively excluded from Apinus. Under 
these circumstances we can scarcely see hf)w Pinw; Slrobus could 
be put in a genus from which the very author thereof himself 
deliberately excludes it, whatever there be in description that 
might perhaps allow it therein. Since therefore Slrobus is a hom- 
onym there seems nothing to do, if the White Pines are a valid 
genus, but suggest a new name for them, and we propose Leucopitys 
The word comes from the Greek '/jvxoc., white, and TiiTvg, pine. 
A description of the generic characters is scarcely necessary after 
considering those given by Small. ^ Following is the synonymy of 
the two most characteristic species. 

Leucopitys Nwd. Nom. nov. 

Slrobus (^)\nz, Lotos, IV, p. 94 (18,54), not Slrobon Rafinesque. 

vSylv. Tell. p. 132 (1838). 
Not Apinus Necker, El. Bot. Ill, p. 269 (1790). 
Pinus Linn., Sp. PI. p. 1000, (1753); Gen. PI. p. 293, (1737); 

p. 434, (1754); vSystema Nat. (1735) in part. 
Larix Necker El. Bot. Ill, pp. 268, 270, (1790) in part. 



2 Small, J. K. Fl. S. E. U. S. p. 29, (1903). 

3 Rafinesque, C. S. Sylva Tellur. p. 132 C1838). 

4 See also Am. Mid. Nat. Vol. II. p. 305. 

5 Necker, J. El. Bot. Vol. III., pp. 269, 270, C1790). 

6 1. c. p. 270. 7 1. c. 



70 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

Leucopitys Strobus (Linn.) Nwd. 

Strobus weymouthiana Opiz. 1. c. 

Strobus Strobus (Linn.) Small. Fl. S. E. U. S., p. 29, (1903). 

Pinus Strobus Linn. Sp. PI. p. looi, (1753). 

It may be mentioned in this connection that this plant was 
found in St. Joseph Co., Ind., near Lydick, in a tamarack 
swamp. Only one speciman was found but this was certainly 
not a cultivation. The plant is No. 10568 of the U. N. D. Herbarium. 
It is an immature though healthy one. This reference was over- 
looked in the "Notes" and is the most easterly locality for the 
plant we have been able to record for the region. 

Leucopitys excelsa (Wall) Nwd. 

Pinus excelsa Wall, ex Lamb. Pin. Ed. IL, I, p. 40, t. 26. 

Strobus excelsa (Wall)? 

Dept. of Botany, 

Univ. of Noire Dame. 



Our Birds in the Summer of 1912. 

BY BROTHER ALPHONSUS, C. S. C. 

After May 20, certain species, although common summer 
residents, were seldom seen. The explanation of their scarcity 
would seem to be that these species are found only in peculiar 
localities during summer, and the few that were seen after May 
20, were straggling migrants. This would not cover of the case 
of the Killdeer, Cedarbird and Yellow-throated Vireo. The rarity 
of the Killdeer was doubtless due to the early nesting of this species. 
The Cedarbird is a wanderer, and so may frequently be absent 
from a given locality. The scarcity of the Yellow-throated Vireo — 
only three records of the species having been made during the 
summer — is inexplicable to the WTiter. 

The absence, after May 20, of the Purple Finch, Dickcissel, 
Rose-breasted Grosbeak, Maryland Yellowthroat and Cardinal 
may be accounted for variously. The Purple Finch and Dickcissel 
were not recorded once during spring or summer. The Rose- 
breasted Grosbeak was not found on any day in summer. The 



OUR BIRDS IN THE SUMMER OF 1912 7 1 

Cardinal was heard only twice during summer — early in August. 
The most unusal case was that of the Maryland Yellow-throat, 
the first record being made on July 19. These observations show 
that in some seasons certain species are entirely absent from, 
or very rare in, a given locality. 

The absence in June of the Yellow-throated and Red-eyed 
Vireos and the Phoebe was likely due to the fact that these species 
are not partial to parts that are inhabited, as nesting-places. 
Some years a grove may have a nesting Red-eye, and then a 
season will occur when no one of the species can be found in the 
locality. The same is true of the Pi;oebe, whose nest is often placed 
under overhanging rocks; and sometimes so slanting is the posi- 
t on selected that the nest will fall and a new one must be built. 
An experience of this kind will cause the bird to choose a different 
locality next year. 

Only one record was made of the Bluebird in June. If a nest 
is not found, the observer may fail to see this species during the 
nesting-season; for the bird does not cover a large territory until 
the young are fledged. The Towhee, Yellow Warbler, Scarlet 
Tanager and Loggerhead Shrike nest in localities that are far from 
towns, and are unlikely to be found by any one who does not 
visit deep woods and out-lying fields. 

This summer the scarcity of the Killdeer was notable — three 
times in June and seven times in July and once in August were 
the only records made by the writer. Other years this species 
was as common as the Sandpiper. The writer's observations of the 
Bobol nk were most meager this summer — only one in June. This 
month is usually the time when the species is most abundant, 
but June of 191 2 was remarkable for the rarity of the Bobolink. 

In July and August, when the song season of certain species 
ends, it is difficult to find them. Among such birds are the Vesper 
Sparrow and the Orchard Oriole. Both of these species, late in 
summer, feed in unfrequented places, making it necessary to travel 
far if the observer would locate them. 

In August a number of species were found but a few times, 
in the first part of the month. Such were the Bluebird, Meadow- 
lark, Red-winged Blackbird and Cowbird. The absence of these 
species for many days indicates a summer migration, which may 
extend into autumn. After August 20, a great scarcity of many 



72 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

species was noted, which points to the ending of the summer 
season. 

Birds not seen in May after the 19th: Snowbird, Cardinal, 
Golden-crowned Kinglet, Ruby-crowned Kinglet, Brown Creeper, 
Screech Owl, Hell Diver, Purple Finch, Rose-breasted Grosbeak, 
Black-throated Blue Warbler, Maryland, Yellowthroat, Bobolink, 
Purple Martin, Black-burnian Warbler, Dickcissel, Black and White 
Warbler, Bobwhite, Sapsucker, Downy Woodpecker, Shrike, 
Bittern, Tennessee Warbler, Nashville Warbler, Red-breasted 
Nuthatch, Chestnut-sided Warbler, Cap May Warbler, Wood 
Thrush, White-crowned Sparrow, Canadian Warbler. 

Birds not seen in June: Cardinal, Hell Diver, Rose-breasted 
Grosbeak, Maryland Yellowthroat, Redstart, Dickcissel, Alder 
Flycatcher, Whip-poor-will, Yellow-throated Vireo, Red-eyed 
Vireo, Phoebe. 

Birds not seen in July: Cardinal, Rose-breasted Grosbeak, 
Bobolink, Dickcissel, Shrike. 

Birds not seen in August: Maryland Yellowthroat, Alder 
Flycatcher, Phoebe, Yellow-throated Vireo, Bittern, Tree Swallow, 
Long-billed Marsh Wren, Hairy Woodpecker. 

May. 
Birds seen on the dates after their names: 

Crow, 20, 21 ,25, 29, 30. Cowbird, 20 to 26, 28 to3i. 

Blue Jay, 21, 22, 24 to 27, 29. Kingfisher, 27, 28, 29. 

30, 31. House Wren, 2q to 24, 26 to 31. 

Robin, 20 to 31. Yellow Palm Warbler, 20, 21. 

Bluebird, 26. Chimney Swift, 20 to 31. 

Song Sparrow, 20 to 31. Yellow Warbler, 20, 21, 22, 24, 
Meadowlark, 20 to 25, 28 to 31. 25, 26. 

Purple Grackle, 20 to 31. Warbling Vireo, 20 to 31. 

Killdeer, 30. Baltimore Oriole, 20 to 31. 

Towhee, 21. Indigo Bird, 20. 21, 22, 28, 30. 

Field Sparrow, 20 to 31. Catbird, 20 to 31. 

Vesper Sparrow, 20 to 31. Orchard Oriole, 20 to 23, 25, 26, 
Red-winged Blackbird, 20, 21, 28 to 31. 

24, 28, 29. Kingbird, 20 to 25, 28 to 31. 

Mourning Dove, 20 to 31. Black-throated Green Warbler, 
Hermit Thrush, 20 to 23, 26 20, 28. 

to 29. White-breasted Nuthatch, 20, 25 



OUR BIRDS IN THE SUMMER OP I912 



73 



Redstart, 20. 24. 
Scarlet Tanager, 25, 26. 
Least Flycatcher, 20, 21. 
Alder Flycatcher, 20, 21. 
Crested Flycatcher, 20 to 31. 
Cedarbird, 24, 26. 
Yellow-billed Cuckoo, 27 to 31. 
Nighthawk, 25, 27, 28 to 31. 
Whip-poor-will, 26. 
Red-headed Woodpecker, 20 to 

31- 
Spotted Sandpiper, 20 to 23, 

25 to 28, 30. 
Myrtle Warbler, 20. 



Brown Thrasher, 20 to 23, 25, 

26, 28 to 31. 
Chipping Sparrow, 20 to 31. 
Goldfinch, 20 to 22, 24 to 27, 31. 
Flicker, 20, 21, 24, 25, 28, 31. 
Black-poll Warbler, 20, 22, 24,25 
Yellow-throated Vireo, 23. 
Red-eyed Vireo, 20 to 31. 
Magnolia Warbler, 20. 
Wood Pewee, 20 to 31. 
Yellow-throated Warbler, 20, 23. 
Bay-breasted Warbler, 22, 23. 
Pine Warbler, 20. 
Phoebe, 30. 



Total number of species seen in May, 53. 

June. 
Birds seen on the dates after their names: 



Crow, 5, 7, 8, II, 12, 13, 16 
to 21, 23, 24, 26, 28, 30. 

Blue Jay, i, 2, 4, 5, 7 to 15, 17 

to 21, 23 to 30. 

Robin, I to 21, 23 to 30. 

Bluebird, 24. 

Song Sparrow, i to 21, 23 to 

28, 30. 

Meadowlark, i, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 10 
to 14, 16 to 19, 21, 23 to 

28, 30. 

Purple Grackle, i to 28, 30. 
Killdeer, 15, 21, 30. 
Towhee, 2. 
Field Sparrow, 2, 4 to 9, 11, 12, 

14, 16 to 21, 23 to 29. 
Vesper Sparrow, i, 2, 4 to 19, 

21, 23, to 30. 
Red-winged Blackbird, i, 2, 8,. 

9, II, 17, 23, 24, 26, 28, 

29. 30. 
Shreech Owl, 16. 



Mourning Dove, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8 

to 15, 17 to 30. 
Cowbird, 2, 3, 4, 6 to 10, 12 

to 15, 17 to 25. 
Kingfisher, 2, 14, 15, 20, 26, 28. 
House Wren, i to 6, 8, 9, 11 

to 21, 23 to 30. 
Chimney Swift, i to 10, 12 to 

19, 21 to 30. 
Yellow Warbler, 5. 
Warbling Vireo, i to 6, 8 to 30. 
Baltimore Oriole, i to 30. 
Indigo Bird, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 12, 

18 to 24, 26, 27, 28, 30. 
Catbird, i, 2, 4 to 21, 23 to 30. 
Orchard Oriole, i to 12, 14 to 

21, 23 to 29. 
Kingbird, i to 15, 17 to 19, 21, 

23, 24, 26, 27, 29. 
Scarlet Tanager, 23. 
Crested Flycatcher, 5, 6, 9, 18 

to 26. 



74 



AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 



Barn Swallow, ii, 23, 28, 
Chipping Sparrow, i, 3, to 
Downy Woodpecker, 11, 19, 
White-breasted Nuthatch, 

16, 18, 21, 23, 24, 26, 

28, 30. 
Loggerhead Shrike, 6. 



Bobolink, 19. 
Cedarbird, 8, 13, 24. 
Yellow-billed Cuckoo, i to 6, 

8, 9, II, 14, 17, 19, 26, 30. 
Nighthawk, i, 2, 4, 5, 8, 9. 
Red-headed Woodpecker, i to 

6, 8 to 20, 23 to 30. 
Spotted Sandpiper, 2, 3, 4, 7 Goldfinch, 3, 4, 6 to 9, 14, 

to 13, 15, 18, 20, 23 to 26, 16, 18, 19, 30. 

28, 30. Flicker, i, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 12, 

Brown Thrasher, 2 to 19, 21, 23, 16 to 19, 21 to 28, 30. 

24, 25, 27. Wood Pewee, i to 30. 

Total number of species seen in June, 42. 

July. 
Birds seen on the dates after their names: 
Crow, I, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, 15, 17, Scarlet Tanager, 19, 31. 



30. 
30. 

28. 

13. 

27. 



15- 
13. 



18 to 21, 23 to 31. 
Blue Jay, i to 17. 
Robin, I to 31. 
Bluebird, 2, 3, 4, 9, 17, 19 to 

22, 25, 27, 30, 31. 
Song Sparrow, i to 31. 
Meadowlark, i to 6, 8, 9, 10, 

13. 15, 17- 
Purple Grackle, i to 17, 19, 27, 

28, 30. 
Killdeer, 8 to 11, 13, 21, 25, 26. 
Towhee, 10 ,11, 12, 17, 18, 31. 
Field Sparrow, i to 4, 6 to 23, 

25 to 31. 
Vesper Sparrow, i to 15, 17 to 

31- 
Red-winged Blackbird, i to 14, 

17 to 31. 
Mourning Dove, i to 6, 8 to 

17, 20, 21, 23, 24, 25. 
Cowbird, i to 6, 8 to 17, 20, 23, 

25. 29, 30. 
Screech Owl, 26. 



Alder Flycatcher, 18, 21, 22, 

24, 27, 29. 
Crested Flycatcher, 2, 4, 8, 10, 

12, 13, 16, 30. 

Cedarbird, i, 2, 3, 7, 10, 12, 

13, 14, 16. 
Yellow-billed Cuckoo, i, 2, 4, 

5, 6, 8, 9, 12, 13, 14. 
Nighthawk, 8, 9, 15. 
Whip-poor-will, 17 ,18, 19. 
Red-headed Woodpecker, i to 

12, 14 to 19, 21, 23, 24, 27 

to 31. 
Spotted Sandpiper, i to 7, 9, 

11, 19, 23, 30. 

Brown Thrasher, 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 

10, 15, 16, 27, 30. 
Barn Swallow, 2 to 5, 9, 10, 12 

to 15, 17 to 21, 23, 26, 27, 

28, 30, 31. 
Chipping Sparrow, i to 31. 
Downy Woodpecker, i to 4, 8, 

12, 17 to 20, 24, 25, 27 to 31. 



OUR BIRDS IN THE SUMMER OF 1912 75 

Kingfisher, 8, 12, 13, 17 to White-breasted Nuthatch, i to 

22, 24, 27, 28, 30. 9, II, 13, 14, 16 to 31. 

House Wren, i to 17, 21, 25 to Goldfinch, i to 5, 6 8 to 13, 15 

28, 30, 31. to 22, 24 to 31. 

Hell Diver, 19, 30. Flicker, i to 6, 8 to 31. 

Chimney Swift, i to 16, 30. Yellow-throated Vireo, 22, 29. 

Yellow-Warbler, 20 to 23, 28, Red-eyed Vireo, 19, 22, 27, 29, 

30. 30. 

Warbling Vireo, i to 14, 16 to Phoebe, 18 to 27, 29, 30. 

31. Wood Pewee, i to 31. 
Baltimore Oriole, i to 30. Chickadee, 4, 16, 17, 21 to 24, 
Hummingbird, 8, 15, 16, 17, 27, 30. 

22. Yellowlegs, 17 to 22, 25, 27, 

Indigo Bird, i to 5, 8 to 13, 29, 30. 

16, 17, 19 to 22, 24 to 31. Bobwhite, 17. 

Catbird, i to 10, 12 to 31. Hairy Woodpecker, 17, 20. 

Orchard Oriole, i, 2, 3, 5, 8, Tree Swallow, 18, 19, 21, 22, 

10, 12, 20, 30. 25. 

Kingbird, i to 5, 8 to 31. Long-billed Marsh Wren, 18. 

Maryland Yellowthroat, 18, 25, Bittern, 20. 

27. Loon, 29. 

Purple Martin, i, 4, 11, 18, 19, Red-tailed Hawk, 30. 

22 to 25. 

^ Total number of species seen in July, 58. 

August. 
Birds seen on the dates after their names: 

Crow, I, 2, 4, 5, II, 12, 14, 15, Vesper Sparrow, i, 2, 4, 5, 7, 

16, 19. II, 14, 16. 

Blue Jay, 2, 5 to 20. Red-winged Blackbird, i, 3, 4, 

Robin, I to 20. 12. 

Bluebird, i, 2, 5, 11. Mourning Dove, i, 3, 6 to 17, 20. 

Song Sparrow, i to 20. Cowbird, 9, 12, 13, 15. 

Meadowlark, i. Swift, 3, 5 to 10, 12, 13, 14, 

Purple Grackle, i, 2, 4, 6 to 20. 18, 19. 

Killdeer, i. Kingfisher, 3 ,5, 7, 9, 13, 14, 

Cardinal, i, 5. 16, 20. 

Towhee, i, 3, 12. House Wren, i, 3, 5, 6 to 16. 

Field Sparrow, i, 3, to 8, 10 to Hell Diver, i. 

14, 20. Yellow Warbler, i, 5. 



76 



AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 



Warbling Vireo, i to lo, 12, 20. 
Baltimore Oriole, i, 6 to 20. 
Hummingbird, 13. 
Indigo Bird, i, 2, 4 to 9, 12 to 

16, 18, 20. 
Catbird, i, 2, 4, 5, 6, 9, 11 to 

14, 17, 18, 20. 
Orchard Oriole, 15, 19. 
Kingbird, i, 2, 4, 5, 6, 9, 12, 

13, 18, 19. 
Purple Martin, 8, 9, 12, 17, 18. 
Scarlet Tanager, i. 
Loggerhead Shrike, 11. 
Crested Flycatcher, 7, 9, 12. 
Whip-poor-will, i. 
Red-headed Woodpecker, i, 2, 

4 to 20. 
Spotted Sandpiper, i, 4. 
Brown Thrasher, i, 2, 8, 10, 

II, 12, 15, 16, 17, 19. 
Total number of species seen 
Total number of species seen 



Barn Swallow, i, 2, 3, 5 to 9, 19. 
Chipping Sparrow., i to 13, 15, 

16, 17, 19, 20. 
Downy Woodpecker, 4, 6, 8, 

10 to 13, 16, 20. 
White-breasted Nuthatch, i, 3 

to 8, 12, 17, 18, 20. 
Goldfinch, i to 6, 8 to 20. 
Flicker, i, 2, 6, 7, 9 to 18. 
Red-eyed Vireo, i, 3, 5. 
Wood Pewee, i to 20. 
Chickadee, i, 4, 14. 
Yellowlegs, i, 3, 4, 9, 13, 17, 20. 
Bobwhite, 5. 

Red-shouldered Hawk, i, 13, 14. 
Yellow-billed Cuckoo, i, 5, 7, 

II, 12, 13, 15. 
Black-crowned Night Heron, i. 
Cedarbird, 15, 16, 17. 

in August, 50. 
during summer, 72. 



Seedless Oranges, A Historical Note. 

The first record of seedless oranges I have been able to find 
is in an old work of Ferrarius,' a Jesuit priest, and native of 
Sienna, Italy. He describes in somewhat peculiar and at times 
bombastic style the citrus fruits observed in the gardens and green- 
houses of Italy, as also those he heard of from missionaries and 
travellers in China, the Philippines and India, where oranges are 
native. His seedless orange described on p. 381 is a real "navel" 
orange though the apex of the fruit scarcely shows this. Other 
"navel" oranges are shown which are not quite seedless. The 
seedless fruit is described in a paragraph under the heading: 
"Auranliuvi sine seniine" and the fruit is described as having a 
pleasant flavor. 

I Ferrarius, J. B. Hcsperides Sivc dc Malorum Aurcorum Ciiltura ct 
Usu Romae, (1644). 

Pages 33-62, Am. Mid. N.^T. published March 3, 191 3. 



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Rafine5que, C. S. Monographic des 
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Vol. III. JULY, 1913. No. 4. 



AMERICAN MIDLAND 

NATURALIST 



Devoted to Natural History, Primarily 
that of the Prairie States 



Published by the University of Notre Dame, 
Notre Dame, Indiana 

J. A. NIEUWLAND, C. S. C, Ph. D., Sc. D., Editor 



CONTENTS 



Certain Violet Names Edivard L. Greene 79 
A New Midland Violet and Some Notes on "Cleistogamous" 

Flowers /■ ^- Nicuwland 85 

Some Littoral Algae of Puget Sound Chas. O. Chambers 91 

Notes on Our Local Plants. — FV. /. A. Nieuwland 98 
Migration of Our Birds in the Autumn of 1912 

Brother Alphonsus, C. S. C. 125 

An Older Name for Listera /. A . Nieuwland 128 

New Plants from Various Places. — II. J- A. Nieuwland 129 

Eook Note 133 

Viola arvensis Murr. in Northern Indiana /. A. Nieuwland 134 



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The American Midland Naturalist 

PUBLISHED BI-MONTHLY BY THE UNIVERSITY 
OF NOTRE DAME, NOTRE DAME, INDIANA. 

VOL. III. JULY, 1913. NO. 4. 



Certain Violet Names. 

By EDWARD I,. GREENE. 

The rather copious literature of violets which for several 
years past has occupied much space in several botanical journals 
of New York and Boston must have been unsatisfactory and 
even dull reading to as many botanists — they are very many, 
and scattered all over the country — who are interested in violets 
in the field, as nature there presents them; also I doubt that any 
considerable number of botanists, ot whatever degrees of pro- 
ficiency in knowledge of the plants, have found pages of guesses 
about hybrid origins, and high sounding theorizings about Men- 
delian laws, able to hold their very serious attention. By way of 
variety there is now given us a paper of considerable length on 
some aspects of the violet question that to the writer of the paper 
seem to have been too long neglected. Its leading points are 
nomenclatorial. This paper is from the facile pen of Mr. Eugene 
Bicknell of New York, and of course is far as possible from being 
dull, or uninstructive.^ Nevertheless, the man of the facile pen, 
if proceeding in the name of science, may well be advised to pause, 
now and then, look up a page of some old volume — or one not 
so old — and see that his pen tells always the exact truth; for 
nothing else has permanent place in any science. 

On the matter of Viola ohliqua the first statement of my 
friend is that " The name seems first to have emerged into the 
modern light in the Illustrated Flora." It seems to have been 
entirely forgotten here, that the name V. ohliqua had "emerged 
into the modern light" as early as 1886 — ten or eleven years 
before Mr. Bicknell's date of the "emergence" — in the Botanical 
Gazette, the man who presented it to the botanical public being 

' Viola obliqua Hill, and other Violets. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, vol. 40, 
pp. 261-270. June, 1913. 



8o AMERICAN MIDLAND NAtURAUST 

Asa Gray. Its right of priority was as clearly shown there as 
it was ten years later in the Illustrated Flora. He did not believe 
in the enforcement oi the law of priority in cases of that kind. 
The name V. cucullata, in his view, had been too long in place 
in all the nineteenth-century books to be now displaced. Now, 
first of all men to take up that name V. ohliqua, after Dr. Gray's 
intimation, and place it on a printed page heading a paragraph, 
and as the possibly available name for the most common of 
Potomac Valley violets — I say first of them am I ; yet Mr. Bick- 
nell, apparently through failure to distinguish between two ideas 
that are nevertheless very distinct, now whites me down as the 
most successful of all who have assailed the name V. obliqua. 
The principal paragraph of his first page opens thus: "More 
redoubtably than any other writer, more picturesquely. Dr. Greene 
has used his slings and arrows against this name." Mr. Bicknell 
appears as having failed to distinguish between things so dis- 
similar as the name of a plant and the figure purporting to repre- 
sent the plant. I should say that the name of a plant is one 
thing, the verbal description of the plant another thing, and a 
picture of it a third thing. I have inveighed against the figure 
of V. ohliqua given by Hill, but nowhere against the name; and 
so I suppose that what Mr. Bicknell had in mind would have 
found happier expression if before writing he had looked again 
to see whether it was a name or a picture that I had spoken against. 
I am sure that I nowhere wrote against both. A more curious 
passage in Mr. Bicknell is this: "His onslaught — surely not to 
be withstood — finally by a hair's breadth evades a fatal issue. 
With fine dexterity the all but destroyed thing has been rescued 
and, on the instant, sent forth with now well established rights — 
for how shall it ever again be assailed with better success?" Here 
I seem to observe that the writer has now, right in the midst of 
his paragraph, a new topic; at least one quite distinct from that 
which he began. He has now joined together the name and the 
plant. It seems to be affirmed that I had now, at one place, 
established well the name V. ohliqua as connected with a certain 
type. This is a more inexcusable misconstruction of me than 
the other, if there is any difTerence. There has been entirely 
eliminated from my page, in Mr. Bickncll's thought, that inter- 
rogation mark. The first thing I wrote on that page which has 
elicited so nuich and such pleasing comment was " v. obuqua, 



CERTAIN VIOLET NAMES. . 8 1 

Hill?" To the understanding of what I have said in the paper 
cited, nothing is more needful than the remembrance of that 
small crooked mark. Its meaning with me is very definite, namely, 
that I am in doubt as to what the living plant really was to which 
Hill gave that name. That crooked mark being there, and there 
bearing its usual meaning, I can not reasonably be credited with 
having "rescued" the name from ambiguity, or with having 
sent it forth with "well established rights" as the name lor any 
species. My meaning all the way along and to the end was, and 
is, that to what species V. ohliqua as a name applies, is to me 
uncertain. It has not received from me what Mr. Bicknell de- 
nominates "reinstatement," except hypothetically, and that is 
not reinstatement at all. The utmost accomplished by me in 
that series of paragraphs is, a showing that the name may possibly 
turn out to belong there, unless as much as this be made 
out of my concluding words, that it is matter of probability, 
which is of course coming nearer to positive affirmation than 
is possibility; though neither amounts to the positive. I wish 
that my friend in New York, while he was about it, had reproduced 
my concluding statement in its integrity, and so had saved me 
the trouble. 

" This species is the most common of all East-American 
violets, preferring heavy but not wet soils, often growing in great 
abundance in rather low copses or even somewhat dense moist 
thickets. Its apetalous summer flowers are on very short hori- 
zontal peduncles, the growing ovary being concealed under dead 
foliage or the lighter mould about the base of the plant. I believe 
that the species has several specific names already; but I am 
confident that it can never be proven that it is not V. ohliqua, 
Hill; and since that is the oldest possible name of it, I here 
leave it under that designation ."^ 

Now if I well comprehend Mr. Bicknell's interpretation 
of the last two or three lines, his view is that when I say it can 
never be proven that a certain species is not V. ohliqua, Hill, 
I have in effect neutralized, virtually eliminated my mark ol 
doubt with which I began, so that thenceforward I would have 
used V. ohliqua. Hill, simply and plainly for the violet I had in 
view. Such never was my mind. The doubt expressed at the 
heading of my paragraphs had not been, nor has it yet been re- 

^ Pittonia, vol. 3. p. 143 (December, 1896). 



82 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

moved. In my thought, that designation under which I lelt 
it was V. ohliqua, Hill? This written out would be " V. ohliqua, 
Hill, perhaps." At that time, as clearly as now, was I well aware 
of the universal manual-makers' proclivity for universal dog- 
matism in nomenclature and elsewhere; the certainty that he, 
the scientific would-be-iniallible, will never admit that he is in 
doubt, will never consent to a cjuestion mark after a binary name, 
in any of his books of botanic dogmatism. If I had indited — 
if I had edited and published — a monograph of violets covering 
this ground, or a manual containing our Potomac Valley violets, 
I should have written V. ohliqua and some other names with those 
honest unassuming question marks; so averse am I to pretense 
of truth where in reality there is only doubt. 

On the second page of Mr. Bicknell's article is much positive, 
even very forcible and emphatic language in defense of Hill's 
figure as having had for its original a violet which he, Mr. Bick- 
nell, can with perfect confidence demonstrate. He is more ardent 
for the defense of said figure than I was strong in my "onslaught" 
on it as worthless, and inasmuch as appeal is frankly made by 
Mr. Bicknell to others who, as he says, must judge, it is I think 
to be regretted that a reproduction of Hill's figure was not then 
and there given. It is the vision of this much written of figure 
that will convince — perhaps some one way and some another. 
I believe it has been that old engraving which has persuaded 
others more recently, as it aforetime persuaded me, not to identify 
with it except hypothetically any violet of this country that we 
know. 

I am now ready to oft'er some conciliation. That opinion 
as to the worthiness of the old V. ohliqua figure to be taken as 
a definite token of one specific type, to which I gave strong negative 
expression seventeen years ago, and that directly opposite opinion 
which Mr. Bicknell now puts forward, are not so squarely contra- 
dictory as at first reading, and without explanation, they will 
seem; for I had one species in view, and Mr. Bicknell has another; 
and the two are very dissimilar. 1 hat which I was comparing 
with that old i:)icture is much farther from any approach to answer- 
ing the rc(iuirements of the old picture than is this which Mr. 
Bicknell is comparing with it. What I had before me was that 
afterwards published by Mr. Pollard, and with my knowledge 
and approval as V. communis; which same also I, a very few 



CERTAIN VIOIvET NAMUS. 83 

years subsequently, and with Mr. Pollard's cordial assent, put 
forward as V. papilionacca, Pursh.^ Now, when Mr. Bicknell 
informs us that what he is contending for as the real V. ohliqua, 
Hill, "is none other than the common violet we have been taught 
to call Viola affinis, Le Conte," I begin to think Mr. Bicknell 
and I are not at all of two very different opinions as to what plant 
Hill's miserable figure was meant for. But we can not be found 
at actual agreement unless we find . that each has the same V. 
affinis in view, may be not then; I strongly doubt that either 
he, or any other man that has been in New York lately except 
Mr. Pollard has ever seen in its native soil just the plant on which 
I restored, and as it appears quite effectually, the long unknown 
or ignored V. affinis of Le Conte. What I had before me is a 
plant locally plentiful in Maryland and Virginia, but the localities 
are few. It can not, therefore, be called a common violet. For 
the rest, the common plant of the Hudson River Region, and 
across to the Connecticut, at least, by my own repeated obser- 
vation, and which New England people are " taught to call V. 
affinis," is so utterly different habitally, ecologically, and in general 
specific characters, that I await only time and opportunity to 
name and publish it as new; for I am sure it is so, and that from 
my careful field study. It is less like the figure of Hill as to leaf- 
pattern than is my District of Columbia V. affinis. I am not in 
any position to dispute that my V. affinis may reach New Jersey 
and Ivong Island, and that Mr. Bicknell may have met with it. 
But it does not grow far up the Hudson, or the Connecticut, 
where there abounds, as I have said, a beautiful woodland — - 
rather low -woodland — violet of another nature and character, 
which all Connecticut "is taught to call V. affinis." 

I shall now have at once to thank Mr. Bicknell for the infor- 
mation, and humiliate myself in the confession that I think I 
never knew until now that in Britton's Manual of a dozen years 
since Mr. Pollard kad assigned the name V. ohliqua to my Le 
Conte's V. affinis. The apologies for my ignorance are several; 
though I make no apology for the fact that the Manuals and the 
Illustrated Floras are the books least used by me of all. Seldom 
is there anything in them for me. But all the botanical world 
knows that for eight years past the best part of my time and 
strength have been given to work far different in character from 
critical taxonomic work. My few weeks of vacation bring me 



84 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

fine stores of material and notes botanical which lie in their places 
and wait. One thing, however, I must offer in connection with 
Mr. Pollard and the Viola ohliqua matter. It was after I had 
so denounced the Hill figure of the Hortus Kewensis that there 
came into my possession that most priceless of American uniques, 
Le Conte's unpublished plates of violets and bladderworts. In 
this I saw that that author's representation of his I', affinis there 
was that in its leaf-outline which brought it nearer to that of 
V. obliqua, Hill, than was my own " V. ohliqua, Hill?", that is, 
what afterwards became V. communis, Pollard. Here, then, 
was a plant that could with less doubt be identified with V. obliqua 
of the Hortus Kewensis; though still there would be doubt enough 
about it; at least, so I thought. 

I must here interrupt the story of the suppression of V. 
affinis, Le Conte by Mr. Pollard in favor of V. obliqua, in order to 
relate how I came to recognize V. affinis myself. 

When, at the end of my very first season's recreating in Eastern 
botany, mostly done in the valleys of the Potomac and Patapsso 
rivers, I had made those two segregates, " V. obliqtia, Hill?" and 
" V. cucullata, Aiton?" of the Third Volume of Pittonia, I had 
already recognized what I conceived to be two ecological con- 
ditions of my V. ohliqua, the less common plant was found only 
in deeper shades, in moist ground. It had a more elongated 
and acute, as well as much thinner foliage; also a somewhat 
different apetalous flowering and fruiting. Most — though not 
all — of this plant of the long thin foliage was afterwards my V. 
affinis; but I let two more seasons pass, with their opportunities 
for more research, before I ventured to segregate it finally. I 
had quite to my satisfaction identified it by Le Conte's description 
quite anterior to the time when I first saw the unpublished figure 
referred to; and that only confirmed my earlier determination 
of it. 

Now on the arrival in Washington of the Le Conte botanical 
art treasure, as my property, I called Mr. Pollard's attention 
to those longer and more pointed leaves of this plant, as bringing 
it nearer than any other of our violets to the poor figure of Hill's 
V. ohliqua. I recall that Mr. Pollard more than once came back 
to study that particular plate, and finally to make of me the 
remarkable request — I do not like to use the less mild term au- 
dacious in connection with an old and valued friend — that he 



A NEW MIDLAND VIOIvET 85 

be permitted to make a copy of the plate. Doubtless I might 
have forgotten the whole circumstance of my friend's very special 
interest in the fine colored plate under which Le Conte, now ninety 
years since, had written in pencil " V. ajffinis," but for his sur- 
prising request. I now see that Mr. Pollard's purpose was fully 
formed then, to suppress V. affinis in favor of V. obliqua; and I 
repeat, that I never knew he had done so, until now Mr. Bicknell 
has adverted to the fact in print. 

It was never my own thought to displace the name V. affinis 
or any other, and write V. obliqua instead. I do not yet know 
any violet that has the subfalcately cuspidate leaves and perfectly 
serrate foliage — it is even sharply as well as exactly serrate— of 
Hill's figure. An artist's error which amounts to an absolute 
falsification in respect characters held essential should never, 
in my judgment, be permitted to stand as a specific type; and 
I strongly suspect that such an opinion as this, conceived by 
others, had been the reason, and as I think a perfectly valid one, 
for ignoring the V. obliqua as applied by Mr. Pollard in Britton's 
Manual. 

Washington, D. C. 



A New Midland Violet and Some Notes on 'Xleisto- 
gamous'' Flowers. 

{Two Plates.) 



BY J. A. NIEUWLAND. 



Viola candidula Nwd. Sp. Nov. 
Planta verna circa 13 cm. alta perglabra, foliis florum alti- 
tudinem haud aequantibus. Sepala inferiora circa 7 mm. longa 
vix acuta, etiam obtusa, vel plus minusve rotundata, glaberrima, 
obscure 3-nervia, margine anguste scarioso vel membranoso. 
Corolla alba latior quam longior, petalis superioribus latissime 
obtusis suborbicularibus, 12 mm. longis 10 mm. latis, vel latioribus, 
lateralibus breviter sed crebre barbatis pilis longioribus (usque 
1.7 mm.) fere cylindricis acutiusculis vel obtusiusculis, brevioribus 
obtusis vel rotundatis, et omnibus eleganter clavellatis praecipue 
brevioribus (pilis parte inferiore circa 24 ^i et ad apicem 57-99 jU 



86 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

diametro.) (Vide figuram.) PeUilum inferius aspectu reliquis 
subaequilongum, concaviini, obtusissimum vel minute retusum, 
nudum, lineis violaceis supra medium vel apicem versus ramosis 
eleganter notulatis. (Lineae in petalis lateralibus paucae minus 
ramosae et in superioribus tantum binae vel ternae simplices.) 
Bracteolae at medium pedunculi breves lineares subulatae appositae. 
Calcar breve rotundatum purpureis vel violaceis puncticulis ex- 
terius coloratum. 

Flores apetali aestivi, subterranei sed se ad superficiem fructu 
facto erigentes, sepalis 5 verisimiliter subaequalibus acutis, ad 
apicem involutis, et pistillum cum duobus staminibus appresse 
includentibus, stylo longo brevi hamato vel incurvato staminibus 
binis appendiculatis alatis compresso: stigmate binis vel quaternis 
staminum antheris appresso. Aliquando tertium adest parvum et 
omnino sterile stamen inter altera insitum, vel cum duobus vel 
tribus minutis tuberculis ad pistilli basim. Folia prima reni- 
formia, viridescentia, crassula, rotunda, cordata, apice obtuso 
vel rotundato, margine crenato vel obtuse serrato. Folia aestiva 
majora ad apicem plus elongata circa 6.8 cm. lata et usque 7.5 
cm. longa, perglabra, vel cum perpaucis minutis pilis in venis ad 
apicem superficiei. 

In locis humidis sed arenosis inter gramina et carices ad 
stagnorum ripas crescere invenitur. 

Spring plant about 13 cm. high perfectly glabrous growing 
in clumps: leaves never becoming as long as the flowering ped- 
uncles until the summer phase, usually about one half as long. 
Lower sepals about 7 mm. long obtuse or rounded, glabrous, 
obscurely 3-nerved, the margins narrowly scarious or membranous. 
Corolla pure white (!) broader than long: the upper petals broadly 
obtuse or rounded, suborbicular, 12 mm. long, 10 mm. wide or 
wider, the lateral ovate or obovate, obscurely retuse, bearded 
with short and long clavate hairs: (the larger hairs 1.7 mm. long 
about 24 fi wide below, and 57-99 ^i near their apex; the shorter 
ones more obtuse or rounded) (Fig. 4.) Lower petal apparently 
in flower equal in length to the others, concave or somewhat cari- 
nate obtuse or slightly retuse, naked, elegantly striped with cross- 
branched violet lines to above the middle, the striations on the 
lateral and upper petals are much fewer, only about 3 in the 
latter. Bracts short subulate linear on the middle of the peduncle, 



A NEW MIDLAND VIOLET 87 

vSac or spur short, rounded, marked on the outside with minute 
purple dots. 

Apetalous summer flowers subterranean but in their wet 
native habitat rise to the surface where an abundance of seeds 
is formed in the capsules. The petaliferous flowers also produce 
abundant seed. Sepals 5 equal or subequal acute at apex and 
slightly involute in aestivation (Fig. 2a.) completely closed and 
appressed to the pistil. Style short permanently hooked or re- 
curved between the anthers and appendages of the two equal 
stamens. Anther sacs obovoid 2 to 4 in the latter case the two 
inner smaller, opening by a subapical cleft. At times a third per- 
fectly sterile stamen about one half as large as normal is found 
between the two usual ones and several tubercles at the base of 
the ovary mark the other abortive stemens. No trace of petals. 

First leaves dark green, thickish, reniform, later rounded 
cordate, apex rounded or obtuse, or minutely retuse, margin 
crenulate as the lobes below and crenulate serrate above, about 
2.2 cm. wide 2.5 cm. long. 

Summer leaves with a more elongated apex often about 6.8 
cm. wide and 7.5 cm. long, glabrous or when grown in 
dry soil with very few minute short hairs at the apex on the 
upper face or the veins. Habitat wet sandy places near the 
grassy and sedgy shore of lakes. 

This beautiful little plant was first found by me east of Benton 
Harbor, Mich, in spring of 1909 along the shore of the river flood- 
pond. Owing to the markedly white flowers and appearance of the 
broad corolla, several plants were taken and planted in a bed 
near the University Dept. of Botany, together with a number of 
other violets. The plants became notable by their remarkable 
tendency to spread. In the second season numerous seedlings over 
the whole large bed came to maturity and in spite of digging 
and cultivation a considerable number have this spring been 
segregated more carefully to a plot by themselves. This spring 
another visit to Benton Harbor showed that the plant was spread- 
ing there also, though considerably checked by encroachment 
of cultivated land. Several clumps were taken home for study 
of fresh material, and transferred to a special plot in order to 
follow up the subsequent development of latter summer phases, 
and to study the apetalous flowers more carefully. Though the 
flowers are perfectly white they are so very large that one could 



88 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

not consider the plant of the V. hlanda group. Moreover, though 
we at first suspected it to be an albino form of some other blue 
plant, this idea had to be discarded. The other characters of 
flower and vegetation disproved this completely. Albino forms 
of Viola peramoena were found growing not very far away along 
the same pond, but even at that early stage showed no resemblance 
whatever in floral structure. Their subsequent development in 
our garden emphasized this difference even more in the vegetation 
summer phases. Other real albinos and intermediate paler forms 
found by me in woods near the Four Mile Bridge along the St. 
Joseph River, north of South Bend, also exhibited in summer phases 
pubescent large leaved plants not at all like V. candidula. As 
far as I have been able to determine the plant is always white 
flowered. A clump turned over in the meadow by the plowman 
showed a tendency in the flower to become faintly purplish (not 
blue or violet) on the vack of the petals, whereas even then, the 
inside of the corollas were white. The descriptions were made 
from live plants in their native habit. The drawings of petaliferous 
stages were made from such a plant a few days after being taken 
from the field. The study of apetalous stages and flowers was 
made from the same plants grown both in garden, and a potted 
plant in moister situation. The results in each case were the same 
though in the latter case fewer apetalous flowers produced seed 
and more petaliferous ones, and vice versa in the former instances. 
The plant in its native habitat seems to produce its apetalous 
summer flowers above ground: whereas in drier situations these 
are subterranean only, comming above ground after the ovules 
begin to develop. I may select as a type of this new plant No. 
mil of my herbarium collected at Benton Harbor, May 1913,' 
from which the drawings of the accompanying plate were made 
before pressing. I have not as yet found the plant elsewhere. 



There seem to be two widely different opinions as to the devel- 
opment of the so called " cleistogamous" or apetalous summer 
flowers of certain groups of caulescent and acaulescent violets. 
This phenomenon occurs also in the Antoinarias apparently, in 
Polygala polygama and a considerable number of other plants. 
Having studied the matter only in the aformentioned new violet, 
as also in Viola rostrata and a midland member of the Viola 
pedatijida group from Southern Illinois, grown in my violet garden, 



A NEW MIDLAND VIOLET 89 

I do not wish even to hint at any general conclusions regarding 
the phenomenon as supposed to occur in violets generally. 

It has been asserted on the one hand that the so called cleisto- 
gamous or apetalous flowers of violets though they may have 
rudimentary stamens, are entirely devoid of pollen and that there- 
fore no fertilization whatever takes place, that is, in other words 
the ovules in these aestival flowers develop parthenogenetically. 
Others have affirmed that fertilization occurs, therefore pre- 
suming that pollen or its equivalent is formed and that close ferti- 
lization takes place without the opening of the flowers at all. 

Whatever examination has been made of other apetalous 
flowers we need not discuss here. In examining these flowers of 
the new plant for diagnosis we found that two anther bearing 
stamens are always present. The anther sacs are two to four in 
number, in the latter case the two nearest the pistil larger. None 
of them are, however, never more than one-fifth as large as the 
anthers of the petaliferous flowers. The pollen grains though com- 
paratively scanty are more than sufficient to account for the 
fertilization of the numerous ovules. Pollen need not be as copious 
as in the petal-bearing spring flowers for the proximity of the 
two stamens pressed against the stigma obviates waste of pollen 
which in the closed flower can not be readily lost. 

I have found a considerable number of such flowers just in 
the stages in which the enlarging pistil apparently by friction of 
of growth upwards together with the compression of the sepals 
on the outside, causes the rupture of these apparently abortive 
but only more minute anther sacs of the two closely oppressed 
stamens. The pollen was found in these instances in various stages 
of germination of pollen tubes, nearly all of which led to the 
opening in the stigma of the curved or hooked style (See Fig. 3) 
the progress of the pollen tubes farther in was not made. A more 
exact histological study would be necessary. Even after tracing 
the tubes into the ovary, cytological study of the behavior of the 
chromosomes in the oospores alone would serve as final evidence 
when fertilization had actually taken place or not. It would 
seem that the problem would be an interesting and not perhaps 
a difficult one for general and more exact study. 

Developing pollen tubes were found in apetalous flowers 
which were as a rule not over 4 mm. long and not less than 2.5 
mm. In larger flowers the stamens have dried up completely and 



90 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

as soon as the pollen has escaped the apical membranous appendage 
of each stamen becomes red. Simultaneously the petiole begins 
to elongate in the curved portions thus having the two bractlets 
on the recurved peduncles farther away than the apex of the 
sepals. A certain variation of these characters is found in sub- 
terranean and aerial apetalous flowers. In the plant under con- 
sideration as \\ell as of a number of other acaulescent forms where 
the apetalous flowers are born under or near the ground the 
peduncles are recurved below the flower, and the short style is 
always found curved towards the peduncle. The two stamens 
also are on the side of the pistil facing the recurved stalk of the 
flower (See Fig. la). Of all the specimens which I have examined 
in sufficiently early stages of growth, I have found either well 
developed pollen grains in the undehisced anthers or when already 
dehisced, the pollen tubes growing from the grains into the stigma 
and style. I have not found a single apetalous flower entirely 
devoid of well developed stamens. The pollen grains are readily 
seen with the low power of an ordinary compound microscope, 
one inch ocular and two-thirds inch objective. (Fig. 3.) 

Before dehiscence particularly the pollen grains vary greatly 
in size. The walls are not as thick as in those of the petaliferous 
flowers, which average about* 37.5 fi, the variation being only 
two or three microns. Those of the apetalous flowers range 
from 23.7 f.1 to 52 ^ in diameter, and have not the peculiar three 
plate lids on the surface through which the pollen tubes find 
their exit, characteristic of the pollen of the petal bearing flowers. 

Pollen in stages producing pollen tubes were also found in 
the few apetalous aerial flowers of Viola rostafa examined. In this 
the peduncle is not recurved below the flower; the style with more 
or less abruptly recurved stigma is longer and the spatulate stamens 
are five in number instead of the two of the acaulescent forms. 
Should further examination of caulescent and acaulescent violets 
substantiate this variation in number as constant, a new and 
important character of distinction of the groups is presented 
helping to emphasize the fact that they may well be considered, 
as Spach does, to be diff"erent natural genera. 

Plate 2. — Viola candidula Nwd. (Natural size.) Parts of spring flower 
separated. Drawn in late spring phase as the apetalous flowers were beginning 
to appear, one larger summer leaf also shown. Lower right hand corner: 
ovary. Same with stamens in place, upper petal, lateral petal, lower petal . 



LITTORAL ALGAE OF PUGET SOUND • 9 1 

Plate 3. — Parts of apetalous summer flowers, and (fig. 4) hairs of 
lateral petals of spring flowers of Viola candidu'a. 

Fig. I a. — Pistil of apetalous flower with stamens appressed to the 
stigma. (Side view.) A minute sterile stamen on the left between the two 
fertile ones. 

Fig. lb. — A fertile stamen with four anther sacs. Pollen escaping 
from the subapical cleft in the two larger sacs. Rudiment of another sterile 
stamen at the base. [Magnified about 30 diameters]. 

Fig. 2a. — Cross section showing arrangement of the parts of the apeta- 
lous summer flowers. A, position of the recurved petiole. B, sepals, sub- 
equal. C, 2 stamens bearing fertile anthers and inserted always next to the 
petiole A. (The third sterile stamen is ordinarily absent.) D, ovary with 
ovules. 

Fig. 2b. — Front view of pistil with two stamens. (Same as Fig. la of 
another flower without the third sterile stamen.) 

Fig. 3. — Side view of recurved style and stigma showing pollen grains 
sending pollen tubes into the hollow style. 

Fig. 4. — Hairs of the beard of the lateral petals greatly magnified. 
The hairs are spirally striate under high magnification and round, not 
flattened except in age. 

• Dept. of Botafiy, 

University of Notre Dame. 



Some Uttora! Algae of Puget Sound. 

CHAS. O. CHAMBERS. 

The following study was made at the Puget Sound Marine 
Station, during the summer of 1909, mainly in the months of 
July and August. A general survey of the ground had been made 
the previous summer. Its purpose was to determine what types 
of algae inhabit the tide-pools; why they prefer these places 
and how they are specially adapted to such places. The study 
was made with special reference to Prionitis, which seems to be 
the one prevailing type in all these tide-pools, and showing con- 
siderable variation with variety of environment. 

The work was suggested and outlined by Professor T. C. Frye, 
acting director of the Station. No such study had yet been made 
in this region, though a study somewhat similar in its general 
character was made by Skinner (8) at Port Renfrew, B. C. The 
conditions there are quite different, and his study does not attempt 
to relate types to environment, nor is it specially directed to any 



92 • AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

particular form. In the 1906 Postelsia there is a report by Isabel 
Henkel (3) on the tide-pools near I ort Renfrew, B. C. from the 
standpoint of their origin. It is mostly geological in character 
and only incidentally refers to the algae there found. In that place 
the tide-pools are of unusual character, large and deep, mostly 
in sand-stone. In my study the term tide-pool includes anything 
from a few pints to many gallons, left by the receding tide or 
splashed by the spray above tide-mark. 

The plants were identified by comparison with the collection 
at the Station and are named according to Setchell and Gardiner's 
"Algae of North-western America," except Nos. i and 2, which 
were identified and named by comparison with the private collec- 
tion of A. S. Foster of Aberdeen, Wash, and with the collection 
at the University of 111. in which these were named by Professor 
Tilden of the University of Minnesota. No. 3, also, is the name 
given by Professor Tilden to a specim.en from the north end of 
San Juan Island, closely resembling, if not identical with those 
classed by me under that name. There was some doubt as to 
whether all the Prionitis should be classed as variations of one 
species or as distinct species. Setchell, (5) discusses the same 
question in regard to Ulva, holding that it is merely one species, 
with much variation due to differences of environment. 

The list of places named does not pretend to cover the entire 
Sound region but it is fairly typical and sufficiently exhaustive. 
There are no pools at the south end of the Sound, where the shores 
are mostly of clay or gravel. They are best represented about 
the island regions and are most typical where these studies were 
made. In an Ecological study by Wylie (9) of a small rocky 
island off the south end of Lopez Island P. Lyallii is reported 
further south than any point studied by me. Many regions were 
studied or noted that are not included in this report. Only those 
were included which were considered most typical. They were 
mostly made at extreme low tide in order to make comparisons 
possible. They are numbered in the order in which they were 
studied. 

I. Brown's Island, chiefly west side and south end. 

1. Melohesia mar ginata, iormmg reddish-brown incrustations 
on rocks at the high-tide line and in shallow pools. 

2. Peyssonnellia dubia, rather thick incrustations in crevices 



LITTORAL ALGAE OF PUGET SOUND 93 

or other protected places, from mid-tide to lowest visible depths; 
sometimes on loose rocks or shells. 

■ 3. Prionitis lanceolata, in tufts on the margin of the pools. 

4. Prionitis Lyallii, coarser, less divided and lighter colored 
than No. 3 and characteristic of mid-tide or deeper. 

5. Polysiphonia calijornica, growing in fine masses in the 
deeper water; sometimes in shallow water or on loose rocks. 

6. Rhodomela larix, growing in large course masses in deeper 
water, and most abundant at low tide. 

II. Shaw's Island, south end; pools larger, greater variety in 

size, elevation and light relation. 

No. I, almost wholly absent in this region; cause unknown. 

No. 2, good display at lower depths in protected crevices. 

No. 3, abundant at mid-tide, showing marked contrasts in 

size of plants and profusion of branching. 

No. 4, large size, mid fronds nearly a foot long; branching, 
less profuse, lateral; color, yellowish. 
No. 5, a small amount at low tide. 

III. Minnesota Reef, a rock about two miles south-east 
of I. totally submerged at extreme high tide (spring-tide) and 
hence was visited at the ebb of spring-tide. It is very rich in 
amount and variety of material, but is not strictly tide-pool in 
character at all times. 

No. I, very rare and of little importance here. 

No. 2, abundant; some on shells and loose rocks and it could 
be seen at inaccessible depths. 

No. 3, present in considerable quantities, finely divided. 

No. 4, as described in II, good specimens. This varied enough 
to suggest two or three species or varieties. 

No. 5, in great masses; optimum conditions. 

No. 6, as in I. almost below tide-pool conditions. 

No. 7, Ulva lactuca, in medium abundance at low tide. 

No. 8, Gigartina mammilosa, not abundant nor important. 

Corallina and Amphiroa were also found here in considerable 
abundance, but scarcely in tide-pool conditions; hence they will 
receive no further consideration. These have been treated in a 
monograph by Yendo (10). 

IV. Unnamed rock, K mile south of III. This gave the 
same indications as III. with greater variety in Prionitis, as it 
extends above high-tide, affording small pools filled by spray 



94 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

and always exposed to sun and air; consequently warmer than 
pools below the tide-line; sometimes reaching 7o°F. At this and 
the previous place, III., temperatures were taken; they ranged 
from 53°F to 63°F. Thus, allowing lo ft. between low and high 
(it is nearly 12 ft.) there is an average difference of 1° for each 
ft. of altitude. 

V. Argyle Bay. This is really the outlet to a large pond or 
basin that is drained almost completely when tides are lowest. 
The flood comes in over an expanse of w^arm gravel and the pool 
is shallow so the water may reach at times a temperature of 60° 
to 7o°F. At the outlet the water is constantly flowing either in 
or out with considerable current, thus renewing the air and food 
supplies. 

Nos. I and 2 are not found here as the banks are loose gravel 
instead of soHd rock; and the quiet water conditions of other places 
do not exist. 

No. 4, however, is found attached to large pebbles on the 
bottom and attaining great size; fronds over a foot in length and 
over an inch in width. 

No. 5, also in great abundance fastened to pebbles. 

Nos. 6, 7 and 8, though present are rare and not important, 
but No. 9, Entermorpha linza finds this a most congenial place. 

VI. Roche Harbor, Henry Island and Ship Island. These 
show nothing new and are of interest only in so far as they confirm 
the conclusions already reached in the study of Prioniiis and its 
variations elsewhere. 

VII. "Gull Rocks," just off west side of Waldron Island. 
Excellent pools, varying in size and altitude, but containing almost 
nothing of interest except Prioniiis. The conditions as to altitude, 
temperature, etc., are similar to those described under iV. 

VIII. Kanaka Bay, also known as False Bay, south end of 
San Juan Island, drains completely at extreme low tide, when 
study was made east side of entrance. 

This afforded a number of small pools and one larger than 
any found elsewhere; especially good. Although there is a great 
variety of material in this region there was nothing new in tide- 
pool conditions, except 10, Soranthcra sp. Prioniiis shows a greater 
variety of size and form here than possibly in any other place 
examined. It is doubtful whether it could all be classed under 
the two species, 3 and 4. Possibly it should all be classed as one 



LITTORAL ALGAB OF PUGET SOUND 95 

species with much variation due to difference of environment. 

IX. Sucia Islands, south side. 

This was excellent ground for this study. The rock is softer 
and larger pools have been worn in them. They are more exposed 
to the sweep and surge of the tide and surf and better test the 
character of Prioniis. This region is a resume of all the others 
with enough new features to settle some of the problems raised 
by them. In other places the plants were more protected, which 
seemed to account for the presence of Prionitis rather than the 
higher temperatures or better light exposures. Long troughs 
are cut in the sea-floor which retain sufficient water at lowtide 
to support large quantities of Prionitis, but none is found there, 
evidently because the waves and tide sweeping the full length 
of the troughs sweep out this seemingly fragile plant, which is 
not adapted to such a strenuous existence. Why it has not become 
so adapted is another question. 

DISCUSSION. 

Prionitis is probably the only alga found exclusively in tide- 
pools and not elsewhere. It is found outside of tide-pools, properly 
so called and at greater depths than these, but in tide-pool con- 
ditions, essentially, and hence real tide-pools. Rhodomela seems 
to prefer the pools and probably for the same reason as Prionitis. 
Although abundant and nearly always found associated with the 
former, it is also found in crevices and protected places, in essen- 
tially tide-pool conditions, but deeper than its associate. It seems 
to shun extreme light and higher temperatures, which are found 
at higher altitudes. I thought at first that the plant went deeper 
only to find a firmer anchorage and shunned loose rocks, but I 
afterwards found it on rock fragments and shells; but these must, 
however, be protected from rolling and abrasion. 

Prionitis is also more abundant where Rhodomela or like 
plants are present to afford protection; whether as points of 
attachment for young plants or later against strong currents 
is not apparent. It is preeminently not a surge-plant. It must 
have a protected nook or hollow. It does not grow on a sloping 
ledge as does Calpomenia; nor on a sheer rock wall as does Fucus; 
nor on a surf-beaten shore as does Postelsia. It exudes no slime 
and can not endure exposure to the air as does Fucus. It must grow 
in a pool or some protected place where it may secure much flowing 



96 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

water, as at Argyle Bay, and frequent exposure to the air for a 
short time is advantageous. Exposure to light seems to be of 
secondary importance. 

Its presence in tide-pools may be due, in part to the abundance 
of animal life there, such as small crabs, snails, etc., which would 
furnish abundant Coj and preserve the well-known balance of 
plant and animal life. According to this view, however, if true, 
Prionitis should be able to grow in the center of pools as well as 
on the margins; but there it is not found. Possibly the gases 
accumulate on the margin. This point was not investigated for 
want of apparatus. This would be interesting and perhaps a 
profitable point for future investigation. 

It was suggested at the outset that the difference in dis- 
section, greatest at the top or upper tide-line and above, might 
be an adaptation to higher temperatures which would diminish 
the amount of gas and hence call for more exposure surface, which 
could be accomplished by more minute dissection of the fronds. 
This, however, does not seem to be true. In fact the opposite 
tendency is shown by Theoderesco (7) who, using certain liver- 
worts for his investigations, found that the fronds of the thallus 
became shortened and more dissected when the concentration of 
the CO2 was increased. 

This question was later taken up by the writer (2) in a some- 
what extensive study on freshwater algae in which it appears 
that the plant body becomes more compact when the CO2 accu- 
mulates and that the alga is much concerned with its oxygen 
relation as well as with that of CO2. 

In this connection I would cite the luxuriant growth of Ulva 
and Alaria at Olga and at Cattle Point, in the quiet shallow bays 
where the water becomes quite warm, 64°F. or more. These, with 
their broad thin leaves, are not adapted to rough water nor even 
to a strong current, but to quiet shallow bays with a pebbly 
bottom. 

The finer dissection of Prionitis at the higher altitudes seems 
to be an adaptation to meet the force of the surf and strong currents, 
while the broad, simple fronds of the deeper levels are adapted to 
more quiet waters, and are especially prominent at Argyle Bay, 
where there is no surf but only a strong uniformly flowing current 
which rapidly renews the supply of CO2 without the danger of 
dislodgement or tearing. It is worthy of note that the light ex- 



LITTORAL algae; OF PUGET SOUND 97 

posure is as great here as elsewhere. Rigg (4) mentions the fact 
that certain kelps show a variation in thickness and other features 
of form, coordinate with different degrees of exposure to violence 
of waves. Whether the dark brown color of the topmost plants, as 
contrasted with the yellowish tinge of the lower ones could be 
a color adaptation was not considered. 

Setchell (6) mentions this color variation in kelps with increase 
of depth but does not offer any explanation nor suggest any idea 
of adaptation. Blackman (i) however, agrees with Gaidukov in 
the notion that the yellow color found in deeper waters is a chro- 
matic adaptation to the complementary color of the rays coming 
through the blue water. 

The problem of Prionitis, then, seems not to be so much the 
procuring of greater light and a warmer temperature but the supply 
and exchange of gases. In the pools the plants could attach them- 
selves to the bottom as well as to the margin; but air and pre- 
sumably CO2 are not available at the bottom. So it seems that 
the small plants must begin life and the adults continue to remain 
around the margins, where gases are available and to do this must 
adapt themselves to a life of exposure on the one hand by increased 
dissection of the fronds, increased toughness and darker color and 
diminished size while the opposite of these are suited to a sheltered 
Hfe. 

CONCLUSION. 

1. Prionitis is adapted to a considerable range of tempera- 
ture, but seems to prefer the warmer places. 

2. Rhodomela is adapted to nearly as wide a range of tem- 
perature, but seems to prefer the cooler places. 

3. Both seek protected nooks and pools. 

4. The problem of Prionitis seems to be that of food (CO2) 
and shelter rather than of heat and light. 

LITERATURE. 

1. Blackman, F. F. Chromatic adaptation. New Phytolo- 
gist 3: 237-242. 1904. 

2. Chambers, C. O. The relation of algae to dissolved oxygen 
and carbon dioxide. Ann. Report Mo. Bot. Garden 23: 
171-207. 1912. 

3. Henkel, Isabel. A study of the tide pools on the west 



9^ AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

coast of Vancouver island. Postelsia, Year Book Minn. 
Seaside Station 1906: 277-304. 1906. 

4. Rigg, G. B. Ecological and economic notes on Puget 
Sound kelps. Senate Document No 190: 179-193. 1912. 

5. Setchell, W. A. and Gardner, N. L. Algae of northwestern 

America. Univ. Cal. Pub. Bot. I. 165-418. 1903. 

6. Setchell, W. A. Kelps of the United States and Alaska. 

Senate Document No. 190: 130-178. 191 2. 

7. Teodoresco, M. E. C. Influence de I'acide carbonique sur 
la forme et la structure des plantes. Rev. Gen. de. Bot. 
11: 445-470. 1899. 

8. Skinner, S. A. Observations on the tide pool vegetation 
of Port Renfrevi^. Minn. Bot. Studies 3rd ser. Pt. II. 

145-155- 1903- 

9. Wylie, R. B. The Flora of Iowa rock. Proc. Acad. Sci. 

16: 99-101. 1910. 

10. Yendo, K. Corallinae verae of Port Renfrew. Minn. 
Bot. Studies 2nd ser. Pt. 6. 1902. 



Notes on Our Local Plants. IV. 

BY J. A. NIEUWLAND. 

Order 11. XYRIDALES. 

Britten, Man. 2nd. ed. p. 234. (1906.) 

Family 24. XYRIDEAE Salisb. Trans. Hort. Soc. i, p. 326, 
(1812). H. B. K. Nov. Gen. I., p. 203, (1815). Dum. An. Fam., 
p. 55, (1929), Agardh, Aphor. Bartling Ord. Nat., p. 23 and 27, 
(1830), also Spach, Hist. Nat., p. 131, (1846). Desv. Ann. Sc. 
Nat. V. 13, p. 149, (1836). Xyridaceae Lindley Nat. Syst. ed. 2, 
p. 388, (1836). 

KOTSJILLETTIA Adans. Fam. des Plantes, 2, p. 60, (1763) 
ex Rheede. Hort. Mai. 9, t. 7, p. 139. 

Xyris Gronovius. Fl. Virg. p. 11, (1739), also Fl. Zeylan. 
p. 35. Linnaeus, Gen. PI. p. 11, (1737)', p. 24, (1742). Sp. PI. 

' Referred by Linnaeus to Gronovius here, and hence credited aliove 
to that author, even though first found used by the former. 



NOTES ON OUR LOCAL PLANTS 99 

p. 42, (1753). Syst. p. 91, (17.56). Van Royen, Fl. Leyd. p. 20, 
(1740J. not \yris of Theophrastus, Dioscorides, Gesner, Parkin- 
son, p. 256, C1629), nor of pre-Linnaean authors generally — Iris 
foetidissima Linn. Schizmaxon Steudel, Bot. Zeit., p. 391, (1856). 
An hoc seg. (?) Jupica, Ramotha, Synoliga Raf. Fl. Tell. II., p. 15, 
(1836). 

Kotsjillettia fiexuosa (Muhl.) 

Xyris flexuosa Muhl. Cat. 5, (1813). 

Laporte Co. (Barnes), Lake Co. (Hill), Lake Maxinkuckee 
[Marshal Co.] (H. W. Clarke), Sheffield, Ind. [Lake Co.] (Higley 
& Raddin), Tamarack [Lake Co.], Mineral Springs [Porter Co.). 

Family 2,5 ERIOCAULONEAE L. C. Rich. An. Mus. 
Paris, V. 17, p. .52, (181 ij. 

Eriocauleae Dum. An. Fam. p. 55, (1829) also Bartling, 
Ic. p. 36, as a subfamily. 

Eriocaulaceae Lindley, Veg. Kingd. p. 122, (1847). 

ERIOCAULON Plukenett, Amalth. t. 409, f. 5, (170.5). 

Eriocaulon Linn. Gen. Pi. p. 35, (1742); p. 38, (17.54); ^Y^t 
Nat. p. 92, (17,56); Sp. PI. p. 87, C1753); Gronovius Fl. Virg. p 
13, 14, C1739. Randalia Petiver, Gaz. t. 6, f. 2, (1702, 1769) 
also Beauv. ex Desv. Ann. Sc. Nat. Ser. I., p. 47, t. 5, XIII., (1828) 

Eriocaulon septangulare With. Bot. Arr. Brit. PI. ]>. 784, C1776) 
Nasmythia ariiculata Huds. Fl. Angl. Ed. 2., p. 415, (1778) 

Eriocaulon ariiculaium (Huds.) Morong. Bull. Torr. CI. 18, p 

3.53, (1891). 

[Laporte Co.], (Hill); Bass Lake, [Marshall Co.]; vSt. Joseph 

River, [St. Joseph Co.]; Mineral Springs, [Porter Co.]; Bankson 

Lake, [Van Buren Co., Mich.]; N. D. U. Herb. 2430, 2254, and 9503. 

Family 26. COMMELYNEAE R. Brown. (1810). 

Commelinaceae Reichenb. Consp. p. 57, (1828), also Lindley 
Xat. Syst. Ed. 2, p. 354, (1836). Commelynaceae C. B. Clarke 
Monogr. Phaner. III., p. 131, (1881). 

COMMELINA Plumier Nov. PI. Am. Gen. p. 48, (1703); 
also Linn. vSyst. (1735); On- ^'1- P- 21, (1737); P- 23, (1742); 
p. 2,5, (1754); Hort. ClifT. p. 21, (1737); Sp. Pi. 40, (i753>); Van 
Royen, Hort. Leyd. p. 38, (i74£>); Boerhaave, Ind. Alt. PI. p. 237, 
(1720), (1727)- 



lOO AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

Commelina virginica Linn. vSp. PI. ed. 2, p. 61, (1762). 

St. Joseph and Benton Harbor, Mich. [Berrien Co.];Lake 
Co.], (Hill). Miller's [Lake Co.] Babcock. vSt. Mary's [vSt. Joseph 
Co.] N. D. Herb. 9415. I have found it in several other places 
in the county notably at South Bend where it escaped from gardens. 
The plant, appears every year around dumps and in barnyards 
along fences, when once established. 

TRADESCANTIA Linn. Syst. (1755); Gen. PI. p. 98, (1737); 
P- 37, (1742); p. 38, (1754); Hort. CHff. p. 126, (1737); vSp. 
PI. p. 288, (1753); Van Royen Lugd. p. 37, (1740). 

Ephemerum Morison, Oxon. p. 506, (1635): Tour. Els. Bot. 
p. 295, (1694); L R. H. p. 357, (1700); Moench. Meth. p. 23, 
(1794) not Ephemerum Dioscorides = Polygonatum m,uUiflortim, nor 
Ephemerum Theophrastus. Ephemera- phalangium^ Magnol Charact. 
p. 241, (1720). 

Tradescantia virginica Linn. Sp. PI. p. 288, (1753), Ephemerum 
congestum Moench. Ic. p. 238. 

Found by me only in the dune region of Lake Michigan at 
Dune Park, Ind. [Lake Co.]; also at Millers, Ind. The plant is 
much smaller than the following for which it is often taken. The 
plant may even be distinct from the eastern type. 

Tradescantia refiexa Raf. New Fl. N. Am. IL, p. 87, (1836). 

Lake Maxinkuckee, (H. B. Clarke) (?) probably. Clarke, 
[Lake Co.] (Umbach); [Marshall Co.] (Deam) ; [St. Joseph Co. 
(Powers); N. D. Herb. No. 1953; Chain Lake [St. Joseph Co.] 
N. D. Herb. No. 2087. A perfectly white flowered specimen 
was collected near Warwick [vSt. Joseph Co.]. The bracts of the 
involucre are not reflexed.^ I have found this common plant in 
all the counties with the range of the notes, and in numerous 
places in every county. 

Family 27. PONTEDEREAE H. B. K. Nov. Gen. 
and Sp., I, p. 265, (1815). 

Pontederiaceae Dum. An. Fam. PI. p. 59, (1829); also Meisner, 
Gen. p. 298 [300], (1842), etc. 

^ Name ineligible because too long and composite. 
^ Am. Mid. Nat., Vol. 2, p. 265. 



NOTES ON OUR LOCAL PLANTS Id 

NARUKILA Rheede H. M. v. ii. t. 34, (1692); also Adans. 
Fam. des. Pi. p. 54, (1763). 

PoNTEDERiA Linn. Syst. (1735), Gen. Pi. p. 102, (1737); 
p. 138, (1742); p- 140, (1754); Hort. Cliff, p. 133, (1737); Sp. 
PI. p. 288, (1753); Gronovius, Fl. Virg. p. 37, (1739). Michelia 
Houston, ex Linn. Gen. Pi. (1742) p. 138 MSS. ined usque (1784- 
1791) not Michelia Linn. vSyst. (1735) and p. 118 Syst. (1756), 
nor Linn. Gem. p. 119, (1756), nor Sp. PI. 577, (i753)- 

Narukila cordata (Linn.). 

PoNTEDERiA CORDATA Linn. Sp. PI. 1. c. 

Miller's Ind. (Umbach); [Laporte Co.] Barnes; [Lake Co.] 
(Deam); [Marshall Co.] (Coulter); Lake Maxinkuckee, H. B. 
Clarke; Miller's, Ind., U. N. D. Herb. No. 2153; Hudson Lake 
[Laporte Co.] No. 741 ; Bankson Lake, No. 656. I have found it 
in every county. 

Narukila cordata var. lancifolia (Muhl.). 

Pontederia cordata var. lancifolia (Muhl.) Morong. Mem. Torr. 
CI. 5: 4). 105, (1896). Pontederia lancifolia Muhl. Cat. 34, (1813). 
A good specimen from Millers, Ind. collected by Umbach is in 
the U. S. National Herbarium. 

HETERANTHERA R. & P. Fl. Peruv. & Chil. Pr. p. 9, 

(1794)- 

Schollera Schreb. Gen. p. 785, (1789), not Schollera Roth. 
Tent. Fl. Ger. i. p. 165, 170, (1788). 

Heteranthera dubia (Jacq.) MacM. Met. Minn. p. 138, (1892). 

[Laporte Co.] Barnes; Lake Maxinkuckee [Marshall Co.], H. W. 
Clarke. 

Order 12. LILIALES. 

Britten, Man. p. 244, (1905) in part. • 

Family 28. JUNCOIDEAE Gerard, Fl. Gallo Pr. p. 

138,(1761). 

Juncaceae Vent. Tabl. 2, p. 150, (1799). 

J UNCUS Pliny, Hist. Nat. and of all pre-Linnaean writers. 

Juncus Tour. Els. Bot. p. 212, (1694); I. R. H. p. 246, (1700); 
Linn. vSyst. (1735); Gen. Pi. p. 104, (1737); p. 150, (1742); p- 
152, (1754); Sp. Pi. p. 325, (1753)- 



102 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

Juncus efifusus Linn. Sp. PI. p. 326, (1753). 

Lake Maxinkiickee, (H. W. Clarke); [Lake Co.] (Hill); [La- 
porte Co.] (Deam); etc. I have found it in all the counties in the 
range. No. 9347, Notre Dame. 

Juncus balticus Willd. Bed. Mag. 3. p. 298, (1809). 

[Lake Co.] (Hill); [Lake & Laporte Cos.] (Deam); Millers, 
Ind. [Lake Co.]; No. 581 and 9347, U. N. D. Herb.; Tamarack 
and Mineral Springs [Porter Co.]; [Van Buren Co. and Berrien 
Co.], Mich. 

Juncus bufonius Linn. Sp. PI. p. 328, (1753). 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke); [Porter Co.] (Deam); 
[St. Joseph Co.]; Tamarack [Porter Co.]; Benton Harbor [Berrien 
Co., Mich.]; [Van Buren Co., Mich.]. 

Juncus tenuis Willd. Sp. PI. 2, p. 214, (1799). 

[Lake Co.] (Hill); Notre Dame, N. D. Herb. 276 and 9309; 
Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke). I have found it in every 
county. 

Juncus Greenii Oakes & Tuckem. Am. Jr. Sci. 45 p. 37, (1843). 
[Lake Co.] (Hill); Miller's, (Bastin) ; Whiting, Ind. [Lake 
Co.] (Higley and Raddin). 

Juncus marginatus Rostk. Monog. June. 38, pi. 2, f. 3, (1801). 
[Lak'e Co.] (Deam); Whiting, Ind. [Lake Co.] (Higley & 
Raddin). 

Juncus canadensis J. Gray. Laharpe, Monog. June. p. 134, 
(1825). 

Lake Maxinkuckee (L. C. Clarke); [Laporte Co.] (Deam); 
Millers (Hill) also (Higley & Raddin); Tolleston & Pine (Hill). 

Juncu? pelocarpus E. Meyer, Syn. Luz. p. 30, (1823). 

Fish Trap Lake, [Laporte Co.] (Deam) ; [Laporte Co.] (Barnes). 

Juncus robustus (Engelm.) Coville in Britton, 111. Fl. N. 
Am. I. p. 395. 

Lake Maxinkuckee (L. C. Clarke). 

Juncus richardsonianus Schult. in R. and S. Syst. 7, p. 201, 
(1829). 

[Lake Co.] (Deam, also Hill] ; Colehour & Casella, Ind., Sheffield 
Ind. (HUl). 



NOTES ON OUR LOCAL PLANTS IO3 

Juncus nodosus Linn., Sp. PL Ed. 2, p. 466, (1762). 

[Lake Co.] (Hill); Millers (Hill); Berry Lake [Lake Co.] 
(Higley & Raddin) ; Notre Dame, South Bend, Webster's Crossing, 
etc. [St. Joseph Co.]. Nos. 11207 and 11 208. Very common. 

Juncus Torreyi Coville, Mem. Torr. CI. 22, p. 303, (18S5). 
[Laporte Co.] (Deam) ; [Lake Co.] (Beam also Hill.) 

Juncus brachycarpus Engelm. Trans. St. Louis Acad. 2, p. 
467, (1868). 

[Marshall Co.] (Deam). 

Juncus scirpoides Lam. Encyc. Meth. Bot. 3, p. 267, (1789). 
[Laporte Co.] (Hill); Tolleston (Hill) ; Millers (Bastin). 

Juncus brachycephalus (Engelm.) Buch. in Engelm. Bot. 
Jahrb. 12. p. 268, (1890). 

Juncus canadensis var. brachycephalus Engelm. Trans. St. 
Louis Acad. 2, p. 474, (1868). 

[Lake Co.] (Deam); [Laporte Co.] (S. Coulter). 

Juncus Dudley! Wiegand, Bull Borr. Bot. CI. p. 524, (1900). 
[Laporte Co.] (Deam). 

Juncus acuminatus Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. I, p. 192, (1803). 
Millers,' (Hill) ; Lake Maxinkuckee (L. C. Clarke) ; Pine, Ind. 
(Higley & Raddin). 

LUZULA Anguillara, Semp. (1561) also Luzula De Candolle, 
Fl. Fr. 3, p. 158, (1805); Cyperella V. Cordus, Annot. (1561); 
also Conrad Gesner, Hort. Germ. (1561); Luciola Caesalpinus De 
Plantis, p. 185, (1583); also Smith Engl. Fl. p. 177, (1824); 
JuNCOiDES Micheli Nov. PL Gen. p., (1729); also Moehring, and 
Adanson, Fam. des PL p. 47, (1763); Scheuchzer, Agrost. p. 310, 
(1719) & (1775) ; Juncodes O. Kuntze. Rev. Gen. IL, p. 722, (1891). 
Ischaemon Schmiedel in Ges., Hist. PL p. 13, (1759), not I schae mum 
Linn. Gen. PL, p. 529, (1742), nor Sp. PL 

Luzula campestris (Linn.) D. C. 1. c. 

Juncus caynpestris Linn., Sp. PL p. 329, (1753). 

Juyicoid.es campestre (Linn.) Britton. Fl. N. Am. i, 398, (1896). 

Lake Maxinkuckee (Clarke) ; I have found the plant in all 

the counties in the range. Very common and abundant. U. N. D. 

Herb. No. 3315; Benton Harbor, Mich. [Berrien Co.], No. 10099; 

iiioSand 11106, Mineral Springs [Porter Co.]; No. 9142 Stude- 



104 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

baker's Woods, South Bend, [St. Joseph Co.]; Nos. 11058, 11 152 
and 91 15 North of Notre Dame. 

Luzula saltuensis Fernald. Gray's Man. 7th Ed. p. 279, (1908). 

I have found this plant only in two widely different places. 
East of Benton Harbor [Berrien Co.], Mich. No. 11032, and North 
of Notre Dame at Webster's Crossing, No. 11199, U. N. D. Herb. 

Family 29. MELANTHACEAE R. Brown Prod. I, 

p 272, (1810). 

Melanthidcae Dum. Comm. Bot. p. 66, (1823); also Fl. Belg. 
p. 141, (1827). 

TOFIELDIA Hudson, FI. Augh. Ed. 2, p. 157, (1778). 

Tofieldia glutinosa (Michx.) Person, Syn. I, p. 399, (1805). 
Narthccium glutinosum Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. i, p. 210, (1803). 
[Lake Co.] (Hill, also Deam) ; Pine, Millers & Edgemoor 
(Higley & Raddin). 

UVULARIA Linn. Gen. PI. p. 95, (1737); p. 143, (1742; p. 144, 
(1754); Hort. Cliff, p. 121, (1737); Sp. PI. p. 304, (1753); Van 
Royen, Hort. Lugd. p. 29, (1740). 

Uvularia grandiflora J. E. Smith, ex. Bot. i, p. 99, pi. 51, 
( 1 894-1 805). 

[Laporte Co.] (Deam). Common in all the counties. U. N. D. 
Herb., 3243, 1988, 1989. Notre Dame (Powers), No. 2718; Stephens- 
ville [Berrien Co.), Mich. 

MELANTHIUM Linn., Gen. PI. p. 524, (1742); Sp. PI. 
P- 339, (1753)- 

Melanthium virginicum Linn., Sp. PI. 1. c. 

West of South Bend, Ind. [St. Joseph Co.]; N. D. U. Herb., 
No. 2746. Still rather abundant but will soon diappear by reason 
of draining of swamps, and encroachment of cultivation. 

Family 30. ALLIACEAE Batsch, also Alliaceae Dum. An. 
Fam. p. 61, (1829) as a tribe of Liliaceae. Cepacac Salisb., Gen. 
PI. Lir. p. 88, (1866) as order. Allieae Kunth, Enum. pi. 4, p. 
379, (1843). 

VALIDALLIUM Small, Fl. S. E. U. S. p. 264, (1903). 
AgUtheis Raf. Fl. Tell. IL, p. 17, (1836)? or Gcboscon Raf. 



NOTES ON OUR IvOCAL PLANTS I05 

Cat. 14, (1824), Fl. Tell. (?) 1. c. Adest quaedam confusio et 
nomina incerta? 

Allium Linn. 1. c. in part. 

Validallium tricoccum (Ait.) Small 1. c. 

Allium tricoccum Ait. Hort. Kew. i, p. 428, (1789). 

[Porter Co.] Deam) ; N. Liberty, Ind. [St. Joseph Co.]; N. D. U. 
Herb. N. 527, 827. I have found it also at Lapaz Junction [Marshall 
Co.]; No. 1 1 206 S. of South Bend, Studebaker's Woods [St. Joseph 
Co.]; Munich and Scottdale, Mich. [Berrien Co.]. 

ALLIUM PLINY. 

Allium Tournefort, Els. Bot. p. 304, (1694), also L R. H., 
p. 383, (1700); Linn. Syst. (1735); Gen. Pi. p. 103, (1737); p. 
141, (1742); p. 143. (1754); Sp. PI. p. 294, (1753); Royen, Hort. 
Ludg. p. 38, (1740); and of all the pre-Linnaeans generally. 

Old genus CaluprEna Salisb, 1. c. p. 89. 

Allium cernuum Roth. Roem. Arch, i, pt. 3, p. 40, (1798). 

Lake Maxinkuckee (Clarke); [Lake Co.] (Hill); [St. Joseph 
Co.] (Barnes). Abundant in places. I have found it in Porter, 
St. Joseph, Laporte, Berrien and Van Buren Co., U. N. D. Herb. 
9326, 899, 2758. 

Allium canadense Linn., Sp. PI. p. 1195, (1753). 
Granger, Ind. [St. Joseph Co.]; also [Elkhart Co.]; Notre 
Dame No. 11 209. 

Old Genus Hexonychia Salisb. p. 88, 1. c. 

Allium stellatum Ker., Bot. Mag. pi. 1576, (1813). 
In Kosciusko Co., ace. to State Cat. 

Allium vineale Linn. Sp. PI., p. 299, (1753). 
[St. Joseph Co., also Berrien Co.], scarce. 

Family 31. LILIACEAE Clusius, Panon. p. 231, (1585); 
Linnaeus, Phil. Bot. p. 28, (1751); also p. 28, (1755); Zinn, Cat. 
PI. Gott. p. 89, (1754) in part Haller. Enum. Pi. Hort. Gott. p. 

19. (1753)- 

Asphodeleae Bartl. Ord. Nat. Pi. p. 49, (1830). 

Subfamily. Tulipaceae. Bart. 1. c. p. 50. 
Lilioideae Engl. Fuhrer Bot. Gart. Bres. p. 25, (1886). 



I06 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

LILIUM Pliny, Vergil, Columella, X. 99, etc. 

Lirion Theophrastus, Theocritus; Lirium Linnaeus Syst. 
(1735); Hort. Cliff, p. 120, (1737); Krinon Dioscorides, 3, 116. 
Lilium J. Bauhin. Tour. Els. Bot. p. 297. (1694), I. R. H. p. 369, 
(1700); LiLiUM Linn., Gen. PI. p. 91, (1737); p. 142, (1742); 
p. 143, (1754); Sp. PI. p. 202, (1753)- 

Lilium umbellatum Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. o, 22s, (1814). 

Lilium andinum Nutt. Fras. Cat. (1813) nomen nudum. 

Olivers, West of South Bend. Meadow and Railroad U. N. D. 
Herb. No. 2741 and 2742. 

Lilium canadense Linn., Sp. PI. p. 303, (1753). 

Lake Maxinkuckee, (Clarke), also [Marshall Co.] (Deam). 

Lilium superbum Linn., Sp. PI. Ed. 2, p. 434, (1762). 

[Laporte and St. Joseph Cos.] (Barnes) ; Notre Dame, Ind. 
U. N. D. Herb. No. 1821; Bankson Lake, Mich. [Van Buren Co.]; 
Nos. 2334, 9093 U. N. D. Herb. I have found this in Porter, 
Elkhart, Berrien, Lake and Laporte counties also. Rather common 
and abundant. 

Lilium tigrinum Andr. Bot. Rep. 9, (1809). 
Escape into the woods at Notre Dame, growing perfectly wild 
and maintaining itself as also spreading. 

ERYTHRONIUM Lobelius, Obs. p. 97, (1576). 

Erythronium Linn., Syst. (1735); Hort. Cliff, p. 19, (1737); 
Gen. PI. p. 92, (1737); p. 142, (1742); p. 145, (1754); Sp. PI. 
P- 305. (1753)- Dentali Clusius Hist. Stirp. Pannon. p. 228, (1583); 
Dens canis Tonr . Els. Bot. p. 301, (1694); L R. H. p. 378, (1700); 
Mithridatium Adans. Fam. p. 48, (1763). 

Erythronium albidum Nutt. Gen. i, p. 223, (1818). 

Lake Maxinkuckee (Clarke). I have found the plant at Notre 
Dame, along the St. Joseph River in low woodland. The specimens 
are not abundant and are fast disappearing so that it can be 
considered as quite rare. 

Erythronium americanum Ker. Bot. Mag. pi. 1113, (June, 
1808). 

Erythronium augustatum Raf. Med. Rep. 2, 5, p. 354, (July 
1808). 

Notre Dame, Ind.; Navarre Place; U. N. D. Herb., No. 1915; 
Mud Lake, 7 miles N. of Lydick, Ind.; [St. Joseph Co.] No, 807; 



NOTES ON OUR LOCAL PLANTS IO7 

Studebaker's Woods, South Bend, No. 9426; Munich, Mich., 
[Berrien Co.], No. 9216. I have found the plant in all the counties 
without collecting or out of the season of flower or fruit. At 
Munich, Mich., specimens with black anthers and stamens were 
growing together with others having yellow ones. No other notable 
differences were observed in the plants. No. iioio Lapaz Junction. 

vSubfamily ScillEae Reichenb. Consp. p. 65, (1828) in 
Ornitho galeae Salisb. 1. c. 

ORN IT HOG ALUM Nicander, Dioscorides. 

Ornithogalum Linn., Syst. (1735); Hort. Cliff, p. 124, (1737); 
Gen. PI. p. 95, (1737); P- 145, (1742); p. 145, (1754); Tour. 
Els. Bot. p. 301, (1694); I. R. H., p. 378, (1700); Stellaris Dillen, 
Gen. no. Celsia Heister, Syst. p. 86, also Syst. p. 5, (1748). 

Ornithogalum umbellatum Linn. Sp. PI., 307, (1753). 
Escaped at Notre Dame, Ind., also St. Joseph, Mich. 

MUSCARI Clusius, Pannon, p. 202, (1,583). 

Muscari P. Miller, Gard. Diet., ed. 7, (1759); Botryphile 
Salisb. Gen. Pi., p. 25, (1866); Botryanthus Kunth, Enum., Pi., 
4, p. 310, (1843) as a segregate. 

Muscari botryoides (Clusius) Miller. Gard. Die. ed. 8, (1768) 
Hyacinthus botryoides Clusius 1. c. p. 204, (1583); also Linn., 

Sp. PI. p. 318, (1753)- 

Escaped at Notre Dame. It does not spread as readily as the 
following. Bertrand [Berrien Co.], Mich. 

Muscari racemosum (Linn.) Miller 1. c. Hyacinthus racemosus 
Linn. 1. c. 

Very well established in a sandy field N. W. of St. Mary's, 
Notre Dame, and spreading along a road very fast. No. 11034. 

Subfamily. AlETRoideae. Engler and Prantl. Pflanz. Fam. 
2, 5, p. 85, (1886). 

ALETRIS Linn., Nov. Gen. Pi. p. 15, (1751); Gen. Pi. p. 
149, (1754); Sp. PI. p. 319, (1753); also Alethris Amoen. Acad. 
IIL, p. II, (1756). 

Aletris farinosa Linn. 1. c, also Amoen. Acad. 1. c. 

[St. Joseph Co.] Barnes; [Lake Co.] Blatchley also Deam; 
St. Joseph Co. and Elkhart Co.; U. N. D. Herb., No. 73; Dune 
Park [Lake Co.] No. 9745. 



Io8 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

Subfamily. Hemerocallideae Bart. 1. c. p. 50. 
Hemerocallideae Dum. Com. Bot. p. 66, (1823). 

HEM EROC ALUS Dioscorides. 

Cynorrodium or Cannarhodium Gesner. Hort. Germ. p. 245, 
(1561); Hemerocallis Linn., Syst. (1735); Hort. CliflF. p. 128, 
(1737); Gen. PI. p. 98, (1737); P- 148, (1742); p. 151. (1754); 
Sp. PI. p. 324, (1753), Liliasphodclus Tour. El.s Bot. p. 279, 
(1694). Lilio-Asphodelus Tour. I. R. H. p. 299, (1700); also 
Liliaspodclus Clusius Hist. St. Pannon., p. 143, (1583). Cameraria 
Boehmer: Ludw. Def. Pi. Gen. Pi. p. 56, (1760). 

Hemerocallis fulva Linn. Sp. Pi. ed. 2, p. 462, (1762); Hemer- 
ocallis Lilio-Asphodelus fulvus Linn. Sp. Pi. p. 324, (1753). 

Extensively escaped from gardens. Considered quite a weed. 
Notre Dame, South Bend, Michigan City [Laporte Co), St. Joseph 
and Benton Harbor. 

Family 32. BACCIFERAE Haller, Fl. Helv. 2, p. 116, (1768). 

Asparagi Jussieu Gen. Pi. p. 40, (1789. Asparagincae Du- 
mortier Fl. Belg. St. p. 138, (1827), also Com. Bot. p. 66, (1823). 
Convallariaccae Link, Handb. i. p. 184, (1829). 

Subfamily Asparagoideae Vent. Tabl. 2, p. 141, (1799). 
Asparageae D. C. in Lam. and D. C. Fl. Fr. ed. 3, 3, p. 172, 
(1805); also Dum. 1. c. 

ASPARAGUS Dioscorides 2. 151; Juvenal, Sat. 5, 82; 9, 69. 
Theophrastus, Pliny, 19, 8 and 42; Asparagus of the Pre-Linnaean 
authors: Fuchs, (1543); Cordus and Gesner, (1561), etc., etc. 
Also Tour. Els. Bot. p. 249, (1694); L R. H. p. 300, (1700); Linn., 
Syst. (1735); Hort. Chff. p. 121, (1737); Gen. Pi. p. 93, (1737); 
p. 145, (1742); p. 145, (1754); Sp. PI. p. 313, (1753)- 

Asparagus hortensis Marcellus Vergilius, in Dios. Com. p. 260, 
(1529). Camerarius, Hort. Med. Phil. p. 23, (1588). Dodonaeus 
Pempt. 5, 4, 13, (1583). 

Asparagus altilis Hermolaus Barbarus, Cor. p. 38, (1530). 
Fuchs. Stirp. Hist. p. 20, (1546); p. 34, (1549); Ruellius, Dios. 
Mat. Med. p. 173, (1547); Matthioli, Com. Diosc, p. 280, (1559); 
p. 251, (1554). Asparagus petraeus Galen VL (?). Asparagus 
domesticus Hort. Syst. Bellonius, Asparagus domesticus vulgaris 
Lobelius, Obs. p. 458, (1576). Asparagus holeraceus Tabernaemon- 



NOTES ON OUR LOCAL PLANTS I09 

tanus Kreuterbuch, p. 399, (1625), also Anguillara (1561). Aspara- 
gus sativus Gesner, 1561, Asparagus sativa C. Bauhin, Pinax 
p. 488, (1623); Tour. Els. Bot. 1. c; I. R. H. 1. c; Morandi. 
Hist. p. 105, (1761). Asparagus scanensis Linn. Pan Suecus, 
Am. Acad. I, p. 245, (1751). Asparagus officinalis Linn. Sp. 
Pi. p. 313, (1753). Asparagus esculentus Salisb. Pr. 252, No. 2, 
(1796). 

Escaped from gardens everywhere in the region. I have 
found it in all the counties. No. 2971, N. U. D. Herb., Notre Dame. 

Subfamily MaianthemEae Dum. Fam. des Pi. p. 60, (1829). 

VAGNERA Adanson Fam. des Pi. 2, p. 496, (1763). Smila- 
cina Desf. Ann. Mus. Paris, 9. p. 51, (1807); Tovaria Necker, El. 
Bot. 3, p. 146, (1790); not Tovara Adans (1763); Sigillaria Raf., 
Jr. Phys. 89, p. 261, (1809); Polygonastram Moench, Meth., p. 
637, (1794); Neolexis Salisb., Gen. Pi. p. 64, (1866). 

Vagnera racemosa (Linn.) Morong, Mem. Torr. Bot. CI. 5, 
p. 114, (1894). 

Smilacina racemosa Desf. 1. c; Convallaria racemosa Linn., 
Sp. Pi. p. 315, (i75'3); Polygonastrum racemosum, Moench, 1. c. 

Lake Maxinkuckee (Clarke); U. N. D. Herb., Nos. 1956 bis. 
2964 from Notre Dame. Common in all the counties. The inflor- 
escence is sometimes laterally flat branching only on opposite 
sides of the rachis. No. 11 211 Notre Dame. 

ASTERANTHEMUM Kunth, Enum. PI. V., p. 151, (1850). 

Vagnera Adans. 1. c. segregate. 

Asteranthemum stellatum (Linn).. 

Asteranthemum vulgaris (Linn.) Kunth 1. c. p. 152. 

Majanthem,uvi stellatum Link. Enum. i, p. 343. 

Vagnera stellata (Linn.) Morong. 1. c. 

[Lake Co.] (Hill); [Laporte Co.] (Deam) ; I have found it 
everywhere in the range. St. Joseph, Mich. 11025, 11070. 

Asteranthemum trifolium (Linn.). 

Convallaria trifolia Linn., Sp. Pi. p. 316, (1753); Smilacina 
trifolia (Linn.) Desf. 1. c. p. 5 2. Vagnera trifolia (Linn.) Morong. 1. c. 

Pine, Berry Lake, Higley and Raddin. Gibson, Ind. (Babcock), 
[Lake Co.]. 

UNIFOLIUM Brunsvigius, (1500), alos Tragus Stirp. Hist. 
(1552), Chabraeus (1671), Dodonaeus Pempt. p, 20, (1583), Zinn., 



no AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

Cat. PI. Gott. p. 104, (1757), Ludwig Boehmer, Def. Gen. Pi. p. 
215, (1760), Adanson Fam. Pi., p. 54, (1763). 

Monophyllon Ray, Hist. p. 668, (1686). Smilax Tour. I. R. H. 
p. 654, (1700); Maianthemum Web. Prim. Fl. Holsat. p. 14, (1780) 
not Maianthemim Ludwig ijt,-] — Unifolium. Styrandra Raf. 
Amer. Month. Mag. p. 266, (181 8); Maia, Salisb. Gen. Pi. p. 64, 
(1866); Bifolium Gaertner, Mag. and Scherb. Fl. Wetterau i, 
p. 209, (1799). Sciophylla Heller, Fl. Wirceb. p. 158, (1810), 
Sciophyla Wibel Pr. Fl. Werth, p. 147, (1799); Valentinia Heister 
Fab. Enum. Fl. Hort. Helm. p. 37, (1763), Evallaria Necker, El. 
3, p. 189, (1790) in part. 

Unifolium canadense (Desf.) Greene, Bull. Torr. Bot. CI., 
15, p. 287, (1898.) 

Maianthemum canadense Desf. Am. Mus. Paris, 9, p. 54, 
(1707); Smilacina hifolia var canadensis A. Gray, Man. ed. 2, 
p. 467, (1856). 

[Lake Co.] (Hill and Blatchley) ; [Laporte Co.] (Deam); 
Mineral Springs [Porter Co.] (Deam); Lake Maxinkuckee (Clarke). 
I have found it in every county except Elkhart. [Porter Co.], 
U. N. D. Herb. Nos. 937, 9537, 1002 1, St. Joseph, Mich., 6066; 
Millers, Ind., 2640; Smith, Ind., [Laporte Co.] 9238; Mishawaka, 
Ind. 9214. 

Subfamily. Polvgonateae Bentham, Benth. and Hook. Gen. 
IIL, p. 752, (1883). 

POLYGON AT UM Dioscorides, 4, 6 and of nearly all the 
pre-Linnaean writers, also Tour. Els. p. 69, (1894); L R. H. p. 
78, (1700); Hill, Br. Herbal, p. 320, (1756); Morandi, Hist. Bot. 
Pract. p. 105, (1761); Zinn. Cat. Pi. Gott. p. 103, (1757); Ludwig- 
Boehmer 1. c. p. 59, (1760); Adanson 1. c. p. 541, (1763). 

Salomonia Heister, Syst. 5, (1748); Fabricius, Enum. Pi. 
Hort. Helm. p. 38, (1763); Campydorum Salisb. Gen. Pi. p. 64, 
(1866). 

Polygonatum biflorum (Walt.) Ell. Bot. S. Car. and Ga., p. 
393, (1817). 

Convallaria hiflora Walt. Fl. Car. p. 122, (1788). Salomonia 
hiflora (Walt.) Britton Man. p. 273, (1901). 

Lake Maxinkuckee (Clarke). I have found it throughout the 
range. U. N. D. Herb. Nos. 834, 11210; N. Liberty, Ind. No. 
9227; Birchim, Ind. [Laporte Co.; No. 11035 Lapaz Junction. 



NOTES ON OUR I.OCAL PLANTS III 

Polygonatum commutatum (R. and S.) Dietr. Gartenz. 3, p. 
223, (1835.) 

Polygonatum giganteum Dietr. 1. c. p. 328. Convallaria coni- 
mutata R. and S. Syst. 7, p. 1671, (1830) Salomonia commutata 
(R. and S.) Britton 1. c. No. 11212 Notre Dame, also 11213. 

Lake Maxinkuckee (Clarke). I have found this plant also 
throughout the range. 

Subfamily Convallarieae Dum. Am. Fam. 

CONVALLARIA Linn. Syst. (1735); Hort. CliiT. p. 124, 
(1737); Gen. PI. p. 96, (1737); p. 146, (1742); p. 148, (1754); 
Sp. PI. p. 314, (1753)- 

Callionymus^ Gesner. Hort. Germ. (1561) Liliago Vaillant. Fl. 
Par. p. 70, (1723); p. 116, (1727) not Liliago Caesalpinus (1583) = 
Anthericum Sp. nor Liliago Cordus (1561) — Phalangium sp. 
Liliuni Convallium Tour. Els. Bot. p. 68, (1694), I. R. H. p. 77, 
(7100); Moench. Meth. p. 636, (1794); Morandi, Hist. p. 105, 
(1761) ; Convallium Ludwig, De Min. Pi. Gen. p. 7, (1737) ; Kramer, 
Tent. Bot. p. 3, (1744); M aianthemum Ludwig De Min. Pi. et. (1737) 

Convallaria majalis Linn. Sp. PI. 1. c. 

Convallaria Lilium Convallium Linn. Pan Suecus. in Am. 
Acad. n. p. 245, (1748). Liliuni Convallium majalis Moench. 1. c. 
Lilium Convallium albtini Morandi 1. c. 

The reason for referring to this usually only cultivated plant 
is that a sheet, in U. N. D. Herb. No. 2978 collected by Powers 
at Notre Dame, notes it as "escaped from cultivation, old Botanical 
Garden" in 1880. I have not found it in wild state. 



Family ^t,. TRILLIACEAE De Candolle Ess. Med. 
p. 294, (1816). 

Parideae Dum. Fl. Belg. St. p. i3q, (1827), also Kunth, (1851); 
Link. Handb. i, p. 297, (1829); Bartl. Ord. p. 53, (1830) [Div. 
of Smilaceae]: Melanojae Dum. Com. Bot. p. 65, (1823). 

MEDEOLA Linn. Syst. (1735); Gen. PI. p. 107, (1737); p. 

"* Beside the fact that Callionymus is used and accepted for the name 
of an animal, Gesner uses it moreover only as a synonym for the appella- 
tion Liliuni Convallium as used for this plant. Both Convallium and 
Maianthenium are antedated by Convallaria. We see, therefore, no reason 
to accept Callionymus. 



112 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

154, (1742); p. 158, (1754); vSp. PI. p. 339, (1753); Gronovius 
Fl. Virg. p. 39, (1739). 

Medeola virginica Lmn. 1. c. 

[Lake Co.] S. Coulter,; Miller's, Ind. (Hill); Edgemoor 
(Johnson) [Lake Co.]; Berry Lake, Ind. Gibson (Babcock) ; Lake 
Maxinkuckee (Clarke); U. N. D. Herb. Nos. 9076, 947, loioo, 
702, 947, 2762; Mineral Springs [Porter Co.]. I have found the 
plant also at Benton Harbor and St. Joseph [Berrien Co.], Mich., 
Bankson Lake [Van Buren Co]., Mich.; [Marshall Co.); N. Liberty 
[St. Joseph Co.]. Specimen number 702 gathered at Mineral Springs 
in Sept. 22, 1 910 shows the lower part of the leaves in the upper 
whorl when the fruit formed, changing to a deep carmine to 
purple towards the end of ripening. I noticed this in case of all 
the plants there at the time. 

TRILLIUM Linn., Sp. Pi. p. 339, (1753); Gen. PI. p. 158, 
(1754)- 

Trillium grandifiorum (Michx.) Salisb. Par. Lond. i p. (1805)- 

Trillium rhomhoideum var. grandifiorum (Michx.) Fl. Bor. 
Am. I, 216, (1803). 

[Laporte Co.] (Deam). The most common of the group. I 
have found it in all the counties. U. N. D. Herb. No. 2670H; 
Sagunay [Laporte Co.] Nos. 417, 9425, 2494, 2525, 6077; Notre 
Dame; 431, South Bend, Ind; also Nos. 3255, 3256, Notre Dame 
Ind., collected by Powers. No. 2712 Stephensville, Mich. [Berrien 
Co.]; Lapaz Junction [Marshall Co.] Nos. 11107, 11012. 

Trillium cernuum Linn. Sp. PI. 339, (1753). 

Studebaker's Woods, South Bend, U. N. D. Herb. No. 1843. 

Trillium erectum Linn. Sp. PI. p. 340, (1753). U. N. D. Herb. 
No. 2670 Sagunay [Laporte Co.]; No. 432 South Bend, Ind. 10162 
South Bend; also 11062, 11153. 

PHYLLANTHERUM Raf., Jr. de Phys. 89, p. 72. 
Esdra Salisb., Gen. PI. p. 60, (1866). 

Phyllantherum sessile (Linn.). 

Trillium sessile Linn. 1. c. 

U. N. D. Herb., Notre Dame, Ind., Nos. 428, 1837, 2550. 
I have lound it also at Lapaz Junction [Marshall Co.] No. H013; 
North Liberty and Lakeville [St. Joseph Co.] No. 11015. 



NOTES ON OUR LOCAL PLANTS II3 

Phyllantherum recurvatum (Beck). 

Trillium recurvatum Beck, A. Jr. Sci. 2, p. 178, (1826). 

More common than the preceding, often growing with it. 
Lake Maxinkuckee, (Clarke); Nos. 429, 1952, 1893, 814 U. N. D. 
Herb., Notre Dame, Ind. The last has the parts of the flower 
in 4's. Nos. 1996, 3254, Notre Dame collected by Powers. No. 
7410 Notre Dame collected by W. Johnson. The plant has been 
found throughout the region and is by far the commonest of all. 
A plant with the parts in 4's was also collected by me near Lapaz 
Junction. 

Family 34. SMILACEAE Ventenat. Tab. Reg. Veg. p. 146, 
(1799); also R. Brown. Prodr., p. 299, (1810); Dumortier, Com. 
Bot. p. 67, (1823); Bartling, Ord. Nat. PI. p. 52, (1830); Lindley, 
Int. Nat. Syst. p. 277, (1830); Nat. Syst. ed. 2, p. 359, (1836). 

NEMEXIA Rafinesque, Neogenyton, p. 3, (1825). 
Smilax Linn., Sp. PI. p. 1028 (in part). Coprosmanihus 
Kunth, Enum. 5, p. 263, (1850). 

Nemexia pulverulenta (Michx.) Small, Fl. SE. U. S., p. 281, 

(1903)- 

Smilax pulverulenta Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2, p. 238, (1803). 

Lake Maxinkuckee (Clarke) ; [Laporte Co.] Deam) ; [Marshall 
Co.] (Deam); Nos. 9275, 9710, 1858, 9313, 2987, Notre D?me, 
Ind. (The last collected by W. Johnson). No. 9345 Birchim, 
Ind. [Laporte Co.]; No. 11 214 Notre Dame. 

Nemexia ecirrhata (Engelm.) Small 1. c. p. 280. 

Smilax echirrhata S. Watson. Gray's Man. Ed. 6, p. 520, 
(1890). Coprosmanthus herbaceus var. ecirrhaius Kunth, Enum. 
5, p. 266, (1850). 

N. D. U. Herb. Nos. 1993, 1854 Notre Dame, Ind. (Powers); 
No. 9223 Birchim, Ind. [Laporte Co.]; No. 9518 Notre Dame, Ind. 

SMILAX Dioscorides 4, 142, Theophrastus, i, 10; 3, 18; 
Pliny 16, 35, and of the older authors with scarcely any exception. 
Smilax Tour. Els. Bot. p. 512, (1694); I. R. H. p. 654, (1700); 
Linn. Syst., (1835); Hort. Cliff, p. 458, (1737); Gen. PI. p. 305, 
(1737); P- 428, (1742); p. 455. (1754); Sp. PI. p. 1028, (1753)- 

Smilax rotundifolia Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1030, (1753). 

Smilax caduca Linn. 1. c. Smilax quadrangularis Willd. Sp. 
PI. 4, p. 775, (1806). . . . . " 



114 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

Lake Maxinkuckee (Clarke) ; [Laporte Co.] (Deam) ; Michigan 
City [Laporte Co.]; [Lake, Berrien, \'an Bnren, Porter Co.s]. 
Lakeville, Ind. [St. Joseph Co.]; U. N. D. Herb. Xo. 9126; Notre 
Dame, Ind. Nos. S97, 11 215. 

Smilax hispida Muhl. Torr. Fl. X. Y. 2, p. 302, (1843). 
Lake Maxinkuckee (Clarke). Edgemoor, Johnson. I have 
found it in all the counties. 

Smilax glauca Walt. Fl. Car. p. 245, (1788). 

Smilax spuiulosa J. E. Smith, Torr. Fl. N. Y. 2, p. 303, (1S43). 

Whiting (Hermann Jaeger) ace. to Cat. of Higley and Raddin. 

Family 35. HYPOXIDEAE R. Bro\\-ii. Fl. Yoy. p. 277, 
(1814); also Yermischte. ed. Xees. (1825). Dumortier, Am. 
Fam. p. 58, (1839) Bartling, Ord. Xat. p. 42, (1830). 

HYPOXIS Linn., Systeman, Ed. 10, 2. p. 986, (1759. 

Hypoxis hirsuta (Linn.) Coville, Mem. Torr. CI. 5. p. 118, 

(1894)- 

Hypoxis crccia Linn. ed. 10 1. c. Ornithogalum hirsutnm Linn., 
Sp. PI. p. 306, (1753). I have found this plant in Laporte and 
Berrien counties. No. 3202 N^otre Dame (Powers). 

Order 13. ENSATAE. 

Bartling Nat. Ord. p. 40, (1830 K 

Family 35. DIOSCORINEAE Dumortier, Com. Bot. p. 66, 
Dioscoridcac Dum. An. Fam. PI. p. 59, (1829); Dioscoreae R. 
Brown, Prod. 294, (1810); Lindley, Nat. Syst. (1830); Agardh, 
Aphor. p. 169, (1823); Achar. Rich. Noveb. El. p. 434, (1828); 
Dioscoreacioc Lindley Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, p. 359, (1836). 

DIOSCOREA Plumier, Nov. PI. Am. Gen. p. 9, (1703). 
Ricophora Plukenett. Almag. p. 321. (1696); also P. Miller, 
Gard. Diet. Ed. 6, p. 175, App. (1750); Dioscorea Linn., Hort. 
Cliff, p. 459,); Gen. PI. p. 306, (173?); P- 478, (1742) i P- 456, 
(1754); Sp. PI. p. 1032, (1753)- 

Dioscorea paniculata Michx., Fl. Bor. Am. 2, p. 23s, (1803). 
Dioscorea villosa Linn. 1. c. (?) Dioscorea viliosa of the American 
authors in part. 

Lake Maxinkuckee (Qarke); Berry Lake, Millers, Higley 



NOTIJS ON OUR LOCAL PLANTS US 

and KafJdin. I have found it in all the counties. Nos. 9348, 1059, 
U. N. I). Her!;., Notre Dame, Ind. 

I'amily t,0. IRIDEAE Ventenat, Tab. Reg. Veg. p. 188. 
Irvlmcai' Lindley, Nat. Syst., ed. 2, p. 382, (1836). 

IRIS 'llieophrastus, 97, Dioscorides, i : 1,4:32, Pliny and nearly 
all pre-Linnaean writers'*. 

Iris Tour, liot., p. 291, (i0<j4); I. R. H. p. 3.58, also including 
Xiphion and Sisyrinchium of the same author. 

Iris versicolor Linn., Sp. PI. p. 38, (17.53). 

Iris virginica Linn.l. c. 

Lake Maxinkuckee (Clarkej. I^'ound throughout the region. 
L'. N. IJ. Herb. No. 3228, Notre Dame, Ind., (Powers;; No. 2664, 
Notre Dame; 544 Chain Lakes. No. 2681 a first thought to be 
only an albino^ showed on more careful examination other more 
notable differences, some of these, however, already referred to. The 
llowering peduncle is scarcely half as thick as the ordinary plants. 
The leaves much narrower, and very long, averaging nearly twice 
those of other plants. The joint of the leaf on the flowering stalk 
is not swollen. The involucral bracts become narrowed gradually 
upwards instead of being broadest in the middle; they are long 
attenuate. The flower beside being perfectly white, without the 
characteristic puri>le or violet lines that albinoes of blue flowers 
usually exhibit, is only a little more than one half as large. The 
stigma about one half as large. The habit of the plant too is 
strikingly different being as tall, but strict. The root leaves withered 
are even correspondingly more narrow, and very short. Root- 
stock thin. The plant seems a good variety which we may call 
Iris versicolor var. blandescens Nwd. nov. var. 

BERMIJ DIANA Tour. Els. Bot. p. 306, (1694); J- I<- H. 
p. 387, (1700); Dillenius. Hort. Eltham. p. 48, (1732J; also 
Bermudiana Linn., Syst. (1735); Sisyrinchium Linn., Gen. P. 
p. 273, (1737;; P- 43^^ (1742); p- 4^^9, (1754); ^P- -I'l-P- 954. 
( 1 7.53). "^^^ Sisryinchium Tour, and of the older authors = /ri.5; 
Bermwliana Adans. Fam. II., p. 60, (1763). 

Bermudiana angustifolia (Mill.) 

* Name of some species also written Xyns, e. g. I^liny 21:22. 
"* Am. Mid. Nat. Vol. II., p. 266. 



tl6 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

Sisyrinchium angustifolium Miller. Gard. Diet. ed. 7, (1759). 
Lake Maxinkuckee, (Clarke). Nos. 11055 South Bend; 11117, 
Notre Dame, Ind. (Not common). 

Bermudiana campestris (Bicknell). 

Sisyrinchium campestre Bicknell. Brittons Fl. N. States and 
Canada, p. 286, (1901). 

U. N. D. Herb. No. 11033 South Bend, Ind.; Nos. 3231, 
590, 2062, 11084 Notre Dame, Ind.; No. 9697 Dune Park [Lake 
Co.]; No. 1 1006 Lydick [St. Joseph Co.]; No. no 16 Chain Lakes 
]St. Joseph Co.]; Nos. 11020, 11041 Webster's Crossing, N. of 
Notre Dame, Ind.; No. 479 Big Four R. R. near Edwardsburg, 
Mich. [Berrien Co. (Rather common.) 

Bermudiana graminea (Curtis). 

Sisyrinchium gramineum de Lamarck, Encyc. i, 458, (1787); 
Curtis Bot. Mag. t. 464, (1799). 

Sisyrinchium graminoides Bicknell in Britton's Fl. 1. c. 

U. N. D. Herb. No. 9748K, Dune Park, Ind. [Lake Co.]; 
No. 495 Edwardsburg, Mich. [Berrien Co.]; Nos. 2719, 2729, 
2711 Stephensville, Mich. [Berrien Co.]; Nos. 2760, 498 (2), 597, 
Notre Dame, Ind.; Michigan City [Laporte Co.], (C. D. Mell.); 
Millers and Pine, Ind. [Lake Co.] (Umbach) ; Edgemoor Johnson. 

Bermudiana apiculata (Bicknell). 

Sisyrinchium apiculatum Bicknell, 1. c. 

No. 26, 4201, 1 1200 (3), 11201, Websters Crossing, N. of 
Notre Dame, also 26a with white flowers; No. 3232 Notre Dame, 
Ind.; Nos. 51, 9189 near Granger, Ind. [St. Joseph Co.] on the 
Elkhart Co. boundary. The specimens in our region have also 
decidedly pyrform capsules, some at times ovoid instead of 
subglobose. The spathes are longer at times almost equalling 
the flowers. 

Bermudiana apiculata var. mesochora Nwd. nov. var. 

Sisyrinchium apiculatum var. mesochorum Nwd. 

Type No. 11202 (2) U. N. D. Herbarium, collected at Webster's 
Crossing, north of Notre Dame, Ind. Resembling the preceding 
but a smaller plant, 13 cm. 38 cm. Stems 1.5-2 mm. wide about 
twice as long as the leaves. Flowers dark violet drying purplish. 
Spathes long acuminate Capsules subglobose 4-6 mm. long. 



NOTES ON OUR LOCAL PLANTS II7 

Order 14. SYNANDRAE. 

Agardh. Aphor. p. 179, (1823). 

Orchidales Britton Manual p. 288, (1901). 

Family 36. ORCHIDEAE Haller, Enum. St. Helvet. i, 
p. 262, (1742). Prag. 33. Linnaeus, Phil. Bot. p. 27, (1751); 
Haller Cat. PI. Gott. p. 61, (1753); R. Brown, Prod. 309, (1810). 

Orchidaceae Lindley. Nat. Syst. ed. 2, p. 336, (1836). 

Subfamily Cypripedieae Lindley Orchid., Sal. p. 7-18, (1826). 
ex Dum. An. Fam. PI. p. 57, (1829); Fl. Belg. (1827). 

CALCEOLUS (Rivinus)^ Tournefort, Els. Bot. p. 345, (1694); 
also L R. R. p. 436, (1700); Calceolus Zinn. Cat. p. 85, (1757); 
Adanson, Fam. IL, p. 70, (1763); Calceolaria Heister, Syst. p. 5, 
(1748); Cypripedium Linn., Syst. (1735); Gen. PI. p. 272, (1737); 
P- 435, (1742); p. 408, (1754); Sp. PI. p. 951, (1753)- 

Calceolus Reginae (Walt.). 

Cypripedium Reginae Walt. Fl. Car. p. 222, (1788). 

Cypripedium album Ait., Hort. Kew. 3, 303, (1789); Cypri- 
pedium spectabile Salisb., Trans. Linn. soo. p. 78, (1791). 

[Lake and Porter Co.'s] (Bradner); [Marshall Co.] (Hessler) ; 
Calumet, Ind. (Higley and Raddin) ; Pine, Ind. (Bastin). Flowers 
with regular perianth. U. N. D. Herb. No. 2772, near Woodland 
on Turkey Creek road (St. Joseph Co.]; Nos. 3304, 2330 near 
Bankson Lake [Van Buren Co.]; No. 891, Mineral Springs [Porter 
Co.]. 

Calceolus candidus (Willd.). 

Cypripedum candidum Willd. Sp. PI. 4, p. 142, (1805). 

Pine, Ind. (Umbach); U. N. D. Herb. No. 10115 (2), Mineral 

'^ The Calceolus Mariae of some of the older authors meaning Cypri- 
pedium Calceolus Linn, may have been used as a generico- specific binary 
name, e. g. Dodonaeus, 2:1:22; (1588); Lobelius Obs. p. 161, (1576). 
Hence the genus is referred to Tournefort. The name Calceolus Mariae 
Mary's Slipper, Our Lady's Slipper was changed by Linnaeus to Cypriped- 
dium, meaning Venus' vSlipper. By another unfortunate circumstance the 
segregate Fissipes Small, means cloven foot. It is scarcely possible that 
the genus were dedicated to his satanic majesty, but rather named because 
the flower of the plant has the inflated sac like petal cleft in front. The name, 
however, might certainly with more advertance to previous circum- 
stances have been better chosen. 



il8 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

Springs. Arbor-Vitae-Tamarack bog in the dune region, growing 
with the preceding and the Stemless Lady's SHpper. Nos. 1948, 
2033, 3203, collected near St. Joseph's Lake, Notre Dame; the 
former by Kiesgen the others by Powers. I have seen the plant 
in great abundance around the lakes at Notre Dame. The plants 
have disappeared since then due to the fact that when the lakes 
were dredged the marl was thrown upon them. Very common 
on the Grand Trunk R. R. between South Bend and Crumstown. 

Calceolus hirsutus (Miller). 

Cypripcdmm hirsutuyn P. Miller, Gard. Diet. Ed. 8, No. 3, 
(1763'); Cypripedium pubescens Willd. Sp. PI. 4, p. 143, (1803). 
Clarke, Ind. (Umbach). Notre Dame, Ind. 

Calceolus parviflorus (Salisb.). 

Cypripedium parviflorum Salisb. Trans. Linn. Soc. i, p. 77, 

(1791)- 

[Lake Co.] Blatchley) ; Notre Dame, Ind. No. 2032 (Powers). 
The plant is now becoming scarce, though in certain years it 
reappears in meagre abundance around the University. 

FISSIPES Small. Fl. SE. U. S. p. , (1903). 
Cypripedium Ait. Hort. Kew. 3, p. 303, (1789) in part. 

Fissipes acaulis (Ait.) Small 1. c. 

Cypripedium acaule Ait. 1. c. 

U. N. D. Herb. No. 754, Sagunay [Laporte Co.]; No. 2772, 
Tamarack swamps on Turkey Creek Road [St. Joseph Co.]; No. 
10109, Mineral Springs [Porter Co.]. 

Subfamily OphrydEae Lindley, Orchid. Seel. p. 96, [(1826). 

GALEARIS Raf., Fl. Tell. pt. 2, p. 39, (1836), not Galearia 
Heister, nor Galearia Presl. Symb. Bot. i,p. 49, (1830); Galeorchis^ 



' The name Galeorchis is a hybrid ctymologically composed of the 
Greek orchis, and Latin galea. Cranorchis would have been more correct 
and according to usage of good grammar. There should be some law, if 
it is worth while making nomenclatorial laws for congresses which condemns 
unfit names. The sanction thereof ought so to work as to render names 
invalid post factum. We prefer the older name Galean's in spite of its close 
relationship to Galearia in derivation not sound, and sound is in fact the 
thing that makes a name different; for the name is the spoken word and 
not a twist in spelling. W'ltffui, W'olfia, and W'ollfia are nearer alike than 
the two words in question of four and five syllables, Galearis and Galearia. 



NOTES ON OUR LOCAL PLANTS II9 

Rydb. Britton's Man. Fl. N. St. p. 292, (1901). 
Orchis Linn., Sp. PI. p. 939, (1753) segregate. 

Galearis spectabilis Raf. 1. c. 

Galeorchis spectabilis (Linn.) Rydberg 1. c. 

Orchis spectabilis Linn. p. 743, 1. c. 

U. N. D. Herb. No. 2484, South of Mishawaka, Ind. [St. 
Joseph Co.]; collected also by me at Munich, Mich. [Berrien Co.]. 
Very rare! 

LYSIAS Salisb., Trans. Hort. Soc. i; p. 228, (1812). 
Habenaria Willdenow, Sp. Pi. 4, p. 44, (1895; Platanthera 
Richard. Mem. Mus. Paris 4, p. 481, (1818). 

Lysias hookeriana (A. Gray), Rydb. Britton's Man. p. 294, 

(i9t'5)- 

Habenaria hookeriana A. Gray Ann. Lye. N. Y. 3, p. 229, 
(1836); Habenaria Hookeri vav. oblongifolia Paine, Cat. Pi. Oneida, 
p. 83, (1865); Habenaria orbiculata Goldie. Edinb. Phil. Jr. 6, 
p. 331, (1822); not //. or6icw/ato Pursh. Fl. Am. Sept. p. 588, (1814). 

[Lake Co.] (Hill); Millers, (Babcock) Edgemoor, (Hill). ■ 

LIMNORCHIS Rydberg. Mem. N. Y. Bot. Gard. i, o. 105, 
(1900). 

Habenaria Willd. 1. c. segregate. 

Limnorchis hyperborea Rydb. 1. c. 

Habenaria hyperborea (Linn.) R. Br. Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. 
2:5, P- 193, (1813); Orchis hyperborea Linn. Mant. p. 121, (1767). 

Miller's (Umbach) ; [Porter Co.] S. Coulter, Pine (Hill); 
Sagunay [Laporte Co.], No. 9514. No. 39 U. N. D. Herb.; 
Big P'our Railroad, Granger, Ind. [St. Joseph Co.]; No. 9362, 
Notre Dame, Ind. 

Limnorchis dilatata (Pursh.) Rydb. 1. c. 

Habenaria dilatata (Pursh.) Hooker, Exot. Fl. 2, p. 95, (1825) 
Orchis dilatata Pursh. Fl. Am. Sept. p. 588, (1814). 
Millers (Umbach). 

BLEPHARIGLOTTIS Raf. Fl. Tell. II, p. 38, (1836). 
Habenaria Willd., 1. c. segregate. 

Blephariglottis ciliaris (Linn.) Rydb. Britton's Man. Fl. N. S. 
p. 296, (1901). 



I20 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

Habenaria ciliaris (Linn.) R. Br. 1. c. p. 194; Orchis ciliaris 
Linn., Sp. PI. p. 939, (1753)- 

Millers (Umbach); [St. Joseph Co.] (Barnes); Lake Maxin- 
kuckee (Clarke). 

Blephariglottis lacera (Michx.) Rydb. 1. c. 

Habenaria lacera (Michx.) R. Br. Prod. Fl. Nov. Hall, i, 
p. 312, (1810); Orchis lacera (Michx.) Fl. Bor. Am. 2, p. 156, 
(1803). 

Casella, (Higley and Raddin) ; Calumet (Babcock); Millers 
(Hill, Bastin) ; Normal (Brennan) ; Lake Maxinkuckee (Clarke) ; 
No. 9515 U. N. D. Herb. vSagunay [Laporte Co.]; No. 2695, Lake 
at Studebaker's Woods [vSt. Joseph Co.]; No. 40, Big Four Rail- 
road between Granger and Elkhart [Elkhart Co.]. 

Blephariglottis laucophaea (Nutt.) Rydb. 1. c. 

Habenaria leucophaea Nutt. A. Gray Man. Ed. 5, p. 502, (1867) ; 
Orchis leucophae a Nutt. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. IL, 5, p. 161, (1833-37 

Lake Maxinkuckee (Clarke) ; Bankson Lake, Mich. [Van 
Buren Co.]; No. 11 203 U. N. D. Herb. 

Blephariglottis alba (Michx). 

Blephariglottis blephariglottis (Michx.) Rydb., 1. c. 

Habenaria blephariglottis Torrey. Comp. 317, (1826); Orchis 
ciliaris var. alba Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: p. 157, (1803). Not Orchis 
alba Lam., (1778); Orchis blephariglottis Willd. Sp. PL, 4: p. 9, 
(1805); Habenaria ciliaris var. alba Morong. Bull. Torr. Club, 
20, p. 38, (1893). 

Lake Maxinkuckee (Clarke). 

Blephariglottis psycodes (Linn.) Rydb. 1. c. 

Habenaria psycodes (L8nn.) A. Gray, Am. Jr. Sc. 38, p. 310, 
(1840); Orchis psycodes Linn., Sp. PI. p. 943, (1753); Orchis 
fimbriaia Ait. Hort. Kew. 3, p. 297, (1789). 

Millers, Ind. (Hill and Bastin). 

GYMNADENIOPSIS Rydb. 1. c. p. 293. 
Habenaria (Willd.), segregate. 

Gymnadeniopsis clavellata (Michx.) Rydb. 1. c. 

Habenaria clavellata Michx., Fl. Bor. Am. 2, p. 155, (1803); 
Orchis tridentaia Willd., Sp. Pi. 4, p. 41, (1805); Habenaria iri- 
dentata Willd. Hook. Exot. Fl. 2, pi. 81, (1825). 

U. N. D. Herb. No. 9363, Notre Dame, Ind.; L[ake Co.] 



NOTES ON OUR LOCAL PLANTS 121 

(Hill); Millers, (Umbach, Higley and Raddin) ; Pine (Bastin) ; 
[Lake Co.] Calumet, (Babcock) ; vSheffield (Hill);. 

COELOGLOSSUM Hartmann, Handb. vSkand. Fl. ed. i, 
p. 329, (1820). 

Habcnaria Willd. segregate. 

Coeloglossum bracteatum (Willd.) Pari. Fl. Ital. HI., p. 409. 

Habcnaria bracteata (Willd.) R. Br. 1. c. p. 192. 

[Lake Co.] (Hill); Pine, Ind. (Bastin); Casella and Millers, 
Ind. (Higley and Raddin) ; U. N. D. Herb. No. 489 St. Joseph, 
Mich. [Berrien Co.]; No. 11 156 Lapaz Junction [Marshall Co.]. 

PERU LA RI A Lindley, Bot. Reg. t. 1701 (1834). 
Hahenaria Sprepgel Syst. 3. p. 688, (1826), segregate. 

Perularia flava (Linn.) Rydb. 1. c. p. 292. 

Orchis flav a Linn., Sp. Pi. p. 942, (1753); Orchis virescens 
Willd., Sp. Pi. 4, p. 37, (1805); Habcnaria virescens Spreng. Syst. 
1. c. ; Habcnaria flava A. Gray, Am. Jr. So. v. 38, p. 308, (1840). 

Lake Maxinkuckee (Clarke) ; [Lake Co.] (Deam) ; Berry 
Lake and Pine (Babcock); Edgemoor (Hill); Millers (Umbach). 

Subfamily Neottiinae Pfitz. Entwick. Anord. Orch. p. 45, 
97, (1887). 

POGON I A ]uss. Gen. PI. p. 65, (1789). 

Pogonia ophioglossoides (Linn.) Ker. Lindley Bot. Reg. PI. 
148, (1816); Arethusa ophioglossoides Linn., Sp. Pi. p. 951, (1753).). 

[Marshall Co.] (Hessler) ; [Lake Co.] (Hill); U. N. D. Herb 
No. 23 [Elkhart Co.] on the Big Four R. R. from Granger to 
Elkhart; No. 23^ near Granger in St. Joseph Co.; I have found 
a pale specimen almost white in a tamarack bog at Sagunay 
[Laporte Co.]. Only one plant was found and was not collected. 
Very rare! 

TRIPHORA Nuttall. Gen. N. Am. 2, o. 192, (1818). 

Triphora trianthophora (Sw.) B. S. P. Prel. Cat. N. Y. p. 52, 
(1888); Arethusa trianthophora Sw. Konigl. Vet. Handb. (IL) 21, 
p. 230, (1800); Pogonia pendula Lindl. Bot. Reg. pi. 908, (1825). 

[Lake Co.] (S. Coulter); Casella, Ind. (Hill); Millers (Higley 
and Raddin). I have never found it. 

ARETHUSA Gronovius. Fl. Virg. 2, p. 184, (1743) 



122 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

Arethusa Unn., Sp. Pi. p. 950, (1753); Gen. PI. p. 407, (1754); 
Orchidion Mitchell, Gen. p. 19, (1748); also (1769). 

Arethusa bulbosa Linn. 1. c. also Amoen. Acad. 3, p. 14, (1756). 
[Lake Co.] (S. Coulter) ; Pine and Casella, Ind. (Hij^ley and 
Raddin); Millers (Bastin and Hill). 

TRIORCHIS Bauhin, Phytopinax p. 123, (1596); Gerard, 
Herbal (1597); Triorchis C. Bauhin, Pinax p. 84, (1623); Ray, 
(1688), (?); also Tabernaemontanus. 

Triorchis Petiver, Opera. Hist. Nat. Spect. Vol. IL, ed. 
John Millan (1764!), Gazophylacium tab. 68, 7. 

Orchiastrum Micheli, Nov. Pi. Gen. p. 30, t. 26, (1729); 
Gyrostachys Pers. Syn. IL, p. 511, (1807); Ibidium Salisb., Trans. 
Hort. Soc. I, p. 291, (1812); Spiranthes^ L. C. Richard, Mem. 
Mus. Paris 4, p. 42, (181 8). 

Triorchis plantaginea (Raf.).^ 

Ncottia plantaginea Raf. Am. Monthly Mag. 2, p. 206, (181 8); 
Spiranthes plantaginea (Raf.) Torry. Fl. N. Y. 2, p. 284, (1843).; 
Gyrostachys plantaginea (Raf.) Britton. 111. Fl. i, p. 470, (1896); 
Ibidium plantagineum (Raf.) House, Bull Torr. Bot. CI. p. 381, 
(1905); Gyrostachys laiifolia (Torr.) Kuntze. Rev. Gen. Pi. p. 664, 
(1891). Spiranthes laiifolia Torr. Lindley Gen. and Sp. Orch. p. 
467, (1840); Spiranthes lucida (H. H. Eaton) Ames. Man. Rob. 
and Fernald. p. 314, (1908); Neottia lucida H. H. Eaton Descrip. 
PI. Troy (1832). 

Notre Dame, Ind., N. D. U. Herb. No. 11 204; Chain Lakes 
[St. Joseph Co.] Nos. 533, 2483. 

Triorchis cernua (Linn.). 

Ophrys cernua Linn. Sp. Pi. p. 946, (1753); Gyrostachys cernua 
(Linn.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. p. 604, (1891); Spiranthes cernua 
L. C. Rich., Orch. Am. p. 37, (1891). 

[Lake Co.] (S. Coulter); Lake Maxinkuckee (Clarke); No. 
9391 U. N. D. Herb. Notre Dame, Ind.; No. 757 Tamarack, Ind. 
[Laporte Co.]; No. 2021 Notre Dame collected by Powers. 



^ For other synonyms see Kew. Ind. and MacMillan, Met. Minn. p. 170, 
(1890). 

* The name Triorchis antedates the other names for the genus, and 
is therefore the oldest name since 1753 as well. The name is first found 
in Millan's Edition of Pctivcr's works, published in 1765! 



note;s on our local plants 123 

Triorchis gracilis (Bigelow)^^. 

Spiranthes gracilis (Bigel) Beck, Bot. p. 343, (1833); GyroS' 
tachys gracilis (Bigel) Kuntze, 1. c. 

Michigan City, Ind. [Laporte Co.] (C. D. Mell) ; [Lake Co.] 
(S. Coulter). 

PERAMIUM Salisb., Trans. Hort. Soc. i, p. 301, (1812). 

Goodyera R. Br. Ait. Hort. Kew. Ed. 2, 5, p. 197, (1813); 
Epipachis Haller Helv. p. 277, (1742); ex Ludwig-Boehmer p. 
357. (1760); not Epipactis Zinn =Serapias, Orchis nor Epipactis 
of the ancients. 

Subfamily Liparididae Lindley. Veg. King. p. 181, (1847). 

Peramium pubescens (Willd.) MacM. Met. Minn. p. 171, (1892). 

Neottia pubescens Willd. Sp. PL' 4, p. 76, (1805); Goodyera 
pubescens R. Br. 1. c. 

Whiting, Ind. (Hill); [Lake Co.] (Hill); Stephensville, Mich. 
[Berrien Co.]; No. 2770 U. N. D. Herb. 

PsEUDORCHis J. Ray. Syn. p. 387, (1690), also Morison, 
an. Pseudo Orchis Dodonaeus (?) 

PsEUDORCHis S. F. Gray Nat. Arr. Br. PI. 2, p. 213, (1821). 
Liparis Rich. Mem. Mus. Paris 4, p. 43, (181 8) segregate; Lep- 
torchis Thouars, Nouv. Bull, Soc. Plilom. p. 314, (1808), segregate. 
Paliris Dum. Fl. Belg. Stam. p. 134, (1827); Sturmia Reichenb. 
in Moesslei. Handb. ed. 2, II., p. 1576, (1828). 

Pseudorchis Loeselii (Linn.) S. F. Gray 1. c. 

Paliris Loeselii (Linn.) Dum. 1. c; Leptorchis Loeselii (Linn.) 
MacM. 1. c. p. 173, (1892); Ophrys Loeselii '{hinn.) p. 947, (1753); 
Liparis Loeselii (Linn.) Rich. Lindley Bot. Reg. pi. 882, (1825 

Clarke, Ind. [Lake Co.] (Umbach) ; [Lake Co.] (Hill); Lake 
Maxinkuckee (Clarke) ; Millers (Higley and Raddin) ; S. Chicago, 
Casella (Hill); Pine (Bastin); U. N. D. Herb. No. 3327; Rum 
Village S. of South Bend, Ind. 

LEPTORCHIS Thouars 1. c. 
Liparis L. C. Rich. 1. c. 

^^ Some other members of the genus that may be transferred under 
the genus name Triorchis, from other parts of the country are: 

T. stricta (Rydb.), T. ochroleuca (Rydb.), T. odorata (Nutt.), T. praecox 
(Walt.), T. linearis (Rydb.), T. Grayi (Ames.), T. romanzoffiana (Cham.), 
T. ovalis (Lindl.). 



124 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

Leptorchis liliifolia (Linn.) Kimlzc, Rev. Gen. Pi. p. 67 1, 
(1891). 

Ophrys liliifolia Linn. Sp. PL p. 946, (1752); Li paris liliifolia 
L. C. Rich. L c. 

Lake Maxinkuckee (Clarke). 

CORALLORHIZA Ruppius, Fl. Jen. (171 8); R. Rr. Ait. 
Hort. Kew. ed. 2, 5, p. 209' (1813); Gnielin, Fl. vSib. i, op. 25, 
(1747;) Haller. Hist. Stirp, Indig. Helv. 11. p. 159, (1768); also 
p. 248, (1742); Rhizocorallon Hall, in Rupp. Fl. Jen. ed. 3, p. 301, 
(i745(; Coralliorhiza Aschers. Fl. Prov. Brand, i, p. 697, (1864). 

Corallorhiza odontorhiza (Willd.) Nutt. Gen. 2, p. 197, (1818). 
Cymhidium odontorhiza Willd. Sp. Pi. 4, p. no, (1805). 
Lake Maxinkuckee (Clarke). 

Corallorhiza trifida Chat. 

Corallorhiza Corallorhiza (Linn.) Karst. Deutsch. Fl. p. 448, 
(i 880-1 885); Corallorhiza innata R. Br. 1. c. 5, p. 209, (1813); 
Ophrys Corallorhiza Linn. Sp. Pi. p. 945, (1753). 

Berry Lake, (Hill). 

CATHEA Salisb., Trans. Hort. vSoc. i, p. 300, (1812). 

Helleborine Martyn, Hist. Pi. t. 50, (1736), not Hellehorine 
Dodonaeus, Matthioli, etc. Limodorum Gronovius. Fl. Virg. p. 
no, (1739), Linn. Sp. Pi. p. 950, (1753), not Limodorum Clusius 
Hist. Rev. Stirp. p. 240, (1583), nor Tour. L R. H. p. 437, (1700); 
nor Els. Bot. p. 345, (1694), nor Limodorum Dodonaeus, Pempt. 
P- 552, {1S&3) =Orobanche. Limodorum Linn. Gen.- Pi. p. 435, 
(1742); p. 407, (1754); also Royen Fl. Leyd. p. 16, (1740). 

vSubfamily Thuniinae Pfitz 1. c. pp. 149 and 100 

Cathea tuberosa (Linn.) MacM. Met. Minn. p. 175, (1893). 

Limodorum tubcrosam Linn. 1. c. ; Calopogon pulchellus R. Br. 
1. c; Calopogon tuberosus B. S. P. Cat. N. Y., (1898); Helleboriuc 
tuberosa (Linn.) Kuntz 1. c. IL, p. 665 (1891); Cathea pulchclla 
(Sw.) Salisb. 1. c; Cymbidium pulchellum Willd. Sp. Pi. 4, p. 105. 
(1805); also Sw. Nov. Act. Soc. Sc. Upsal. VL (1799). 

Pine, Ind. (Umbach); [Lake Co.] (Hill); [St. Joseph Co.] 
(Barnes); Lake Maxinkuckee (Clarke); U. N. D. Herb. Nos. 
3324, 9505, 2330 (2). Near Lawton, Mich. [Van Buren Co.]; Nos. 
9154, 9022, 882. Chain Lakes [St. Joseph Co.]; No. 2745 Sagunay 
[Laporte Co.]; No. 7706 Dune Park, Ind. [Lake Co.]; No. 22 



MIGRATION OF OUR BIRDS 1 25 

Big Four Railroad, Granger to Elkhart [Elkhart Co.]; also in St. 
Joseph Co. near Granger, growing with Pogonia ophioglossoides 
(Linn.) Ker. 

Subfamily Sobrauinae Pfitz 1. c. p. 99. 

APLECTRUM Nutt. Gen. 2, p. 197, (1818). 

Aplcctra Raf. Cat. 13, (1824); Amplectrum Hooker, Fl. Bor. 
Am. 2, p. 197, (1840). 

Aplectrum spicaium (Walt.) B. S. P. Prel. Cat. N. Y., 5, (1888) ; 
A plectra elatior Raf. 1. c. Arethusa spicata Walt. Carol p. 222, 
(1788); Cymbidium hyemale Willd. Sp. Pi. 4, p. 107, (1805);. 

Berry Lake (Higley and Raddin) ; Y. N. D. Herb. No. 9364 
Rum Village, S. of South Bend; also 10569 (2), and No. 11 205 
from the same place. Not very scarce yet. Found also at Munich, 
Mich. 

[To be Continued.] 



Migration of Our Birds in the Autumn of 1912. 



BY BROTHER ALPHONSUS, C. S. C. 



In August the dates of migration of the Scarlet Tanager, 
Yellow Warbler, Red-eyed Vireo, and possibly the Hummingbird, 
Barn Swallow, Loggerhead Shrike and Orchard Oriole are likely 
not the actual time of leaving for these species. The dates given 
are those days when the writer last had an opportunity of visiting 
places where these species are commonly found. 

Other species that were not seen in August were: Bobolink, 
Dickcissell, Rose-breasted Grosbeak, Yellow-throated Vireo, Mary- 
land Yellowthroat, Alder Flycatcher, Phoebe, Tree Swallow, 
Long-billed March Wren and Bittern. Some of these species were 
not observed because the writer was unable to go to a favorable 
locality where the birds are usually found; in the case of the 
Dickcissel no record of the species was made during the year; 
the Rose-breasted Grosbeak migrated in spring and the Bobolink 
early in summer. 

The date of migration for the Kingbird is the earliest I have 
yet recorded, being lo or ii days sooner thean any previous records. 



126 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

The last day I saw the species, a number of birds were bathing 
in a lake late in the afternoon. Was this bathing preparatory for a 
night flight? I can not say what determined the birds to leave 
so many days ahead of their usual time for migrating. In fact 
the more observations I make on the migration of birds, the 
clearer it becomes to me that it is quite beyond our efforts to give 
a satisfactory reason for the differences noted in the time of migra- 
tion of most species. 

A species that is sure to leave in autumn within one or two 
days of a certain date is the Baltimore Oriole. This regularity 
is quite exceptional, for I can not find another species that shows 
such nearness in its dates of migration. As in the cases of disparity 
in the dates of migration so in this instance of regularity, I can not 
say what was the determining cause of the birds' movements. 

A number of species were recorded but once in certain months, 
this date being selected as the one before the day of migrating. 
Such records were made of the Redstart, Crested Flycatcher and 
Vesper Sparrow in September; House Wren, Flicker, vSapsucker, 
Yellow Palm Warbler, Hermit Thrush, Sparrow Hawk, Greater 
Yellowlegs and Red-breasted Nuthatch in October; Bluebird, 
Purple Grackle, Cardinal, Canada Goose and Hairy Woodpecker 
in November; Northern Shrike in December. The fact that these 
species were seen but once would seem to indicate that the indi- 
viduals were migrating birds. There is some probability that on 
certain days the writer may have missed a number of these spec es, 
and thus failed to obtain the true dates of their migration. 

The writer wishes to call attention to the only record he made 
of the Hermit Thrush this autumn — October 13. In two previous 
years, this species appeared late in August, making the date of 
arrival this year 44 days later than the earliest arrival on August 
29, 1 910. Who can furnish a clue to this case of remarkable dis- 
parity in dates of migration? 

August. 



2 vScarlet Tanager 


19 


Barn vSwallow 


5 vSpotted Sandpiper 


20 


Orchard Oriole 


6 Yellow Warbler 


22 


Kingbird 


6 Red-eyed Vireo 


29 


Bobwhite 


12 Loggerhead vShrike 


31 


Wilson Warbler 


14 Hummingbird 


31 


Cedarbird 



MIGRATION OF OUR BIRDS 



127 



Crested Flycatcher 
Chipping Sparrow 
Red-breasted Nuthatch 

arrived 
Baltimore Oriole 
Purple Martin 
Red-headed Woodpecker 
Herring Gull arrived 
Brown Thrasher 
Warbling Viroe 
Pine Warbler 
Black-throated Green 

Warbler 
18 Catbird 



3 
4 
4 

5 

5 

9 

II 

13 
13 
14 
17 



SEPTEMBER. 

18 Wood Pewee 
20 Whip-poor-will 



20 Redstart 

22 Indigo Bird 

23 Mourning Dove 
25 Phoebe arrived 

25 Yellow-billed Cuckoo 

26 White-throated Sparrow 

rived 
28 Golden-crowned Kinglet 
rived 

28 Snowbird arrived 

29 Chimney Swift 

30 Vesper Sparrow 



30 Myrtle Warbler arrived 





October. 


3 Sapsucker 


19 Sparrow Hawk 


4 Phoebe 


21 Killdeer 


8 House Wren 


25 Tree Sparrow arrived 


II Cowbird 


25 Chickadee arrived 


12 Yellow Palm Warbler 


25 Greater Yellpwlegs 


13 Hermit Thrush 


25 White-throated Sparrow 


15 Meadowlark 


26 Red-breasted Nuthatch 


15 FHcker 


27 Robin 


16 Field Sparrow 


27 Kingfisher 


16 Hell Diver 


27 Myrtle Warbler 




November. 



I Red-winged Blackbird 
8 Bluebird 

8 Golden-crowned Kinglet 
8 Purple Grackle 



13 Cardinal 

18 Canada Goose 

19 Goldfinch 

22 Hairy Woodpecker 



25 Northern Shrike arrived 

December. 

I Herring Gull 8 Northern Shrike 

6 Tree Sparrow 15 Song Sparrow 14 Chickedee 

Total number of migrants seen, 64. 



128 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

An Older Name for Listera. 

BY J. A. NIEUWLAND. 

Apart from the fact that the name Lister a R. Brown,' was 
preceded by an older name Listeria Necker,^ it is not even the 
oldest for the orchidaceous genus, w^hether we hold to absolute 
historical priority as a principle of or chose 1753 as a starting point. 
Of course Necker's name and Brown's name seem practically the 
same and named in honor of the same scientist. This is evident 
from the fact that Listera R. Br. was changed by Sprengel to 
Listeria.^ 

In 1764 an edition of Petiver's works was made by John 
Millan.* The old name Bifolium which these plants had since 
the time of Lobelius,^ Ray,^ Morison,^ Dodonaeus,* Parkinson,^ 
Chabraeus.'^etc, is given to them, thus antedating any even since 
1753. I shall only transfer the most well known of the genus: 

Bifolium (Lobelius) Petiver-Millan, Opera, tab. 70, Nos. 
10, II, 12. 

Listera R. Brown (1813) 1. c. not Listeria Necker, (1790) 1. c. 

Diphryllum Raf. Med. Rep. N. Y. 5, 357, (1808) (?). 

Distomaea Spenn., Fl. Frib. i, 245, (1825); Pollinirhiza 
Dulac. Fl. Pyr. p. 120, (1867). 



' Brown R., in Ait. Hort. Kevv. ed. 2, 5, p. 201, (181 3). 

^ Necker, J. de, Elem. i, p. 206, (1790). 

^ Sprengel, C. Anleitung, II., i, p. 293, (181 7). 

^ Petiver, J. Opera ad Hist. Nat. Spectantia. (N. B.) "About 100 of 
these plates were never published before." London. Printed for John Millan 
near Whitehall MDCCLXIV. 

'' Lobelius, M. Observationes p. 161, (1576); Adv. p. 127. 

" Ray. J. Methodus Plantaruni Nova, p. 157, (16S2). 
" Synopsis p. 375. 

" Historia Plantarum p. 1232, (1686). 

' Morison R. Oxon. II., p. 489, (1715). Tab. II. Sect. 12. 

* Dodonaeus, R. Pcmpt. p. 242, (1583). 

" Parkinson. J., Theatrum p. 504, (1644). 

"* Chabraeus, D., Sciagraphia, p. 506, {1677). 

" "Opkris," Tournefort, Els. Bot. p. 346, (1694); I. R. H. p. 436, 
(1700), in stricto sensu. 

'^ If this name be invalidated iiecause of the existence of liijolium 
cordatum Gaertner, 1790, I suggest the restoration yf Ray's B. minimum. 



NEW PLANTS FROM VARIOUS PLACES 1 29 

Bifolium cordatum (Linn.) Nwd. 
Listera cordata. (Linn.) R. Br. 1. c. 
Distomaea cordata (Linn.) Spenn. 1. c. 
Pollinirhiza cordata (Linn.) Dulac. 1. c. 
Ophrys cordata Linn. vSpl Pi. p. 946, (1753). 
Bifolium minimum Ray. Syn. p. 385, (1724); also Petiver- 
Millan, Opera 1. c. (1764). 

Bifolium ovatum (Linn.) Nwd. 

Listera ovata (Linn.) R. Br. 1. c. Distomaea ovata (Linn.) 
Spenn. 1. c. Pollinirhiza ovata (Linn.) Dulac, 1. c. p. 121. Ophrys 
ovata (Linn.) Sp. Pi. p. 946, (1753). Bifolium, majus Ray. 1. c. 
also Petiver-Millan 1. c. 

Bifolium convallarioides (Sw.) Nwd. 

Listera convallarioides (Sw.) Torr. Comp. p. 220, (1826). 

Bifolium australe (Lindl.) Nwd. 

Listera australis Lindley. Gen. Sp. Orch. 456, (1840). 

Bifolium Smallii (Wiegand) Nwd. 

Listera Smallii Wiegand. Listera reniforniis Small. 

Bifolium auriculatum (Wiegand) Nwd. 
Listera auriculatum Wiegand. 



New Plants from Various Places.— 11. 

BY J. A. NIEUWLAND. 

Dasiphora fruticosa var. appendiculata Nwd., nov. var. 

Plant stouter than the type with the same hirsute or silky 
hirsute petioles, peduncles and twigs, and hirsute stems; leaves 
silky and hirsute, shining when young; leaflets usually few, the 
lower lateral inequilateral, the upper with blade running down 
the rachis to the lower pair, lanceolate, the terminal oblong 
acute at both ends. 2.2 cm. long, and many nearly 6-7 mm. wide, 
not notably revolute on the margins. Flowers very numerous 
and rather densely aggregated. Petals smaller than in the typical 
plant, less than 5 mm. long, lemon yellow, orbicular. Sepals tri- 
angular ovate with a long acuminate point, usually exceeding the 
petals. Outer bractlets considerably longer than the corolla, 



130 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

lanceolate herbaceous, having each two linear herbaceous appendages 
or teeth at the base one on each side. Calyx and sepals enlarging 
considerably in fruit, and decidedly herbaceous. 

Planta stricte erecta, floribus dense aggregatis, major quam 
specie; bracteolae ad basim appendice lineari indutae. Folia 
majora hand vel vix revoluta. 

Although the plant differs most remarkably in habit from the 
ordinary, and has uniformly appendaged bractlets, together with 
the other notable characters mentioned, it is scarcely perhaps 
more than a cultivated variety. The specimen from which the diag- 
nosis was made, was taken from a plant in cultivation, and at that 
entirely outside of its natural geographical habitat. The specimen 
is in the U. S. National Herbarium and is no 2943a "in cultivation 
at Biltmore, North Carolina," gathered "Aug. 6th, 1897." 

Dasyphora fruticosa (Linn.) Raf. though in our region growing 
only in bogs, submits readily to cultivation, and usually bears 
widely different flowers, becomes taller, more bushy, awith crowded 
flowers and inflorescence. The bracts of American Dasiphorae 
are not infrequently toothed at the apex, and sometimes an 
occasional appendage is found at their base. I have not found 
such basal growths in either cultivated specimens or native grown 
plants in our region. 

I have advisedly refused to use the older name Pentaphylloides 
(Morison) Hill (1756), though there can not be any doubt as to 
the identity of the plant with Rafinesque's Dasiphora, because 
names ending in oides are objectionable, and many writers have 
avoided such in spite of priority, — this in spite too of the fact 
that I first called attention to the synonymy of Dasiphora. 

Limodorum tuberosum var. nanum Nwd., no v. var. 

Plant small 7.5-13 cm. high, from a small ovoid bulb about 

6 mm. long and half as wide; one leaved; leaf 3-6.5 cm. long, 
(when the plant is in flower) linear lanceolate, acute or acuminate 
sheathing at the base, scarcely ever 5 mm. wide; base of leaf 
covered by a single obtuse membranous bract completely sheathing 
its whole length of about i cm.-i.3 cm. Peduncle often having 
near the middle a minute ovate clasping bract. The successive 
years' shoots arise from a bulb at the end of short offsets about 

7 mm. long. Flowers only 2 or 3, racemose, erect, the sessile ovary 
subtended by a membranous, ovate, somewhat acuminately 



NEW PLANTS FROM VARIOUS PLACES I3I 

pointed bract clasping at the base, and usually more than half 
as long as the ovary, the latter ordinarily about 7 mm. long in 
anthesis. Flowers dark purple, lateral sepals, ovate to obovate 
and lanceolate, twisted upwards with an acute, acuminate, or 
abruptly mucronate or aristate apex. Lower sepal narrower 
slightly carinate towards the base, not over 1.6 cm. long. Petals 
acute or obtuse at the apex, broader near the base, lanceolate 
oblong or obspatulate because of an abrupt blunt tooth below the 
middle. Lip bearded within with a triangular winged apex, slightly 
retuse, mucronulate or obtuse. Claw linear, column dark purple 
to black; pollen masses orbicular, dark purple to black without. 

Planta perparva 7.5-13 cm. alta cum duobus vel tribus tantum 
fioribus, et folio perparvo lineari 3-6.5 longo et vix 5 mm. lata. 
Flores purpurei minores quam in specie; pollinia suborbicularia, 
atra. 

Type No. 609580 also 609581 U. S. National Herbarium 
collected by J. D. Sornburger, Aug. 28, 1903 and Aug. 12, 1903 
on the Barred Islands, Coast of Newfoundland. The remarkably 
small size of the plant shows it at first sight as peculiar. The floral 
bracts are relatively longer and the flowers smaller. The raceme 
is always few flowered. Intermediate forms apparently between 
this and our plants of the United States are met with in Nova 
Scotia, but the Newfoundland plant has so remarkably different 
an aspect and so many minor differences that it seems to deserve 
at least varietal standing. 

Persicaria punctata var. tacubayana Nwd., nov. var. 

Plant glabrous, stem erect or ascending. Leaves oval, ovate 
to elliptical seldom ovate lanceolate; cuneate at the base, rounded 
or obtuse at the apex, in the upper undeveloped leaves sometime 
acutish, or attenuate to a blunt apex, 2.7x3 to 4.5x6.5 cm. on 
flowering shoots, light green above minutely but densely cinereous 
puncticulate beneath; margin entire, in younger leaves sparsely 
and minutely appressed ciliate; petiole .6-1 cm. long slender; 
ochrea membranous, glabrous, 1-1.6 cm. long without bristly 
ciliation, often with short excurrent veins in the upper parts of the 
plant, cylindric sometimes wider at the base. Upper nodes 3-6.5 
cm. long. Raceme erect 4-4.5 cm. long, lower flower about i cm. 
distant from the others and separating to about 2.5 cm. in fruit. 
Flowering peduncle 2.5-3 cm. long elongating in fruit to 5.5-7 cm. 



i32 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

Ochreolae narrowly funnel form, rose-purple at the apex, glabrous, 
scarcely lubricate even when the flowers are in bud. Pedicels 
about 5 mm. long slender in flower. Calyx glandular punctate, 
white above greenish below and attenuate at the base, 2 mm. 
long in flower and about 3 mm. in fruit, segments ovate to obovate. 
Stamens 5 included, style 2-cleft to a little below the middle. 
Fruit trigonous 2 mm. long, black and lustrous. 

Planta glabra cum foliis ovalibus, ovatis, vel ellipticis. Folia 
basi cuneato, apice rotundato, obtuso vel in foliis junioribus, 
apice acutiusculo, 2.7x4.5 cm. vel 3x6.5 magnitudine. Folia in 
facie superiore viridia, inferiore quidem cinereo-puncticulata, 
petiolis .6-1 cm. longis, ochreis membranosis, glabris, haud ciliatis. 
Nodi 3-6.5 cm. longi. Pedunculus cum floribus 2.5 -3 cm. et cum 
fructu 6.5-7 cm. longus. Ochreolae infundibuliformes roseo colore 
glabrae mininie imbricatae. Pedicelli circa 5 mm. longi. Calix 
glanduloso-punticulatus, viridescens, circa 2 mm. longus, ejus 
partes ovatae vel oboyatae. Stamina 5. Stylus infra medium 
divisus et fructus ater triangularis, 2 mm. longus. 

Type of description No. 316887, U. S. National Museum 
Herbarium, Pringle's No. 6656, labelled Polygonum acre collected 
in Tacubaya Federal District, Mexico, July 26, 1897. The plant 
differs from P. punctata var. eciliata Small in the shape of the 
leaves. The racemes are shorter, and the style not cleft to the 
base. The leaves are all nearly of uniform size. 

Chamaencrion latifolitim var. megalobum Nwd., nov. var. 

Plant rather larger than the type over 3.5 dm.; stem erect 
or somewhat assurgent, glabrate or sparsely puberulent above. 
Leaves 2.5-6 cm. or more in length and 7-13 mm. or more wide, 
glabrous on the surface and minutely and sparsely pubescent 
below slightly cinereous when young, oblong to oblong-lanceolate, 
obtuse, cuneate, short pctiolate or subsessile, sometimes opposite 
at the middle of the stem or above. Sepals oblong lanceolate 
downy without. Petals obovate apparently whitish or pale, 
narrowed to a claw. Peduncle 2.5-5 t"m. long in fruit, capsules 
curved outward in flower by an abrupt twist at the base. Fruiting 
capsules straight, truncate at the apex and appearing as if some- 
what beaked, gradually tapering at the base, very long, often over 
10 cm. Coma of the seeds 1.2 cm. long, pods whitish pubescent 
especially when young. 



BOOK NOTE 133 

Planta major quam in specie, 3.5 dm. alta vel altior, erecta 
vel assurgens, glabrata vel sparse puberulens. Folia 2.5-6 cm 
longa et 7-13 mm. lata vel latior, glabra vel pubescentia in facie 
inferiore, juvenilia cinerea, oblonga vel oblonga-lanceolata, obtusa, 
cuneata, breviter petiolata velsubsessilia. Sepala oblonga-lanceolata. 
Petala obovata versimiliter albescentia. Pedunculus 2.5-5 '^• 
longus. Fructus truncatus, ad basim attenuatus saepius 19 cm. 
longus. 

Type No. 455 collected by Edw. R. Heacock at an altitude 
1500 m. at Cheops Draw, British Columbia in the Selkirk Mountains. 
The most notable characters are the very large fruits and paler 
flowers, as also the peculiar habit and size of the plant. 



Book Note. 



Handbook of the Wild and Cultivated Flowering Plants. 

By C. A. Darling, Ph. D. ~ Pocket edition; New York, 1-912; 

pages VIII +264. Published by the author.' 

This splendid book is one that will appeal to a large class 
of persons in the eastern and central staes. By means of well 
arranged and carefully worded keys the author places the deter- 
mination of the common plants of the field and garden within the 
reach of those who have not had opportunity for advanced 
botanical training. The omission of technical terms and the 
use of easily observed gross characters will make the book attractive 
to many who do not care for the technical manuals. 

Presentation in such a way as to bring the matter within the 
reach of the untrained has not detracted at all from the scientific 
accuracy of the work. There are four general keys to the genera; 
(i) Key to the Wild Plants and Cultivated Trees and Shrubs 
which flower during March, April, and May; (2) Key for June 
to November; (3) Key to the Wild and Cultivated Trees and 
Shrubs in Autumn; and (4) Key to the Cultivated Herbs and 
Potted Shrubs. Following these keys are descriptive keys to the 
species with both the common and scientific names, arranged and 
classified in their orders and families. This arrangement makes 



' The book can be obtained by addressing the author, care Department 
of Botany, Columbia University, New York City. 



134 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

the book especially suited for high school pupils and beginners 
in botany in college. The inclusion of the cultivated plants is a 
very welcome addition. From the parks and gardens these plants 
are always falling into the hands of the student and the dis- 
appointment which arises when no trace can be found in the older 
manuals is familiar to every teacher. This scheme which recog- 
nizes the wild and cultivated forms in the same work is commenda- 
able not only because it facilitates determination but also because 
it may throw a new light on relationships. 

F. D. K. 

Purdue Univ. 



Viola arvensis Murr. in Northern Indiana. 

BY J. A. NIEUWLAND. 

It is not all certain that the plant generally reported for 
the midland as Viola Rafinesquii Greene, is really that plant 
in all cases. I have noted a number of such in the U. S. National 
Herbarium as being really the European Viola arvensis Murr.; 
a plant long confused with the other. I have never found V. 
Rafinesquii in the middle west, but I have found the other plant, 
introduced in several rather widely distant places in St. Joseph 
County, growing in waste places and dry sandy fields left un- 
cultivated for some years. In two places particularly at Webster's 
Crossing and at the Four Mile Bridge. Viola arvensis not only 
maintains itself well, but is spreading considerably. This plant 
has been omitted from Britton's Floras, persumably as not occur- 
ing in the United States east of the Mississippi River and pre- 
suppossing possibly and mistakenly that the plant reported in 
our region is Viola Rafinesquii. Viola tricolor Linn., the small 
flowered plant from which our numerous cultivated forms are 
derived, has also escaped at Notre Dame, but is not as well able 
to maintain itself in waste places. 



Pages 64-78, published April 1,1813. 

Page 62 should be 64 and 76 is 78; each page numlier between should 
read two numl)crs higher. 




Fi3-- 2'i 





Sca\e-lcm ^ 83 e /I. 

iiilnihii!iiilii;1iii!nil'iiliiiliiiliiiliiiliiiliii'iiilM'' ' 

PLATE III. NIEUWLAND— A NEW MIDLAND VIOLET, ETC. 






Series of Reprints of tHe 
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No. 2. 

Rafinesque, C. S. Monogmphie des 
Coquilles Bivalves et Fluviatiles de la Riviere 
Ohio. Remarques sur les Rapports Naturels 
des Genres Viscum, Samolus et Viburnum. A 
Bruxelles, De I'lmprimerle de Weissenbrugh pere, 
Rue du Musee, No. 1057 (1820). [Part of 
Annals of Nature,] pp. 1 7 to 60 (4 1 pages). 

Price; $1.50 per Copy 

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seen an original copy for sale! This reprint is as good as 
the original for the working conchologist. The title page 
and 2nd page and the three plates are fac-simile repro- 
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and species were published in this first important mono- 
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Publications 

NiEUWLAND, J. A. Some Reactions of Acetylene, 1904 pp. 160 S .75 

" " Some Linnaean Trivial Names. 1911. pp. 26 15 

" " The Laboratory Aquarium, Notes on Seedlings of 

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" " Notes on Collecting and Growing Algae for Class- 
work. 1909. 13 pp 10 

" " Our Amphibious Persicarias, I., II., 191 1. 63 pp. .30 

Hahn, \V. Analytic Study of Faunal Changes in Indiana, 2 plates, 

1910, 27 pp 15 

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" " Bubani's Flora Pyrenaea. 1911. 19 pp 10 

" " Antennaria i^ the Middle West. 1911. 17 pp 10 

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Plants etc. (1840) 1.5'^ 



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VOL. III. OCTOBER, 1913. NOS. 5, 6 

AMERICAN MIDLAND 

NATURALIST 



Devoted to Natural History, Primarily 
that of the Prairie States 



Published by the University of Notre Dame, 
Notre Dame, Indiana 

J. A. NIEUWLAND, C. S. C, Ph. D., Sc. D., Editor 



CONTENTS 

Rosa in North Dakota /. Lunell 135 

New Plants from North Dakota. — XI. /. Lunell 141 

Another Rhus glabra Segregate from Nebraska J . Lunell 147 

Notes on Box Elders. — I B. F. Bush 148 

Notes on Priority of Plant Names /. .4. Niettwland 150 

Our Birds in the Winter of 1912-13 Brother Alphonsus, C. S. C. 158 

Comparative Migration of Our Birds in Spring 

Brother, J{lphonsus, C. S. C. 161 

Linnaea americana in Indiana 166 



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VOL. III. OCTOBER, 1913. NOS. 5, 6 



Rosa in North Dakota. 



BY J. LUNELL. 

Clavis analytica. 
A. Spinae infrastipulares absentes vel incon- 
spicuae. Caudices setosi vel spinosi. 

a. Caudices herbacei, nee umquam magis 
quam suflFrutescentes, 1-2 pedales. 

b. Foliola 7-1 1, obovata, subtus dense 

pubescentia, spinae rigidae. . . . i. R. heliophila Greene, 
b. Foliola 7-1 1, inter quae posita sunt 

1-8 foliola parva 2. R. heliophila vat. foltosissima. 

b. Foliola 5-9, subtus glabra, nervis 

medianis et marginibus exceptis, spinae 

fragiles, paene setis consimiles. .3.R. Luncllii Greene. 

a. Caudices arbusta lignea sunt, 2-5 pedales. 

c. Foliola 5-9, receptacula 1-1.5 cm. 

diametro, achaenia 4 mm. alta. 

d. Sepala Integra vel subin- 

tegra 4. /?. gratiosa. 

d. Sepala exteriora valde pin- 

natifida 5. R. gratiosa var. dulcissima. 

c. Foliola 7-1 1, receptacula 2 cm. dia- 
metro, achaenia 6 mm. alta 

6. R. polyanthema sp. nov. 

A. Spinae infrastipulares presentes et ceteris spinis 
ampliores. Caudices non setosi. 

a. Rachis folii assiduo spinosa. a 

b. Petioli, petioluli, rachis glabri, lamina 



136 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

folioli inferior et nervus eius medianus 

glabri vel subglabri 7. R. deserta. 

b. Petioli, petioluli, rachis, nervus folii 
medianus inferior glanduloso-hispidi, 
folia subtus pubescentia et resinosa. 

8. R. poetica sp. nov. 

a. Rachis folii numquam vel not assiduo 

spinosa. Foliola subtus dense pubescentia. 

b. Spinae robustae, rectae vel aliquan- 

tulum curvatae. ..9. R. terrens (R. Maximiliani Nees?). 
b. Spinae graciles, rectae. 

c. Partes plantae variae omnes valde 

confertae 10. R. subnuda. 

c. Partes plantae variae omnino non 

confertae 11. R. naiadwn sp. nov. 

Analytical key. 

A. Infrastipular spines wanting or not prominent. 
Stems bristly or prickly. 

a. Stems herbaceous and never more than 
suffrutescent, 1-2 ft. high. 

b. I.eaflets 7-11, obovate, densely pu- 
bescent beneath, prickles stiff. . . i. R. heliophila Greene, 
b. Leaflets 7-11, and between them 

1-8 small leaflets 2. A', heliophila var. foliosissima. 

h. Leaflets 5-9, glabrous beneath, except 
on the midveins and margins, prickles 

soft, almost as bristles 3- ^- Lunellii Greene. 

a. Stems woody shrubs, 2-5 ft. high. 

c. Leaflets 5-9, receptacles 1-1.5 cm. 
! in diameter, achenes 4 mm. high. 

d. Sepals entire, or nearly so. . . .4. i?. gratiosa. 
d. Outer sepals strongly pin- 

natifid 5. R. gratiosa var. didcissima. 

c. Leaflets 7- 11, receptacles 2 cm. 
in diameter, achenes 6 mm. 

high 6. R. polyamthema sp. nov. 

A. Infrastipular spines present, and larger than 
the other spines. Stems not bristly, 
a. Leaf-rachis regularly prickly. 



ROSA IN NORTH DAKOTA I37 

b. Petioles, petiolules and rachis gla- 
brous, lower surface of leaf and median 

nerve glabrous or nearly so 7. R. deserta. 

b. Petioles, petiolules, rachis and lower 
median nerve of leaflet glandular-hispid, 
leaflets pubescent and resinous be- 
neath S. R. poetica sp. nov. 

a. Leaf-rachis not at all, or irregularly 
prickly. Leaflets densely pubescent beneath. 
b. Spines stout and straight or some- 
what curved. . . .9. R. terrens {R. Maximiliani Nees?). 
b. Spines straight and slender. 

c. All the parts very crowded. In 
rolling prairies, ravines, thickets 

and open woods 10. R. suhnuda. 

c. The parts not crowded at all. 
In dense woodland, bordering 
rivers 11. R. naiaduni sp. nov. 

I. Rosa heliophila Greene. 

Vide leaflets II, 132 (191 1), to replace the untenable name 
R. pratincola, to be found in Pittonia IV, 13, (1899), previously 
applied to a species of European origin. As this is the common 
prairie rose, growing everywhere on high and low virgin prairie, 
and also in cultivated fields, it is without doubt the plant suggested 
by our present governor, L. B. Hanna in 1907 and approved by 
the legislature as the State Flower of North Dakota. 

2. Rosa heliophila var. foliosissima. Vide Midi. Nat. 
157, (1912). 

3. Rosa Ltinellii Greene. Vide Leaflets II, 132, (191 1). 

4. Rosa gratiosa. Vide Midi. Nat. II, 154, (1912). 

5. Rosa gratiosa var. dulcissima. 

Though the pinnatifid outer sepals are a constant character 
in the shrub used as type, and though they are a strong character 
in other species, they are irreliable in this special group of roses, 
and I have for this reason reduced the species described in Midi. 
Nat. II. 2S7, (1912) to variety rank. 



138 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

6. Rosa polyanthema sp. nov. 

Rami, recentes, floriferi et steriles, spinis rectis, deciduis, 
neque longitudine admodum variabilibus, tenuissimis, setis baud 
dissimilibus armati. Stipulae angustissimae, integrae, subtus 
valde tomentosae, magis minusve glanduliferae, marginaliter 
saltern. Rachis folii et petioluli dense albido-tomentosi, glandu- 
liferae, marginaliter saltem. Rachis folii et petioluli dense 
albido - tomentosi, glanduliferi, plerumque spinosi. Foliola 
7-plerumque 9, in surculis recentibus validis saepe 11, ob- 
longa vel obovata vel paene orbicularia, basi saepissime 
cuneata, apice obtuso vel retuso vel acuto, 2.5-5 cm. longa, 
i-5~3-5 c^- lata, petiolulata, serrata, dentibus procurvis, fere 
glabrata superne, glauca, magis minusve tomentulosa, glandu- 
losa etiam subtus, praesertim nervo med. ano. Flores corymbosi, 
nunierosi (usque 33) vel solitarii. Sepala lanceolata, interne et 
marginaliter albido-lanata,tergo et apic ibus longis glandulis 
stipitatis hispida, exteriora pinnatifida. Receptaculum rubrum, 
pomiforme vel pyriforme, glabrum, 2 cm. diametro. Achaenia 6 
mm. longa. 

The young branches, flowering as well as sterile, covered with 
a profusion of straight, deciduous prickles, not very variable in 
length, very weak, being hardly more than bristles. Stipules very 
narrow, entire, densely tomentose beneath, more or less glanduli- 
ferous, at least on the margins. Leaf-rachis and petiolules densely 
white-tomentose, glanduliferous, and usually prickly. Leaflets 
7 — usually 9, on vigorous young shoots often 11, oblong, or obo- 
vate, or nearly orbicular, mostly cuneate at base, apex obtuse, or 
notched, or acute, 2.5-5 cm. long, 1.5-3.5 cm. wide, petiolulate, 
serrate, with the teeth directed forwards, almost glabrate above, 
glaucous and more or less tomentulose and even glandular beneath, 
especially on the main nerve. Flowers corymbose, numerous 
(even to 33) to solitary. Sepals lanceolate, white-woolly within 
and on the margins, hispid with stipitate glands on the whole 
back, including the long tips, the outer ones pinnatifid. Recep- 
tacle red, pomiform or pyriform, glabrous, 2 cm. in diameter. 
Achenes 6 mm. long. 

This rose, by far most exuberant among its allies, was collected 
by the writer both in flower and fruit on August 23, 19 13 in alluvial 
ground on the banks of the Missouri, not far from Bismarck, 
Burleigh County. 



ROSA IN NORTH DAKOTA 139 

7. Rosa deseria. Vide Midi. Nat. II., 156, (1912). 
8. Rosa poetica sp. nov. 

Arbustum fere metrale, spinis gracilibus, sed firmis, rectis, 
neque basim versus valde ampliatis, sub stipuliis permancntiori- 
bus, et ramis nitidis, obscure fuscis vestitum. Stipulae superne 
glabrae, subtus pubescentes, setis apice glandulosis marginatae. 
Racliis et nervus medianus inferior folii, petioli et petioluli glandulis 
magis minusve stipitatis hispidi. Praeterea rachis apicibus glandu- 
losis setosa est, et spinosa. Foliola 7-9, petiolulata, ovalia, basi 
magis minusve cuneata, apice obtuso vel acuto, bis serrata subtus 
resinosa. Sepala integra vel lobata. Flores corymbosi vel solitarii. 
Receptaculum rubrum, globulare vel pyriforme, apice elongate, i 
cm. diametro. 

Shrub nearly meter-high, with slender, but firm, straight 
prickles, not considerably thickened at base, quite persistent 
beneath the stipules, and with shining, dark-brown branches. 
Stipules glabrous above, pubescent beneath, margined with 
glandular-tipped setae. Leaf-rachis, lower median leaflet-nerve, 
petioles and petiolules hispid with more or less stipitate glands. 
Rachis, in addition, bristly with glandular tips, prickly. Leaflets 
7-9, petiolulate, oval, with more or less cuneate base and obtuse 
or acute apex, doubly serrate, glabrate above, pubescent and 
resinous beneath. Flowers corymbose or solitary. Sepals entire 
or lobed. Receptaculum red, globular or pyriform, with pointed 
apex, I cm. in diameter. 

This plainly distinct ally of R. Fendleri was collected by the 
writer on August 23, 19 13, on the banks of the Missouri, not far 
from Bismarck, Burleigh County. 

9. Rosa terrens. Vide Midi. Nat. II., 155, (1912). 

Considered distinct on account of its enormous spines, etc., 

but perhaps correctly suggested by Dr. P. A. Rydberg as identical 

with R. Maximiliani Ness., though this species has a large yellow 

fruit, as stated in Rydberg's Flora of Montana, 255 (1900.) 

10. Rosa suhnuda. Vide Midi. Nat. II. 153. (1912). 

II. Rosa naiadum sp. nov. 

Caudex et rami lignei obscure fusci, nitidi, aeque atque rami 
herbacei spinis fragilibus, rectis, e basi compressis, erectis vel 
pronis, infrastipularibus ceteris permanentioribus vestiti, vel 
paene vel omnino nudi. Stipulae amplae, marginibus denticulatis 



140 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

et dentibus apice glandulosis, superne glabrae, siibtus pubescentes. 
Rachis folii villosa, saepe glandulis et interdum spinis conspersa. 
Foliola 5-plerumque 7, in surculis recentioribus non raro 9, obovata 
usque ovalia, obtusa, basi magis minusve cuneata, serrata, serra- 
turis procurvis, ampla, 2.5-4 cm. longa, petiolulata, superne glabra, 
subtus et praecipue marginibus et nervis tomentulosa. Flores 
nitidi, rubicundi, circiter 5 cm. lati, corymbosi vel solitarii. Sepala 
lanceolata, Integra vel lobata, interne et marginaliter albido- 
lanata, tergo tomentuloso. Receptaculum rubrum, globulare, 
1.5 cm. diametro. 

Stem and woody branches dark-brown, shining, sparingly 
dotted, as well as the herbaceous branches, with weak, straight 
prickles, erect or inclined, compressed from the base, the infra- 
stipular ones more persistent that the others, or almost or altogether 
naked. Stipules large, with denticulate margins and glandular- 
tipped teeth, glabrous above, pubescent beneath. Leaf-rachis 
villous, often with glandular admixture and an occasional prickle. 
Leaflets 5 — usually 7, on young shoots not seldom 9, obovate to 
oval, obtuse, with more or less cuneate base, serrate, with the 
serratures directed forwards, large, 2.5-4 cm. long, petiolulate, 
glabrous above, tomentulose beneath, especially on margins and 
nerves. Flowers bright pink, about 5 cm. wide, corymbose or 
solitary. Sepals lanceolate, entire or lobed, white-woolly within 
and on the margins, tomentulose on the back. Receptacle 
red, globular, 1.5 cm. in diameter. 

This species has an ample, not at all crowded foliage, which 
makes it distinguishable at first glance from its ally, R. submida, 
and was collected by the writer on the banks of Mouse River at 
Minot, Ward County, on July i, 1909 (type), and on the banks of 
James River at Jamestown, Stutsman County, on August 25, 

1913- 

Writings of earlier dates, if any of them should be found 
irreconcilable with data given in this paper, are herewith repealed, 
as far as the differences go. The author hopes that the contribu- 
tions here made will do their share in aiding to a better under- 
standing of this extremely difficult and altogether too long time 
neglected genus. And he further hopes and wishes that they will 
exercise a stimulating influence in favor of a continued study of 
the multiform roses of his state. 

Leeds, North Dakota. 



NEW PLANTS FROM NORTH DAKOTA 141 

New Plants from North Dakota.— XI. 



BY J. LUNELL. 



Antennaria angustiarum sp. nov. 

Planta in coloniis parvis, marium et feminanim in vicem 
vicinis, genita. Stolones longitudinem caulis dimidiam obtinentes. 
Plantae stamineae et pistillatae longitudine aequales, 10-12 cm. 
altae, femineae lente aliquantulum elongatae. Caulis infimus 
foliis 4-7 lanceolatis, superiorum proximis minoribus verticillatim 
cinctus. Folia basilaria tomento laneo subtili, remisso et radendo 
facile amoto, post pluvias fere pellucido et sub lente tantum 
percepto, superne vestita. Simul folia stolonum radicantium 
tomento aeque appresso-sericeo, per annum primum manente, 
gaudent. Folia basilaria 2-3 cm. longa, 8-12 mm. lata, late ob- 
lanceolata vel elliptica, basi cuneata, petiolo alato sensim angus- 
tato, textura tenui sed firma. Mas capitula pauca, plerumque 
3-4, dense congesta habet, femina capitula 2-5, primum cumu- 
lata, postea corymbosa, pedicellis longitudine varia brevibus 
ornata. Involucra 8 mm. alta. Bracteae maris albae, latae, 
obtusae, integrae, feminae albae, externis macula fusca addita, 
angustae, acutae, integrae. 

Plant growing in small colonies, males and females near 
each other. Stolons about one-half the length of the stem. Mature 
staminate and pistillate plants of equal length, 10-12 cm. high, 
the pistillate becoming somewhat longer in the late fruiting stage. 
The lowest end of the stem encircled by a rosette of 4-7 lanceolate 
leaves, smaller than the leaves next above them on the stem. 
Primary basal leaves carry on the upper side a thin, woolly tomen- 
tum, loose and easily removed by scratching, after rains looking 
almost transparent, and then almost needing the lens to become 
visible. At the same time the leaves on the rooting stolons have 
an equally appressed silky tomentum which they retain during 
the whole first season. Basal leaves 2-3 cm. long, 8-12 mm. 
wide, broadly oblanceolate or elliptic, with a cuneate base gradually 
narrowed into the winged petiole, their texture being thin, but 
firm. The male plant has a dense cluster of few, generally 3 or 
4 heads, the female plant has 2-5 heads, at first clustered, later 
corymbose with short pedicels of variable length. Involucres 8 



142 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

mm. high. Male bracts white, broad, obtuse, entire. Female 
bracts white, the outer with a brown spot, narrow, acute, entire. 
This species is easily differentiated from its allies by the 
characteristic outline as well as pubescence of its leaves, and by 
its tall, few-headed staminate plants. Its home is the high, rolling 
prairie, and it was collected by the writer in a grassy cut, on 
both sides lined in profusion with Eleagnus argentea, 3 or 4 feet 
high, on the upper middle plateau of Butte, Benson County, the 
type specimen dated June i, 19 13. 

Chamaesyce glyptosperma var. integrata var. nov. 
Marginibus foliorum integris. 
Plant with entire leaf margins. 

Collected at Leeds, Benson County, by the writer, on Aug. 
20, 1906. 

Amarella theiantha var. lactea var. nov. 

Corolla albido-flavescens. 

Corolla ochroleucous. In the type the color of the tube is 
a bright sulphur-yellow, and of the lobes white. 

In low gravelly prairie, at Towner, McHenry County. 

Amarella theiantha var. livida var. nov. 
Lobi corollae obscure lividi. 
Corolla lobes of a dull bluish color. 

On the lower end of hillsides, occasionally at Butte, Benson 
County. 

Epilobium adenocaulon var. pseudocoloratum var. nov. 

Caulis in aestate posteriore suboles basilares subsessiles 
evolvens; folia ampla, membranacea, lanceolata, serrulata, con- 
spicue petiolata; petioli alati. 

Stem developing subsessile basal rosettes during the latter 
half of the summer; leaves large, membranous, lanceolate, serru- 
late, distinctly perioled; petiole winged. 

In a cold bog along a rill in the woodland encircling Pleasant 
Lake, Benson County, August 14, 191 1. 

Cirsium nebraskense var. formidolosum var. nov. 

Spinae foliorum 7 mm. longae et lobi profundi. 
Leaf spines 7 mm. long, even stouter than the spines of C. 
ochrocentrum. Leaves as in var. discissum, which is the prevalent 






NEW PLANTS FROM NORTH DAKOTA 1 43 

form and has weak spines of variable length (2-5 mm.). The 
type is in my herbarium and identical with No. 49, Fasc. V. of 
Petrak's Cirsiotheca Uni versa, where it has been introduced 
under the name of Cirsium Flodniannii Petrak. It was collected 
by J. C. Blumer near Minot, Ward County: "America borealis," 
North Dakota, in pratis siccis, arenosis prope pagum "Minot," 
9-12. IX. 1911. 

Erigeron asper var. subinteger var. nov. 

Quaedam folia denticulata. 
Some leaves denticulate. 

Sparingly on prairies at Kulm, La Moure County, where it 
was collected by Dr. J. F. Brenckle on May 15, 19 12. 

Grindelia squarrosa var. quasiperennis var. nov. 

Folia denticulata, basin versus angustata. 
Leaves denticulate, narrowed toward the base. 
Occasionally found within Benson County, in barren, alka- 
line soil. 

Amelanchier macrocarpa sp. nov. 

Arbustum 0.5-2 m. altum. Folia recentiora tomento pallido, 
flavido-albo, mox calvescente dense operta, surculi autem recentes, 
pedunculi, pedicelli, petioli, nervi mediani foliorum laminae 
inferioris tardissime detersi. Folia suborbiculari-oblonga, basi 
rotunda vel subcordata vel raro acutula, apice rotundato vel 
retuso vel mucronato, recentia in longitudinem plicata, 2-6 cm. 
longa, 1.5-4.5 cm. lata, vetustiora firmissima, candide et saturate 
viridia, vehementer venosa, praecipue in marginis partibus duobus 
e tribus inaequaliter serrato-dentata, dentibus apice callosis, alia 
autem folia dentibus paucis minimis aliaque marginibus integris 
vestita. Petala circiter 8 mm. longa, obovata. Pedicelli fructiferi 
3-10 mm. longi. Pomum succulentum, dulce ,atrum vel atropur- 
pureum, 10 mm. diametro, ab Idibus Juniis per mensem Julium 
maturum. Flores de Aprili ulteriore ad Junium priorem apparent. 

Shrubs 0.5-2 m. high. The young leaves densely covered with 
a pale yellowish-white tomentum, soon becoming glabrate, but 
the young twigs, peduncles, pedicels, petioles and median nerves 
of the leaves on the lower side clearing off very late. Leaves 
suborbicular-oblong, with rounded or subcordate or rarely acutish 
base, and with rounded or retuse or mucronate apex, folded length- 



144 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

wise when young, 2-6 cm. long, 1.5-4.5 C"^- broad (comparatively 
broader than in A. ohlongijoUa), older of very firm texture, bright- 
and deep-green, strongly veined, irregularly serrate-dentate, 
especially on the upper two-thirds of their margins, with small 
callous-tipped teeth, but other leaves have only a few, very small 
teeth, and still others have even entire margins. Petals about 
8 mm. long, obovate. Fruiting pedicels 3-10 mm. long. Pome 
juicy, sweet, black or black-purple, 10 mm^. in diameter, ripe 
during the latter part of June-July, while the species is flowering 
from the last part of April until the first part of June. It reaches 
its largest size in moist woods, and is comparatively small in rocky 
uplands.* Besides being planted for its ornamental eflfect in lawns, 
this shrub is highly valued for culinary purposes on account of 
its large, delicious pomes. To the laity, however, the size does 
not entitle them to such a dignified rank, but simply reduces them 
to "berries," as a pome is expected to have at least the size of a 
crabapple. 

Usually distributed as A. alnijolia Nutt., but this shrub has 
leaves glaucous and coarsely crenately serrate-dentate above the 
middle, entire below the middle, and coming nearer to the orbicular 
outline than ours; the pomes are purple with bloom, 6-8 mm. in 
diameter. It grows on banks of streams. Our species is nearest 
related to A. oblongijolia (T. & G.) Roem., but this shrub has 
leaves oblong, 4-6 cm. long, 1.5-2.8 cm. broad (thus narrower 
than ours), finely and evenly serrate, light-green, and its pome is 
smaller, 6 mm. in diameter, and crimson or purplish. 

The type was collected by the writer at Pleasant Lake, Benson 
County, on May 21, 1912 and July 28, 191 1. 

Rhus angustiarum sp. no v. 

Caudex subterraneus ramos caudicibus similes sursum versus 
emittens, anno i: mo pedales, 2 : do 3-pedales, 3:0 5-pedales, 
4: to 7-pedales. Pars tota lignea nuda, gemmis lucidis succulentis 
in locos foliorum priorum substitutis, fusca, lenticellata. Apices 
herbacei tempcstivi er pctioli tegmento glauce scente purpureo- 
maculoso primitus vestiti, tarde obscure spadices, glutinosi. Folia 
15-30 cm. longa, valde conferta. Fohola 13-17, interdum 19, 
mensura et forma admodum variabilia, 3-9 cm. longa, oblongo- 
lanceolata, apice acuminato vel acuto, basi rotundata, foliola 
foliorum superiorum ramorum frugiferorum panee sessilia, foliorum 



NEW PLANTS FROM NORTH DAKOTA I45 

autem inferiorum et omnia ramorum sterilium petiolos conspicuos 
usque 4 mm. longos vel breviores gerentia, serraturae aequales 
vel inaequales, utrinque 3-18, neque profundae neque acres, 
facies superior obscure viridis, nitida, matura siccata lucide viridis, 
inferior folioli recentis lucide viridis, maturantis pallide glauca, 
maturi insigniter dealbata. Panicula' et florens et frugifera pyra- 
raidalis, densa, in saltibus minor (3-9 cm. alta), in campis apertis 
maior (7-15 cm. alta). Fructus complanati, ambitu paene orbicu- 
lares, apice brevi, immaturi succulenti, maturi sicci, 4 mm. alti. 

Stem subterranean, sending forth stem-like branches upwards, 
these being one foot high in the first year, 3 feet in the second year, 
5 feet in the third year, and 7 feet in the fourth year, which is the 
maximum height seen by the writer. The wooden part nude 
throughout, with scattered, light, juicy buds on the sites of former 
leaves, brown, lenticellate. The young herbaceous tops and the 
petioles with a purple-spotted glaucescent bloom early in the 
season, later dark chestnut-colored, glutinous. Leaves 15-30 cm. 
long, very crowded. Leaflets 13-17, sometimes 19, very variable 
in size and outline, 3-9 cm. long, oblong-lanceolate, with acuminate 
or acutish apex and rounded base, the leaflets of the upper leaves 
on the fruiting twigs almost sessile, but those on the lower leaves 
and all on the sterile twigs very plainly petiolulate with even 
to 4 mm. long petioluks, serratures even or uneven, 3-18 on a 
side, not very deep or sharp, upper face dark green, shining, at 
maturity becoming lightish green in drying, lower face in youngest 
leaflets light-green, in somewhat older ones pale-glaucous, at 
maturity remarkably whitened. Panicle pyramidal in flower; 
also in fruit, being smaller in the woodland (3-9 cm. high), larger 
on the open prairie (7-15 cm. high), compact. Drupelets flattened, 
circumference almost orbicular, with a short tip, unripe juicy, 
ripe dry, 4 mm. high. 

In order to differentiate this species from related ones, suffice 
it to state, that R. cismontana Greene has leaflets 11-13, light- 
green above, 4-6 cm. long, subsessile, serratures 10-12 on each 
side, and panicle narrowly pyramidal; and that R. samhucina 
Greene has leaflets 11-13, light-green above, 7-10 cm. long, sub- 
petiolulate, serratures 11- 12 on each side, and panicle oval, lax. • 

From the state of Minnesota with its abundance of R. glabra 
segregates this group of shrubs is said to have established itself 
on the western border of the Red River of the North, but the 



146 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

writer has not seen any representatives of these alHes, which are 
probably R. petiolata Greene or other Minnesota natives. The 
species here described belongs to central North Dakota, and its 
only known habitation is 90 miles west of the Red River on the 
banks of Devil's Lake, where the water basin is narrowed to a 
channel across which a railroad bridge and a public road have been 
built. For this reason the place has received its name. Narrows, 
and hence also is derived the species name of the plant. It was 
collected by the writer on June 26, 19 13, and on August 12 of the 
same year, at which later date the leaves had already commenced 
to attire themselves in their gorgeous, scarlet, autumnal garb. 

Dodecatheon thornense sp. nov. 

Caudex perennis, parvus, radiculis fibrosis validis adiunctis. 
Scapus erectus, procerus, artus, gracilis, interdum autem robustus, 
2-6 dm. altus, fistulosus. Folia longitudinis scapi partem quintam 
usque tertiam attingentia, suberecta, anguste usque late lanceolata, 
in petiolum longum alatum attenuata, nonnihil succulenta, siccata 
membranacea, glabra, integra, apice obtusissimo, 10-15 cm. longa, 
1.5-3 cm. lata. Bracteae late ovatae, acutae. Calyx ad pedicellum 
versus sensim reductus, lobi triangulari-lanceolati. Umbella floribus 
10-15 plerumque vestita. Pedicelli longitudine variabili, in flore 
recurvati, in fructu erecti. Deest in typo corolla. Capsula Crustacea, 
subcylindrica, acuta, valvis 5 brevibus apice aperta, 0.7-1.2 cm. 
longa. 

Rootstock perennial, being a small corm with strong fibrous 
roots attached. Scape erect, tall, narrow and slender, though in 
some plants quite robust, 2-6 dm. high, hollow. Leaves one-fifth- 
one-third of the length of the scape, suberect, narrowly — broadly 
lanceolate, tapering into a long, margined petiole, somewhat 
fleshy, after drying membranous, glabrous, entire, very obtuse 
at the apex, 10-15 cm. long, 1.5-3 cm. wide. Bracts broadly ovate, 
acute. Calyx tapering into the pedicel, lobes triangular-lanceolate. 
Umbel usually 10-15 flowered. Pedicels of variable length, re- 
curved in flower, erect in fruit. Corolla not seen for the type 
locality, but will be described in this journal during the next 
season. Capsule crustaceous, subcylindrical, pointed, opening 
through 5 short apical valves, 0.7-1.2 cm. long. 

This species is plainly distinct from its nearest relative D. 
pauciflorum Greene (a plant distributed from Montana to the 



RHUS GLABRA SEGREGATE; I47 

Pacific coast), having leaves much smaller in proportion and of a 
peculiar cut, narrow, very obtuse, with a leaning to spatulate. 

In the year of 1889, month of June, the writer found at Willow 
City, Bottineau County, a flowering Dodecatheon of small size 
(about 2 dm. high), the growth probably inhibited in part by the 
extreme drought of the entire season. It is lamentable that the 
specimen was lost, especially on account of the impossibility to 
find another one of its kind before the present year, 24 years 
intervening. It had been found, I believe 10 years ago, at Laureat, 
Rolette County, by Miss Lela Lovell, now of Minneapolis, and 
at Thorne, in the same county at a distance of only a few miles 
from Laureat, four years ago by Prof. C. B. Waldron of the North 
Dakota Agricultural College, and, thanks to the detailed notes 
I received from him, I succeeded in securing the fruiting plant on 
the nth of July last in the locality where it was discovered by 
him. I hardly need to add that the species has been named 
from its habitat. The plant produces an abundance of seeds, and it 
would unquestionably be well established in moderately moist 
meadows. But I could not find it where cattle was grazing, and 
the forbidden spots are scarce. It is therefore no wonder that this 
species has apparently a desperate struggle for its existence. 

Leeds, North Dakota. 



Another Rhus glabra Segregate from Nebraska. 



BY J. LUNElyL. 



Rhus Hapemanii sp. nov. 
Frutex ramis robustis, striatis, pullis, nitidis, lenticellatis 
ornatus; frondes amplae et laxae, petiolus et rachis conjuncti 
3 dm. longi; foliola 11-17, spatio unciali remota, magnopere 
petiolulata, acuminata, 9-1 1 cm. longa, 3-3.5 cm. lata, oblongo- 
lanceolata, admodum serrata, singulis marginibus circiter 15 
serraturas inaequales praebentibus, subcoriacea, subfalcata, lamina 
superiore magnificenter et profunde viridia, inferiore, et praesertim 
in speciminibus maturis, vix glaucescentia; paniculae floriferae 
late pyramidales, 2 dm. altae, basi latissimae; paniculae fructiferae 
2 dm. altae, paulum autem angustiores; rami paniculae tomentu- 



148 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

loso-pubescentes; fructiculi permulti, 3 mm. diametro, subovato- 
subglobosi. 

A shrub with stout, striate, brown, shining, lenticillate 
branches; foHage large and ample, petiole and rachis together 
3 dm. long; leaflets 11-17, about i inch apart, strongly petiolulate, 
acuminate, 9-11 cm. long, 3-3.5 cm. wide, oblong-lanceolate, 
strongly serrate, with about 15 somewhat uneven serratures on 
each margin, subcoriaceous, subfalcate, upper face a rich, deep 
green, lower scarcely glaucescent at all, especially on fruiting 
specimens; panicle in flower broadly pyramidal, 2 dm. high, 
widest at base, in fruit of the same height, but not exactly as 
wide; panicle branches tomentulose-pubescent; druplets many, 
3 mm. in diameter, subglobose with an inclination to ovate. 

Its ally, Rhus cisniontana Greene, known from western 
Nebraska and Kansas, is much smaller in all its parts, has 11-13 
leaflets, which are 4-6 cm. long, subsessile and glaucescent beneath, 
and its fruiting panicle is about 9 cm. high. 

The plant just described seems to be a native of southeastern 
Nebraska, as it was collected near Minden, a locality situated 
somewhat east of the central perpendicular line in the southern 
part of that state. As types have been used specimens collected 
in flower on July 8, 19 12, and in fruit on Sept. 12, 19 12, by Dr. H. 
Hapeman, and the species name has been conceived with a view 
of doing honor to him as the discoverer of this remarkably large 
and magnificent sumach. 

The task of differentiating this species from its allies has been 
facilitated in great part through the valued helpfulness of Dr. 
Edward L. Greene, who accentuated the essential points in the 
determination and added to my gratitude by kindly sending me 
leaflets of R. cismontana both fron Kansas and Nebraska. 

Leeds, North Dakota. 



Notes on Box-Elders. — I. 



BY B. F. BUSH. 



Having read Dr. Rydberg's treatment of A\'(iiindo^ in Rocky 
Mountain Flora, I wrote at once to Dr. Nieuwland who obligingly 
I Bull. In. Bot. Club. XL. : 2, p. 54-56. Feb. (1913) 



BOX ELDERS 149 

sent me his paper on Box-elders, real and so-called/ After having 
read and compared these two papers, I began a systematic examina- 
tion of the Box-elders growing about Courtney, Missouri. Some 
five or six years ago I decided that we had wo, or possibly three, 
species of Negundo here, and was taking the common tree of the 
river bottom here for A^. Negundo, and was referring the other 
with some doubt to N. Texanum, a species I was wholly un- 
acquainted with. A large Box-elder is growing in my back yard, 
which I have known for more than 25 years, and this tree I thought 
might be the real A^. Negundo. In rocky woods on the hills 
around, there is another tree that has densely-velvety twigs, which 
years ago I referred to A^. Texanum. Fresh flowering specimens 
of these two trees were sent to Dr. Rydberg last April, who identified 
them as A^. Negundo and A^. interius, respectively, the latter a 
tree supposed to inhabit the Rocky Mountain region of Western 
Nebraska and Western Kansas. As the season advanced and the 
fruit began to mature, I decided after a careful study of several 
hundred trees in Jackson County, that these two trees were more 
properly referred to N. NuUalii and A^. interius. 

I have lately sent good fruiting specimens of these two trees 
to Dr. Nieuwland, who writes me that they are good specimens 
of A''. Negundo and N. Nuttallii. As there seems to be some ob- 
scurity about these species, I shall give a short examination of the 
principal characters accorded each, and compare these with those 
of the trees I now refer to them., that we may the more fully 
understand them. 

Dr. Rydberg in his key to the species of Negundo^, separates 
the species into two groups, the first with branches of the season 
glabrous, or with a few scattered appressed hairs, the second with 
branches densely-velutinous with short spreading hairs. In the 
first section he places N. Negundo and A^. Nuttallii, and in the last 
section A^. interius and A^. Texanum. 

Dr. Nieuwland agrees with Dr. Rydberg in this distinction 
so far as A". Negundo, N. Nuttallii and A^. interius are concerned, 
but he does not recognize A^. Texanum as of specific rank, putting 
it with A^. Calif or nicum.^ Of the four species mentioned above 
as given by Rydberg in his key, he distinguishes them by the 
character of the fruit, which in N. Negundo and A^. Texanum is 

1 Midland Naturalist, 2:6, p. 129-140. Nov. (191 1.) 

2 Rydberg, 1. c. p. 54 3 Nieuwland, 1. c. p. 139. 



I50 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

"pinched" at the base or distinctly constricted below into a stipe- 
like base, and in A^. interius and N. NuUallii not at all constricted 
below. The two trees I have under observation both have the fruit 
not at all "pinched" at the base or constricted into a stipe-like here. 

Dr. Rydberg and Dr. Nicuwland agree that A^. NuUallii has 
leaflets with tufts of hairs in the axils of the veins, and that N. 
Negundo has leaflets glabrous or nearly so at maturity. The tree 
I am calling N . Nuttallii has these tufts of hairs in the axils of the 
veins, but the one I take to be A^ interius has not this character. 

Dr. Nieuwland' says that in A'^. Negundo the secondary veins 
and mesophyl of the leaflets are not conspicuous, and the leaves 
are thin and membranous.^ The tree I take to be A'^. Nuttallii 
has the secondary veins and mesophyl of the leaflets conspicuous 
and the leaflets are thick and very veiny. 

According to Dr. Nieuwland^, A^. Negundo seems almost 
totally absent from the Middle West, but I have seen trees I 
take to be A'^. Negundo in Southern Kansas, vSouthwestern Missouri 
and Northern Arkansas. That the preponderance of evidence is 
in favor of the tree I am calling A^. Nuttallii being that species, is, 
that Nuttall was here at Courtney, Missouri at the beginning of 
the 19th century, and he gives as the range of his Negundo fraxini- 
Jolium, "Northwestward on the banks of the Missouri to the 
Mountains." The tree I am calling A", interius can not be N. 
Negundo for the reason that it has densely velvety-pubescent 
twigs, thick rugose leaflets, secondary veins and mesophyl prom- 
inent and whitish, fruit not "pinched" at base, wings of fruits 
scarcely not at all decurrent on fruit body, and leaves frequently 
bipinnate. 

Courtney, Missouri. 



Notes on Prior ty of Plant Names. 



BY J. A. NIEUWLAND. 



CATHARANTHUS. 

It is difficult to see why the new name Ammocallis* was used 
for a segregate genus from Vinca, when there was at least one 

1 Nieuwlancl, 1. c. p. 136. 

2 Nieuwland, 1. c. p. 136. 3 Nicuwland, 1. c. p. 138. 
4 Small, J. K., Fl. SE. U. S. p. 935, (1903) also 2nd Ed. (1913). 



PRIORITY OF PLANT NAMES 151 

valid older one. Vinca rosea Linn, was first taken out of the genus 
and made the type of a new one by Reichenbach' under Lochnera. 
There was, however, an older Lochneria Scopoli." In 1833 S. Don 
founded the genus Caiharanthns^ with Vincra rosea Linn, and 
Vinca pusilla Linn. The former is mentioned first by Don and is 
therefore to be taken as type should there be any question of 
ambiguity as to successive segregation.'* 
Catharanthus S. Don ]. c. 

" Vinca species Linn." 1. c. 

Lochnera Reichb. 1. c. (1828) not Lochneria Scopoli (1777) 1. c. 

Ammocallis Small (1903), (1913) 1. c. 
Catharanthus roseus G. Don. 1. c. 

Lochnera rosea Reichb. 1. c. 

Ammocallis rosea Small 1. c. p. 936. 

Vinca rosea Linn. Syst. Kd. x. p. 944, (1758). 

NEZRRA. 

Rafinesque's genus Nezera^ is evidently based on the Linum 
striatum of Walter. Dr. Small^ accepts Reichenbach's'' later name 
Cathartolinum based on the type Linum Catharticum Linn. As 
long as the two types are retained in the same group segregate, 
we would expect that the older name be taken up as dictated by 
the rules of priority. Following is the diagnosis of Rafinesque, 
given here so that those to whom this author's work is not readily 
accessible, may use their own judgment as to the practical identity 
of Nezera and Cathartolinum, as far as our American species are 
concerned. 

"899 Nezera Raf. differs from Linum, calix with 5 segments 
unequal in size or shape, stamens equal to the calix, anthers oblong, 
styles 5 (p. 65) very long stigmas thick oblong capsule 5 locular. — 

1 Reichenbach, H. G. L., Consp. Reg. Veg. p. 134, (1828). 

2 Scopoli, J. A. Introd. p. 271, (1777). 

3 Don. G., Gen. Hist. Dichl. PI. iv., p. 95, (1838). 

4 The Kew Index gives the date 1836 for Don's work, but volume 4 of 
the History has 1838 on the title page. The name Lochnera Reichb. was taken 
up by E. Spach, Hist. Nat. Veg. VIII., p. 526, (i 39), having Vinca rosea 
Linn, as type. 

5 Rafinesque, C. S., New. Fl. N. Am. II., p. 64, seg. (1836). 

6 Small, J. K., Fl. S. E. U. S. 2nd ed. p. 662, (1913) also N. Am. Fl. 
25, p. 71. Britton N. L., 111. Fl. II., p. 436, (1913). 

7 Reichenbach, H. G. L., Handb. p. 306, (1837). 



152 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

Another G. of the family Linidia besides those of my fl. tellur. 
Habit similar, but the inequality of calix is very striking and 
generic. The name means not true flax, and several sp. of it are 
perhaps blended in Linum. ..." 

"901 Nezera albiflora Raf. Linum striatum Walter in 
Coll. herb, stem virgate simple subangular, leaves linear acuminate 
adpressed, margin rough, upper subulate, flowers subcorymbose. 
few, peduncles equal to calix segments ovate acuminate uninerve. 
petals obovate — Hills of Georgia and Carolina, pedal slender, 
leaves smaller and not so crowded as in the last, flowers with 3 
corymbose branches bearing 2 or 3 flowers, the lateral on short 
peduncles, calix with unequal segments but of uniform shape, 
petals white smaller than in the last and narrower obtuse not 
flabellate. vStem not striate as it ought to be in L. striatum of 
Walter omitted by all our botanists. — I find in a collection of 
plants made in Texas by Drummond (and sent me by Torrey 
without names, altho' (p. 66) he says that Hooker has named 
them in his compendium) two new Flax apparently of this genus 
which I have designated as follows. ..." 

The Nezera albiflora Raf. which he declined to call Nezera 
striata because he failed to find in the dried plant the striations 
he mentions is therefore considered by him as also the Kew Index 
as Linum striatum Walter, or Cathartolinum striatum (Walt.) 
Small which heads the list of segregates in that author's flora. 
Other species are A^. virginiana (h-), cathartica (L.), sulcata (Redd), 
rigida (Pursh.), etc. Linum do. of the manuals. 

Anychiastrum Small, a Synonym. 

In the New Flora of North America Rafinesque proposed 
the genus Buinalis^ typified by B. floridana. As a synonym he 
gives " Herniaria floridana Bald, do." On the authority of the 
Index Kewensis this is identified with Paronychia Baldivinii (T. & 
G.) Fenzl,^ or Anychia Baldivinii T. & G.-' On studying the 
description of Rafinesque, it would appear that the conclusion 
of the Kew Index seems unwarranted; for there is a considerable 
discrepancy between the plant we know as Paronychia Baldivinii 
(T. & G.) Fenzl, or Anychiastrum Baldivinii (T. & G.) Small, and 

1 Rafinesque C. S., New Flora of N. Am. Ncobotanon, p. 40, (1836). 

2 Fenzl. in Walp. Rep. i, p. 262, (1842). 

3 Torrey, J. & Gray, A. Fl. N. Am. i, p. 172, (1838-40). 



PRIORITY OF PLANT NAMES 153 

the plant Rafinesque must have had in mind when he proposed 
the genus Buinalis, as is evident from the description thereof 
herewith appended.' 

Another genus is proposed by the same author, that is 

I As the works of Rafinesque are rare we think it best to reproduce the 
publication of both Buinalis and Plagidia. 

Rafinesque, C. S. New Flora and Botany of North America, Phil- 
adelphia, (1836), p. 40. 

830 BUINALIS Raf. dioical. calix deeply 5 fid persistent, base turbinate 
with 5 tubercles at the clefts, segments flat edged and crowned by a thick 
colored membrane. Corolla none, male fl. with 5 stamens perigynous 
inserted on the calyx short filiform fertile, and 5 alternate sterile without 
anthers, sometimes lacking. In female fl. ovary ovate, stple filiform elongate 
stigma simple. Fruit Akena ovate smooth monosperm. Stem articulate, 
leaves opposite sessile entire stipulate, flowers fascicled — a new G. or fam. 
It differs from my G. Steiremis in fl. tellur. by dioical single calix, free stamens, 
etc. It has the habit of Herniaria and Anychia to which it is also related 
but differs by dioical flowers and single style, besides the calix not angular 
not acute, etc. The name was an old latin one of Herniaria. 

831 Buinalis floridana Raf. Herniaria Americana Coll. herb. Anychia 
floridana Baldw. do — prostrate diffuse subdichotome fuscate, leaves sessile 
cuneate or obovate obtuse or sub- (p. 41) acute, entire thickish; flowers 
sessile terminal in leafy ramulose. — In the sands of Florida, found by 
Baldwin, perennial, almost suffruticose, stems 3-6 inches long, very ramose, 
stipules scariose ovate acuminate, leaves small 2-3 times long, quite brown 
in the dry specimens; flowers minute dark purple margined of white the 
ends of segments truncate almost retuse forming a vault but not a hood. 
These flowers are at the ends of the small branches crowded with small 
leaves and stipules. 

834 Plagidia Raf. difference from Anychia, calix conical pentagonal, 
segments unequal acuminate not hooded, stamens 5 fertile. Style bifid, 
2 stigmas acute. Annual plants? leaves obliqual broader, flowers in dichotomies. 
The name derives from the double obliquity of the leaves. All these genera 
belong to the Amaranthides. . . . 

p. 43. 839 Argyrocoma imbricata Raf., etc. 

.... A third spieces Par. sessiliflora N. but his P. hernarioides is prob- 
ably of next genus. 

840 Plagidia rufa Raf. Anychia hernarioides Mx ? dichotome scabrous, 
much branched astigiate entirely rufous, leaves obliqual crowded elliptic 
mucronate ciliolate, stipules lanceolate acuminate, flowers solitary. — 
Described from a specimen from Florida anonymous in Collins herb, appar- 
ently the plant of Mx. but I can't be certain as he omitted the singular 
obliquity of the leaves almost as in Chamasyke, and the striking rufous 
color almost like snuff of the whole plant even the stipules, about 3 inches 
high, leaves 3 lines long, quite obliqual at the base altho's sessile, flowers 
few and small. 



154 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

Plagidia.' The name as customary at times is suggested as a 
subgenus if not acceptable as genus, and accordingly not dignified 
by being put in type quite as large as the other genera in the work. 
That Rafinesque's mind was primarily to propose a real genus, 
and not simply a subdivision or subgenus in this particular case 
is evident from the fact that he further on he names and gives the 
characters of the types species as Plagidia rufa Raf.^ The author 
seems to have some doubt as to the identity of this type with the 
Anychia hernarioides Mx., because Michaux omitted one or 
characters which Rafinesque considers important in his type. 
Comparison of the characters described under Plagidia and Plagidia 
rufa Raf. herewith reproduced with Michaux' Anychia hernarioides,-^ 
latter called Paronychia hernarioides, and transferred by Small 
to his genus Anychiastrum, shows that it is identical with R .fin- 
esque's Plagidia rufa in every minute respect. Dr. vSmall has 
designated as the type of his segregated genus above mentioned. 
Paronychia riparia Chapm."^ and includes also Paronychia Bald- 
winii (T. & G.) Fenzl. and Paronychia hernarioides (Michx.) 
Nutt. Although Rafinesque's type and Small's type are not the 
same, it would seem that as long as the two plants are not con- 
sidered distinctively different enough to be in separate genera, 
any group containing the two should be given the older name. 
We therefore transfer the plants under the name Plagidia which 
possesses priority. 

Plagidia Raf. 1. c. p. 42, (1836), (Buinalis Raf.? ace. to deduc- 
tion on authority of Kew Index) not of Buinalis Rafin- 
esque ace. to description. 

Anychiastram Small 1. c. p. 400, (1903). 

Paroynchia Adans. Fam. des PI. 2, p. 272, (1763) segregate. 

Plagidia hernarioides (Michx.) Nwd. 

Anychiastrum hernarioides (Michx.) Small, 1. c. 

Plagidia rufa Raf. 1. c. p. 43, (1836). (Rafinesque's type 

of Plagidia. 
Paronychia hernarioides (Michx.) Nutt. 

Plagidia Baldwinii (T. & G.) Nwd. 

{Buinalis Baldwinii Kew. Index, not Raf. 1. c. p. 43. 

I 1. c. p. 42. 2 1. c. p. 43- 

3 Michaux, A., Fl. Bor. Am. i, p. 172, (1803). 

4 Chapman Fl, vS. U. vS. Supp. p. C07, (i860). 



PRIORITY OF PLANT NAMES 155 

Anychiastrum Raldwinii (T. & G.) vSmall 1. c. 

Paronychia Baldwinii (T. & G.) 
Plagidia riparia (Chapm.) Nwd. 

Anychiastrum riparium (Chapm.) Small, 1. c. (vSmall's type 
of Anychiastrum). 

Paronychia riparia Chapm. 
Plagidia montana (Small) Nwd. 

Anychiastrum montanum Small Torreya loi, p. 230, (1910). 

VlTlCELIyA 

Dr. Smair in adopting the name Viticella for the segregated 
genus with Clematis Viticella Linn, as a type, did not take the 
valid name whether 1753 be accepted as the "starting point" 
for nomenclature, or absolute historical priority admitted. The 
name seems to have been used for that plant as type of a new 
genus by Dillenius in his treatise. Nova Plantarum Genera p. 165, 
(17 19). Neither the first' nor the second-' edition of his Hortus 
Elthamensis have any record of Viticella, most likely because 
the plant was not found in the Eltham Gardens, and the first 
publication since 1753 of this Clematis segregate is that of Moench'^ 
to whom the genus should be attributed by the followers of the 
American and Vienna Codes. Before Linnaeus Viticella was 
used by Caesalpinus for Clematis Flammtila Linn., by Matthaeus 
Sylvaticus for Bryonia alba, and before the time of Dodonaeus 
for a cucurbitaceous plant by some. The name is not a most 
desirable one at that in a good system of nomenclature, being a 
misnomer, and objectionable in the Linnaean as a diminutive 
form of the existing name Vitex. This Viticella as used since 1753 
is, moreover, antedated by another V iticella Mitchell^ , (1769) the 
identity of which has been variously interpreted by a number of 

1 Small, J. K. Fl. S. E. U. S. (1903) p. 437- 

2 Dillen, J. Hort. Eltham. (1732). 

3 Dillen, J. Hort. Eltham. (1774)- 

4 Moench, C. Meth. Plant, p. 296, (1794). 

5 Mitchell, Dr. J. Dissertatio Brevis de Prin. Botan. & ZooL, cum 
Append, aliquot. Gen. PI. recens cond. and in Virginia Obs. Norimbergae, 
impensis Wolfgangi Schwarz-Kopfii (1769), 4, 46. p. (See Pritzel ist and 
2nd editions also Kuntze, O. Rev. Gen. PI. I, p. 519, (1893). The first edition 
of Mitchell's work came out in Act. Ac. Carol. 8, or Ephem. Norimb. (1748). 
This was, however, by the author given as follows, "Dabam ex aedibus 
meis Virginiae 11, 3, (1741). 



156 AMKRICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

authors, to be shown further on. Whatever, Mitchell's name be 
applied to or whether not with absolute certainty applied to any 
known plant heretofore, there can be no question that Moench's 
later application must be displaced by another even if a new one 
must be made. The next nam^e in order for the Clematis segregate 
is perhaps Sieboldia HoiTing.' Of this genus Clematis florida Thunb. 
or Clematis japonica Thunb. should be type. Spach^ who admits 
Moench's Viticella puts the former of these in that genus as Viticella 
florida DC so for this reason was Sieboldia Hoffing suggested 
here. Sieboldia Viticella (Linn.) or Clematis Viticella Linn., may 
therefore be put in this genus unless the type were the other 
plant Clematis japonica Thunb. or Sieboldia japonica (Thunb.) 
Hoflmg. In the latter case Sieboldia would be but an unconditional 
synonym perhaps of Clematis itself.^ 

As to the identity of Viticella Mitchell (1748 and 1769) more 
than one suggestion has been made. Brand'^ apparently unmindful 
that Mitchell's treatise of 1748 was also republished in 1769, and 
apparently on the authority of Asa Gray^, states that it was 
meant for Hydrophylhim appendicidatum Linn. The Index Kewen- 
sis also maintained this supposed equivalence. Brand fails to 
explain why Viticella Mitchell (1769) was not taken up by him 
for the much later Decemium Raf.^ (18 17), unless he was unaware 
of the 1769 edition of Mitchell, or unless he saw that the description 
of Mitchell was but very questionably applicable to Hydrophyllym 
appendiculatiim Linn. Comparison even superficial, of the character 
of this plant with Mitchell's publication of Viticella shows that 
the description not only varies much but is in many respects 
indeed contradictory and quite inapplicable. 

Adanson^ in reference of course to the publication in the 
first edition of Mitchell's work, and likewise Boehmer^ consider 



1 Hoffniannsegg, J. C. Preisv. Nachtr. p. 28, (1842). 

2 Spach, E. Hist. Nat. Veg. 7, p. 264, (1839). 

3 As I have been unable to study Hoffmannsegg's work it may be 
that, the other plant be the type, and in case the genus Sieboldia be inap- 
plicable I suggest the name Atrichlema to replace Viticella (Dill) Moench. 

4 Brand, A. Das Pflanzenreich IV, 251, p. 36, (1913). 

5 " Teste A. Gray" 1. c. 

6 Rafinesque, C. S. Fl. Ludov. p. 34, (181 7) in obs. 

7 Adanson, M. Fam. dcs PI. 2. pp. 226, 560, 619, (1763). 

8 Boehmer, G. R. in Ludwig-Boehmer, Def. Gen. PI. p. 27, (1760). 



Priority of plant names 157 

his Viticella equivalent to Galax Linnaeus; this probably becuase 
lyinnaeus' himself mistakenly mentions this name in synonymy 
with his Galax. Spach^ too, accepts the same opinion, all having 
overlooked the fact that the description of Mi'chell is not at all 
applicable. His description can in no way be applied to the Lin- 
naean Galax, the latter having only two to four segments on the 
calyx, while Mitchell's plant had five small lanceolate reflexed, 
alternating, shorter segments." More than likely it was because 
of these and other misrepresentations, and injustices that Mitchell's 
work was deemed necessary for republication in 1769, this edition 
being considered a protest against the disregard of Linnaeus of 
his first publication. Little heed was paid, however, to this latter 
edition, or still is, for that matter, as regards, for example, credit 
for publication of Aphyllon, Pentstemon and Viticella. 

As may be readily seen by those who compare the description 
of Mitchell's Viticella here given, ^ with Galax, or Hydrophyllum 
app .ndiciilatum, the discrepancies are too great to favor the views 
of those authors already referred to. It seems, however, on study- 
ing and comparing this description that it applies very accurately 
to a plant then unrecorded apparently, but which in fact Mitchell 
may have had both at hand and in mind, when he published 
Viticella in the list of genera omitted by Linnaeus in the edition 
of the Genera Plantarum of 1737 to which it was proposed as 
supplement by its author. I refer to the plant called by Nuttall 
later, Ellisia microcalyx,'* now called Nemophila microcalyx (Nutt.) 

1 Linnaeus, C, Sp. PI. p. 200 (1753), p. 289 (1763). 

2 Spach, E. Hist. Nat. Veg. 9, p. 444 (1840). 

3 Following is the text of Mitchell's description, p. 42, 1. c. 
XXIV. Viticella, Cat. perianthium decaphyllum, foliolis alternis, 

externis brevioribus, lanceolatis, reflexis; internis longioribus lanceolatis 
acutis erectis. 

Cor. monopetala hypocrateriformis, tubus cylindricus calyce ferme 
brevior; limbus planus, quinquefidus laciniis obtusiis. 

Stam. filamenta quinque parva, brevia, corolla adnata, Antherae sub- 
rotundae in coUo coroUae conniventes. 

Pist. germen ovatum villosum. Stylus filiformis, semibifidus, longitu- 
dine staminum. Stigma subrotunda. 

Eer. capsula ovata, unilocularis, (bivalvis metnbranacea, colorata) vi 
elastica praedita. 

Sem. duo, magna, plano-concava, ovata, dura, callosa; quasi unicum 
bilobum. 

4 Nuttall, T. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. N. Ser. V, p. 191 (1833 or 1837). 



158 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

Fisch & May,' and called by Muhlenberg Hydrophyllum pusillum 
according to Nuttall. This plant is reported from Virginia on the 
authority of Gray.^ The name Viticella would then seem an older 
and valid one for the genus Nemophila NuttalP as typified in this 
case by N. or V. microcalyx. The name would then supplant 
Nemophila which it antedates by more than fifty years. 

TRIORCHOS. 

The name Triorchos Small and Nash'^ is so much like Trior- 
chis Petiver-Millan^ both in sound and even ultimate derivation 
that it becomes a homonym. I suggest that Smallia take its place. 

Dept. of Botany, 

Noire Dame, Ind. 



Our Birds in the Winter of 1912- 13. 

BY BROTHER ALPHONSUS, C. S. C. 

In December, the temperature remained above freezing point 
until the yth, but after that date it was generally below 32°. The 
records in this article begin on the above date. Throughout the 
winter there were days when the weather was exceedingly mild, a 
fact that would account for the presence of certain species that 
I had not observed before in any winter. Such were the Northern 
Shrike and Herring Gull. In March, the weather was cold up to 
the 8th, when the temperature rose to 38°; and the next day the 
first Robins appeared. This date marked the end of winter. 

In December, the Blue Jay was present on 10 days, with the 
longest interval of 11 days. In Januar)^ it was seen on 15 days, 
with the short interval of 2 days. In February, it was observed 
on 9 days, the longest interval being 5 days. In March, there were 
but two records, with an interval of 6 days. 

^ I Fisch and Mey. Sert. Petropol. t. 8, (1846). 

2 Gray, A. Man. Bot. N. U. vS. p. 327 (1858. "Rich tnoist woods 
Virginia near Washington) and southward. 

3 Nuttall, T. Jr. Phil. Acad. 2, p. 179 (1822). 

4 Small, J. K. Fl. S. E. U. S. p. 3^9 (1903). 

5 Petiver-Millan Op. Hist. Nat. Spect. II. (1764) Gazoi)hyllacium, 
t. 68, 7. Sec Am. Mid. Nat. III. p. 122, (1913)- 



OUR BIRDS IN WINTER 1912-13 159 

In December, the Snowbird was observed on 12 days, with 
the greatest interval of 8 days. In January, it was seen on 10 days, 
the longest interval being 5 days. In February, it was present 
on 12 days, with 8 days as the longest number absent. In March, 
it was seen on 6 days, with only an interval of i day. 

Last winter the Snowbird was not recorded between Jan. 29 
and Mar. 20 — 50 days. From this fact the writer concluded that 
the species had migrated for this period. During the present 
winter the Snowbird was observed from Jan. 22 to Mar. 11 — 47 
days — only in the vicinity of a certain dump-pile. If the writer 
had not visited this place, he would naturally have surmised 
that the species had left this locality. Instead of a migration, 
then, there was a very restricted distribution of the species. But 
he still believes that the Snowbird migrated last winter, for he 
failed to find any of the species near the same dump pile. 

In December, the Crow was observed on 7 days, the longest 
interval being 9 days. In January, it was present on 25 days, 
and the longest absence was 7 days. In February, the species 
was seen on 20 days, with a short interval of 3 days. In March, 
5 days present and an interval of 2 days was the record. The 
Crow is the most widely distributed species in winter: this season 
it was observed on 57 days. 

In December, the White-breasted Nuthatch was present on 
10 days, with the longest interval also 10 days. In January, the 
species was recorded on 12 days, and the longest absence was 
7 days. In February, 17 days present and a short interval of 

2 days was the record made. In March, the species was seen on 

3 days, and not seen for 5 days. Next to the Crow, the White- 
breasted Nuthatch is our most abundant winter species — 42 
days present this season. 

Among rare species observed this winter were the Song Sparrow, 
Hairy Woodpecker, Chickadee and Northern Shrike. During four 
winters, the last named species was observed only on the dates 
given in this article. The Song Sparrow was found only on Dec. 
2, 1 911 and Dec. 14, 191 2. The Chickadee was recorded only on 
Feb. II, 18, 1911 and on the dates given below. The Hairy Wood- 
pecker was found only on Mar. 2, 1912 and Jan. 11, 1913. 

Other species are comparatively rare also, but appear with 
more regularity. These are the Brown Creeper, Tree Sparrow and 
Snowflake. This winter the Creeper was recorded twice in Decem- 



l6o AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

ber and once in February. Last winter this species was seen on 7 
days in December and once in February. In the winter of 1911-12, 
the Tree Sparrow appeared as follows: Dec. i, 25; Jan. 31; Feb. 
15 to 18, 20, 23, 24, 27, 28; Mar. I. The Snowflake was recorded 
on Jan. 16, 1911; Mar. 2, 3, 1912. 

The Downy Woodpecker is the only species that is neither 
very rare or very common in winter. In December, it was seen on 
4 days, with three intervals of 6 days and one of 7 days. In Jan- 
uary, the species was found on 6 days, with two long intervals 
of 8 days and several short intervals. In February, this woodpecker 
was present only on 3 days, with the longest interval of 14 days. 
In March, the only record was on the 8th. 

Two records worthy of comment were the Herring Gull on 
Jan. 17 and the Bluebird on Feb. 19. This was the first time in 
winter that the writer observed the Herring Gull in the vicinity 
of small inland lakes. The Bluebird has been seen before in winter, 
but not with such a long interval between the first and second 
observations. This year the first record of the species was made 
on Feb. 19 and the second on Mar. 11 — an absence of 19 days. 
On Feb. 19 the temperature rose to 60°, but was followed by cold, 
stormy days for about two weeks. 

Species not seen this winter: Goldfinch, Screech Owl, Evening 
Grosbeak, Hell Diver, Bobwhite, Cardinal, Sparrow Hawk, Red- 
poll, Robin. 

December. 
Birds seen on the dates after their names: 
Blue Jay 7, 8, 9, 12, 14, 16 to 19, Chickadee 8, 9, 10, 11, 13. 

31. Snowbird 7, 8, 9, 11, 14, 15, 16, 

Crow 7, 14, 15, 16, 26, 27, 31. 17, 18, 20, 29, 31. 

Song Sparrow, 14. Downy Woodpecker, 7, 14, 21,23 

White-breasted Nuthatch II, 14, Brown Creeper, 18, 19. ^ 
17, 18, 19, 20, 24, 25, 26, 31. Northern Shrike, 7. 
Total number of species seen, 9. 

January. 
Birds seen on the dates after their names: 
Blue Jay, i, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 1 1, 13, Snowbird, 7, 9, 15, 21, 22, 24, 

15, 17, 18, 21, 22, 25, 26, 28. 28, 29, 30 ,31. 
Crow, I, 2, 4 to 9, II, 12, 13, Downy Woodpecker, 4, 13, 17, 
17, 18, 19, 2ito 29, 31. 20, 21, 2?, 



MIGRATION OF OUR BIRDS l6l 

White-breasted Nuthatch i, 9,10 Tree Sparrow, 22, 24. 

II, 13, 17, 18, 19, 22, 24, 26, 29. Snowflake, 8. 
Hairy Woodpecker, 11. Herring Gull, 17. 

Total number of species seen, 9. 

February. 
Birds seen on the dates after their names: 
Blue Jay, i, 3, 9, 11, 17, 18, 20, Snowbird, i, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 11, 

24, 28. 13, 16, 17, 18, 27. 

Crow, I to 5, 7, 8, 9, II, 13, 14, Downy Woodpecker, 3, 18, 25. 
15, 17, 19, 20, 21, 24, 25, 27, 28. White-breasted Nuthatch, i, 3, 
Tree Sparrow, 16. 6, 8, 1 1 to 14, 16, 17, 19, 20, 

Snowflake, 2, 4, 5. 22, 24, 25, 27, 28. 

Northern vShrike, 15. Bluebird, 19. Brown Creeper, 24. 

Total number of species seen, 10. 

March. 

Birds seen on the dates after their names: 
Blue Jay, i, 8. Snowbird, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8. 

Crow, I, 4, 5, 7, 8. Downy Woodpecker, 8. 

White-breasted Nuthatch, 6, 7, 8 Tree Sparrow, 3, 4, 8. 

Total number of species seen, 6. 

Total number of species seen during the winter, 15. 



Comparative Migration of Our Birds in Spring. 

BY BROTHER ALPHONSUS, C. S. C. 



In the first three years, 7 days were the greatest difference 
between the earliest and latest arrival of the Bluebird. In 19 12, 
the date given, I think, was not the correct one; for I heard that 
the species had been seen sooner by other observers. Although I 
admit that my record was likely later than the true date of migra- 
tion, still the fact that I did not observe the species until that date 
indicates that the very cold weather of early spring was the cause 
of the great scarcity ofthe Bluebird until late in March. 

In the four years of our comparison, the greatest difference 
between the earliest and latest arrival of the Robin was 17 days. 
The fourth year being the one in which this species was 10 days 
later than in 19 10, and 12 days later than in 1909, the usual time 



1 62 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

for the Robin to arrive may be set down as the first or second week 
in March. 

The Meadowlark shows as its usual time for arriving in spring 
the same as that of the Robin, with one late date in 19 12. The 
late arrival in 191 2 of all the early spring migrants clearly shows 
that cold weather is a determining cause of the delay of migrating 
birds in spring. 

The vSong Sparrow is quite regular in its time of arrival in 
spring, the first or second week in March, under usual conditions, 
always marking its advent. The observer is always sure of his 
date of migration when referring to this species, for it announces 
its presence on the very first day of arriving by its well-known 
song. 

The Purple Grackle and Killdeer are two more species that 
are among the early March migrants, but like the species already 
mentioned, they will not brave cold weather in order to keep to 
this regular time of arriving. 

The Mourning Dove usually arrives late in March, 15 days 
being the greatest difference in its time of arriving in the four 
years under comparison. The first three years show that this 
species may be looked for either in the third or fourth week in 
March. 

In the Kingfisher, we have a species that shows 17 days as 
the greatest number between its earliest and latest arrival. The 
dates of the four years are so distributed as to establish the fact 
that this migrant may arrive either in the third or fourth week 
in March, or in the first or second week in April. The observer is 
quite sure of his dates in speaking of the Kingfisher, for the size 
of the bird and its aquatic habits make it unlikely that the species 
will not be seen on the first day of its arrival. 

The Phoebe's dates for the four years mark the time of arrival 
for this species to be the last week in March or the first week in 
April. The Golden crowned Kinglet also arrived two years in the 
last week in March and two years in the first week in April. 

The Cowbird showed one irregularity in arriving as early 
as March 16, 19 10, while the other three years each give the first 
week in April as the usual time of migrating. This March date 
was 17 days sooner than the earliest date in April. Who can give 
a satisfactory explanation of this irregularity? 

In the case of the Vesper Sparrow and the Flicker, the dates 



MIRGATION OF OUR BIRDS 1 63 

show that these species usually arrive in the first week in April 
and move rarely in the last week in March. On the other hand, 
the Field Sparrow arrived three years in the last week in March 
and one year in the first week in April. 

The Chipping Sparrow shows irregularity in the two dates in 
April — the first and the second weeks; but in March both dates 
are in the last week. In April, the Sapsucker shows great regularity, 
arriving three years in the second week; the one irregular date 
was in the last week in March. 

The Hermit Thrush arrived two years in the first week in 
April and two years in the second week, 9 days being the difference 
between the earliest and latest date. The Brown Thrasher shows 
a little less irregularity, arriving three years in the third week in 
April, and having 7 days between the earliest and latest date. 

The Purple Finch, in the two )^ears that the bird made its 
appearance, shows regularity in its dates of arrival; there being 
but 5 days between the two dates. 

The Towhee presents a case of great irregularity in migrating, 
there being no two years when the bird arrived in the same week. 
The greatest difference in the dates was 29 days. 

The Barn Swallow came one year in the second week in April, 
another year in the third week, and in the remaining two years 
in the fourth week, the greatest difference between the earliest 
and latest date being 14 days. 

The Red-headed Woodpecker shows the greatest disparity 
in its dates of migration of any species under consideration, 39 
days being the difference between the earliest and latest date of 
arrival. The four dates are variously distributed in the third 
week, in March, first, second and fourth weeks in April. 

The Red-winged Blackbird's dates present great differences, 
but I am sure that the date for 1909 — April 20 — can not have been 
the correct time of arrival. This species is usually found only in 
swampy places and unless such a place is visited, the observer 
may not see the bird until long after its arrival. The true time of 
migration for the Red-wing must, therefore, be set down as the 
first or second week in March. 

The dates found in the four years show for the Myrtle Warbler 
a migration period of 16 days, and make the time of arrival as 
early as the third week in April and as late as the first week in 
May. The Ruby crowned Kinglet is still more irregular, with 22 



164 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

days as the greatest difference in the earliest and latest dates of 
migration. The second and fourth weeks in April and the first 
week in May were the times of arrival for this species. 

The Cardinal is really not a migrating species, but is very 
locally distributed at every season of the year, especially in winter. 
Unless the observer visits a river or swamp, he may fail to find 
a single individual for months together. During the spring of 
19 13, I head the Cardinal's note only on one occasion — when I 
went to the St. Joseph River early in May. 

The House Wren, Yellow Palm Warbler, Chimney Swift, 
Yellow Warbler, Baltimore Oriole, Rose-breasted Grosbeak, 
Warbling Vireo, Orchard Oriole, Kingbird, Black-throated Blue 
Warbler, Catbird, Bobolink, Purple Martin, Bay-breasted Warbler, 
Canadian Warbler, Least Flycatcher, Red-eyed Vireo, Cedarbird 
and Yellow-billed Cuckoo — all show regularity in their dates of 
migration, there being not more than 8 days between the earliest 
and latest date of arrival. 

The Indigo Bird arrived, in the four years, in the first, second 
and third weeks of May, with the greatest difference 12 days. The 
Maryland Yellowthroat arrived" in the second and fourth weeks 
of May. The Redstart came the last week in April and the first 
and second weeks in May, with 17 days between the earliest and 
latest date. 

The Dickcissel arrived two years in the second week in May 
and one year in the third week, no record of the species having 
been made at any time in 19 12. This bird, like the Purple Finch, 
does not appear some years. 

The Nighthawk and Whip-poor-will show irregularity in their 
times of migration. In the case of the latter species, however, I 
think my dates are not correct; for my observations in spring 
were made in woods near a town, which this migrant does not 
enter, except rarely. I should put the true time of arrival, from 
what reports I have heard, as the first week in May. 

1909 1910 1911 1912 

Bluebird Mar. i Feb. 22 Feb. 23 Mar. 25 

Robin " 2 Mar. 4 " 25 " 14 

Meadowlark " 5 " 6 Mar. 9 " 19 

Song Sparrow " 6 "5 " 9 " 22 

Purple Crackle " 7 " 6 " 9 " 19 



MIGRATION OF OUR BIRDS 



165 



Killdeer 

Mourning Dove 

Kingfisher 

Phoebe 

Cowbird 

Vesper Sparrow 

FHcker 

Field Sparrow 

Golden-crowned Kinglet 

Chipping Sparrow 

Sapsucker 

Hermit Thrush 

Purple Finch 

Brown Thrasher 

Towhee 

Hell Diver 

Barn Swallow 

Red-headed Woodpecker 

Red-winged Blackbird 

Myrtle Warbler 

Cardinal 

Ruby-crowned Kinglet 

House Wren 

Yellow Palm Warbler 

White-crowned Sparrow 

Chimney Swift 

Wilson's Thrush 

Yellow Warbler 

Baltimore Oriole 

Rose-breasted Grosbeak 

Indigo Bird 

Warbling Vireo 

Orchard Oriole 

Kingbird 

Black-throated Blue Warbler 

Goldfinch 

Catbird 

Maryland Yellowthroat 

Redstart 



1909 
Mar. 9 
" 19 



Apr. 



May 



3 
3 
5 
5 
5 
6 

7 

10 
II 
13 
14 
17 
17 
19 
19 
20 
20 
20 
20 
22 

23 
26 
27 
3 
3 
5 
5 
5 
5 
6 

7 
8 

9 
1 1 

7 
II 
12 



1910 

Mar. 4 
28 
30 
29 
16 
26 
24 

25 
30 
29 
26 
4 



Apr. 



10 
Mar. 19 

" 31 
Apr. 27 

" 4 

Mar. 5 

May. 2 

Apr. 7 

" 10 

" 28 

May 3 



1911 

Mar. 9 

" 24 

" 22 

" 22 

Apr. 2 

9 

" 5 

Mar. 21 

22 

" 30 

Apr. 1 1 

" II 

" 9 
" 16 
" 8 
" 27 
" 26 
Mar. 18 

" 9 

Apr. 26 

May 7 

Apr. 25 

" 29 

" 30 



1912 

Mar. 14 

Apr. 3 

8 

" 2 

6 

" I 

" 10 

Mar. 31 

Apr. 6 

5 
12 

5 

15 
2 

13 

26 

2 

16 

Mar. 18 

May 2 

" 3 

" 5 



8 May 3 " i 

2 Apr. 27 May 3 

2 May 3 " 2 

8 " 13 

17 May 17 " 14 

3 Apr. 30 Apr. 30 
10 May 8 May 4 

4 Apr. 30 " 2 

" 4 

Apr. 2 Apr. 6 Mar. 21 

May 7 May 2 May 2 

" II Apr. 27 

4 " 25 May 3 



[66 



AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 





1909 


1910 


191 1 


1912 


Bobolink 


May 13 


May 14 


May 7 


May 13 


Purple Martin 


" 13 


" 8 


7 




Blackburnian Warbler 


" 13 






May 3 


Scarlet Tanager 


" 19 


May 10 


May 15 


2 


Bay-breasted Warbler 


" 19 


" 16 




" 13 


Dickcissel 


" 19 


12 


May 10 




Least Flycatcher 


" 22 


" 14 




May 22 


Canadian Warbler 


" 24 






" 19 


Tennessee Warbler 


24 






3 


Wood Pewee 


* 


May 20 


May 10 


May 6 


Crested Flycatcher 


May 27 


May 10 


May 10 


" 6 


Nighthawk 




June 3 


May I 


" 19 


Yellow-throated Vireo 




May 4 




" 19 


Red-eyed Vireo 


* 


" 21 


May 17 


May 19 


Warbling Vireao 


* 


" 3 


Apr. 30 


Apr. 30 


Alder Flycatcher 


May 25 


12 


May 28 


May 20 


Least Flycatcher 


" 22 


' 18 




May 22 


Cedarbird 


" 27 


June I 


May 3 1 


" 24 


Whip-poor-will 




" 15 


May 8 


" 26 


Yellow-billed Cuckoo 


May 28 


May 30 


" 20 


" 27 


* Record lost. 




1 Indiana. 




Linnaea americana ii 


- 



Linnaea americana Forbes is regarded a decidedly more 
northern plant than would be expected in our flora. Its presence 
in a bog at the lower end of Lake Michigan near Mineral vSprings 
(Porter Co.), where I found it this fall, may be accounted for by 
the fact that the prevailing cold winds from the north that built 
the dunes make the region somewhat boreal. Other more northern 
plants associated with it are Cornus canadensis Linn, and Thuja 
occidentalis Linn. Of the latter there are still some trees over 
twelve inches in diameter, and a rather good growth of saplings. 



For Apocynmn tomentcllum Nwd. Am. Mid Nat. III., p. 55, 
substitute Apocynum iomentidosmn. There was another plant 
of that name, Greene E. L. Leaflets etc. Vol. I. p. 58. 



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VOL. III. JANUARY, 1Q14. NO. 7. 

a«Ik% midland 
naturalist 

Devoted to Natural History, Primarily 
that of the Prairie States 



Published by the University of Notre Dame, 
Notre Dame, Indiana 

J. A. NIEUWLAND, C. S. C, Ph. D., Sc. D., Editor 



CONTENTS 

In the Woods Walter Louis Hahn, Ph. D. 167 

Critical Notes on New and Old Genera of Plants. — I. 

j. A. Xieiiivland 170 

Priority of Hieroehloa R. M. h'acz.niarck 19S 

Notes on Cleistogamous Flowers of Violets. — 11. 

/. .4. Xicn-a'land 198 

Polygonum Longistylum Small, A Synonym /. .4. Xieiiidand 200 

Our Birds in the Spring of 1913 Brother Alphonsus, L'. S. ('. 201 



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material properly fixed for histological study 
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in season. 

Slides of Algae, 20 cts, a piece, net 

Write for Circular to the 

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VOL. III. JANUARY, 1914. NO. 7. 

IN THE WOODS. 

How the Wild Creatures are Spending the Winter. 



BY WALTER LOUIS HAHN, PH. D.= 



This is the season when the size of a man's bank account 
is most apt to determine his location. For in summer practically 
every one spends much of his time out of doors even though he 
may not go to Newport or Lenox. But in winter it is only the 
rich man who can escape the inclemency of the weather by taking 
a southern journey. 



* "On May 31, 191 1, a distressing accident occurred on St. Paul Island. 
Dr. Harry D. Chichester, assistant agent, and Dr. Walter L. Hahn, the 
naturalist on the seal islands, with their wives and a native, Neon Tetof, 
while sailing on the lagoon were unable to put about successfully in the 
high wind and by the capsizing of their boat were exposed to the ice- 
cold water for more than an hour. All were alive when rescued, and Mrs. 
Chichester and Mrs. Hahn, by the diligent efforts of the physician, were 
resuscitated. The native also survived, but Dr. Chichester and Dr.. 
Hahn, necessarily left without medical attention for a time, succumbed 
to the effects of the exposure." 

..Dr. Hahn entered upon his duties as naturalist in the fall of 1910. 
His training, wide field experience, and well-known ability and enthu- 
siasm as a zoologist and practical business man were assurance that his 
appointment to the position of naturalist, just established, would prove 
a wise selection. His report, written up to the very day of his death, 
shows that he possessed a remarkably clear understanding of the problems 
with which he had to deal. Arriving at the islands August 23, 1910, he 
made daily observation and study of the seals and foxes throughout the 
fall, winter, and spring. He also gave attention to the birds and other 
animals on and about the islands, to the plants, and to meteorological 
phenomena, and gave much thought to the local educational problems 
and the intellectual and moral well-being of the natives, working out a 
system of education such as he believed best adapted to their needs." 

* Report, Alaska Fish and Fur Ind. p. 90,, (1912). 



l68 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

And while the members of the human family are either dis- 
cussing the merits of Palm Beach and Ormond or else wondering 
how the coal bill is going to be met, the members of Nature's 
big family are also devising ways and means of spending the 
winter. 

The birds are the aristocrats of the animal kingdom and 
they alone can afford to spend the winter under genial southern 
skies. But even some of their number must remain to look after 
business and they are not all the poor cousins either, if one may 
judge by appearances, for along with the sparrows and the somber 
colored Juncos who are holding a carnival among the briars, 
may be seen the scarlet crest of the Red-bird and the royal blue 
of the Jay. 

Down in the woods in the whiteness of the winter midnight, 
the rabbits, those happy-go-lucky children of Nature's family, 
are having a feast and their choicest viands are the stems of the 
w41d Hydrangea and the Arrow -wood, served with garnishings of 
ferns and a relish of sassafras. Little does Bunny care for cold 
or snow. But other dangers are abroad and sensitive nostrils warn 
him just in time that the cut-throat mink is near. lie dashes 
away in terror, his hind legs over-reaching his front ones in his 
haste and leaving their imprints foremost in the snow. 

The mink starts to follow but is unequal to the pace and 
turns his attention to smaller game. As he leaves the woods and 
crosses a field a little tunnel in the snow catches his eye. Can 
that be made by a mouse? he thinks, as he stops and sniffs at 
the snow, thrusts his nose into it and sniffs again. No! it was 
only a tiny shrew whose body is scarcely larger than a lady's 
thumb, besides it has some glands which give it an' unsavory 
taste and smell and so the mink trots on still looking for signs of 
prey. 

Here is another mark to be examined. The foot-prints are 
in pairs and there is a curious little streak in the snow behind them. 
That streak must be the mark of a tail and so these tracks could 
have been made only by a white-footed mouse for no other 
creature with feet so small and a tail so long is abroad on these 
cold winter nights. He would make a dainty morsel for a hungry 
mink but he has gone under that old stump and there he is safe 
for tonight. 

Over in the woods on the other side of the field the snow 



IN THE WOODS 1 69 

is thrown up and broken in a broad irregular line which shows that 
the earth under it is also upheaved. That must be the work of 
the pine mouse and here in the woods where the leaves are thick 
the grOimd is mellow and unfrozen and he should not be hard 
to catch. The mink waits only to make certain where the mouse 
has stopped, then as he sees the snow crust moving, he leaps to 
the spot, his paws work like lightning, and in an instant his teeth 
close upon the helpless victim. The warm blood tastes good and 
he would be content with that if food were plentiful but now 
after a three days fast the flesh can not be wasted and so the 
mouse is quickly devoured. 

Rut we can not continue to follow the fortunes of the mink 
for there are other things of interest in the woods. The brook, 
too, contains a variety of animal life. The Johnny Darter and the 
Miller's Thumb dart through its swift current searching for food 
even though the waters be cold and their distant relatives, the 
cat-fish and the carp, may be lying torpid in the mud at the 
bottom of the river. 

Under the rocks the larvae of the stone flies are hiding, 
together with leeches, sow-bugs and a host of other creatures. 
The dobson, choicest of bait for the black bass, is also here and 
those black lumps that seem to be glued to the rocks are water 
snails. Both they and the cray-fish which live here in the stream 
can remain active in the coldest weather when their relatives on 
the dry land must close their doors and stay in winter quarters. 

Tadpoles swim about in the quiet pools which remain unfrozen 
but bury themselves in the mud as soon as ice begins to form. 
Their parents, the frogs, are hidden under the thick carpet of 
leaves which covers the floor of the forest or else they too are 
buried in the muddy bottoms of the ponds so deeply that the 
frost can not reach them but not so deeply that a week of warm 
weather will not bring them croaking into activity. 

The animals with the long slender bodies that dart about 
and hide beneath the rocks are young salamanders, first cousins 
of the frogs. When they become fully grown they will leave the 
water and make their homes under rocks and .decaying logs in 
the woods and fields. Most people who see them then will call 
them lizards but young lizards do not live in the water and they 
have scales like a snake instead of a soft moist skin such as the 
salamanders always have. 



lyo AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

The strangest freaks in all of Nature's family are the insects. 
Last summer we saw myriads of moths, butterflies, beetles, gnats 
and countless other insects. Today as I walked through the woods 
the only insect I saw was a mosquito driven from its winter home 
in a hollow tree and walking stiffly about on the snow. Some 
of the others which last summer filled night and day with their 
incessant humming are also hidden away in hollow logs, under 
bark, in the caves, among the dead leaves — anywhere that will 
furnish sufficient room for a hiding place. They may be frozen 
stiff now but when the spring sun sends its reviving warmth into 
their retreats, life will flow through their bodies and they will 
be active once more. However, you might examine the whole 
world with a microscope and you would not find a single animal 
resembling some of those which were so abundant last summer. 
Has the whole race been killed? And is it to be numbered with 
those that have disappeared in the long gone geological ages? 
Wait and see. Nature is not so careless with her children. If 
the adult members of a species can not stand the rigors of winter, 
then other means for preserving the race must be provided. vSome- 
where, hidden away safely in a protected nook are some tiny eggs, 
the sole representatives of their species and when warm weather 
comes again these eggs will hatch and the bugs and butterflies, 
the caterpillars and moths, and the gnats and wasps will be as 
abundant as in former years. 



CRITICAL NOTES ON NEW AND OLD GENERA OF 
PLANTS.— I. 



BY J. A. NIEUWLAND. 



1 



GONOPYORUM A HOMONYM. 

The name Gonopyrum F. and M. (1840)' is a homonym as 
there was an older Gonopyros Raf.,^ (1828). The latter name 
differs from the other only in gender form of the word, and there- 
fore reduces the other to synonymy according to the code rules. 

1 Fischer and Meyer ex C. A. Meyer in Mem. Acad. Petersb. Ser. 
VI.. VI., p. 144. (1840). 

2 Rafinesque C. S. Med. Fl. I., p. 155, (1S2S). 

3 Michaux, A., Fl. Bor. Am. II., p. 240, (1803). 



NOTES ON NEW AND OLD GENERA 17I 

Moreover, the group of plants to which the name Gonopyrum, 
F. and M. was given is not simply a synonym to the Polygonella 
Michx.^ but a real segregate of distinct plants. The genus differs 
from Polygonella by notable characters such as perfect flowers and 
lateral embryo, shape of calyx, whereas those of the latter are 
polygamo-dioicous and have an axillary embryo. The flowers 
are very different in the two groups. The Gonopyros Raf. is a 
proposed segregated genus of Diospyros Linn. To replace the 
invalidated Gonopyrum F. and M. we suggest the name 
Psammogonum. 

Psammogonum Nwd. nom. nov. 

Gonopyrum F. and M. 1840 not Gonopyros Raf. 1828. 

Psammogonum americanum (F. and M.) Nwd. 

Gonopyrum americanum. F. and M. 1. c. 

Polygonella ericoides Engelm. and Gray. Bost. Jr. Nat. Hist. 
V, p. 230, (1845). 

Polygonella americana Small, Mem. Torr. Bot. CI. V. p. 
141, (1894). 

Psammogonum articulatum (Linn.) Nwd. 
Gonopymim articulatum (Linn.) F. and M. 1. c. 
Polygonella articulata (Linn.) Meisn. Gen. 2, p. 228, (1836-42). 
Polygonum articulatum Linn., vSp. PI. p. 363, (1753). 

Delphinium. 

The type of the genus Delphinium, whether we refer the genus 
to Linnaeus, as many now do, or more correctly to the ancients, 
is not Delphinium, Consolida Linn, as Dr. Britton would intimate 
but rather Delphinium peregrinum Linn. This plant and its nearest 
allies of the same group D. Consolida, D.Ajacis^ Linn, differ from 
the other members of the aggregation now commonly called 
by the name Delphinium, so markedly that we can scarcely restrain 
our wonder that systematists should call this a genus. D. Consolida 
and its allies have but one follicle in fruit, the others have three; 
it has, moreover, the petals united into two sets and with its 
ally, is an annual; our native plants have separate petals and are 
perennials, whereas the petals of D. Consolida and D. Ajacis are 
ver}' conspicuously united. One might as reasonably have in- 
cluded species of Aconittim- in this miscellaneous modern Del- 

I Gray, vS. F. Nat. An. Br. PI. II., p. 711, (1821). 



172 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

phinium as put together such plants as are here commented on. 
There are other differences almost as important, and we have 
not the slightest hesitancy of admitting these, as generically 
characteristic, and proposing that such heterogenous mixtures 
of widely different types be separated. 

A name of the group of perennials with three-follicled fruit 
given by Spach, is Delphinastnim,^ not a desirable one as the 
ending astntm indicates the wild condition of a plant, and is built 
on a previously existing plant name. Staphisagria vSpach^ as also 
his Phledininm^ are perhaps sufficiently different from either of 
the above to merit recognition as genera. Delphidium^ Raf., another 
name was proposed earlier than any by Rafinesque, but was 
unfortunatelv made without description and even designation 
of type and is scarcely more than a nomen nudum. vSome of the 
transposed plants under Delphinastrum Spach are: 

Drlphinastrum Spach 1. c. 

Type Delphiniuiii grandiflorum Linn. 

Delphinastrum exaltatum (Ait.) 

Delphinium exaltum Ait. Hort. Kew. 2. p. 244, (1789). 

Delphinastrum Treleasei (Bush.) 

DclpJiinium Treleasei Bush; Davis, Minn. Bot. Stud, 2, 
p. 444, (1900). 

Delphinastrum Nelsoni (Greene). 

Delphinium Nelsoni Greene, Pitt. 3, p. 92, (1896). , 

Delphinastrum carolinianum (Walt). 

Delphinium carolinianum Walt. Fl. Car. p. 155, (1788). 

Delphinastrum virescens (Nutt.). 

Delphinium virescens Nutt. Gen. 2. p. 14, (1818). 

Delphinastrum tricorne (Michx.). 

Delphinium tricorne Michx. Fl. Bot. Am. I., p. 318, (1893). 
Other plants to be transferred are: 

Delphinastrum Menziesii (D. C), Icucophaeum (Greene), 
distichum {Geyer),Andersoni (Gray), nuttallianum (Pritz.), glaucum 
(Watson), occidentale (Watson), trollijolium (Gray), nudicaule 

1 vSpach, E., Hist. Nat. Vcg. VII., p. 336, (1839). 

2 Spach, L. C, p. 347- 

3 vSpach L c. p., 351. 

4 Rafinesque C. S. Am. Month. Mag. p. 356, (181 1). 



NOTES ON NEW AND OLD GENERA 1 73 

(T. and G.), vimineum (D. Don.), urceolatum (Jacg.), etc., etc. 
Delphinia of authors quoted. 

Delphinium (Dioscorides) Linn. Sp. PI. p. 536, (1753).' 

Phledinium Spach. 1. c. p. 351. 

Delphinium peregrinum Linn. 1. c. p. 531.^ 

Phledinium peregrinum (Linn.) Spach. 1. c. r 

Type of the genus Delphinum stricto (scnsu.) 

CoNSOLiDA (Brunfels) S. F. Gray,^ 1. c. 

Delphinium Spach. 1. c. stricto sensu, not of Linn.,f or only 
in part. 

Consolida regalis (Brunfels) S. F. Gray, 1. c. 

Delphinium Consolida Linn., Sp. PI. p. 530, (1753). Type 
of the genus Consolida. 

Consolida Ajacis (Linn.). 

Delphinium Ajacis Linn. 1. c. p. 531. 

Consolida Ajacei Schur., in Verh. Siebenb. Ver. Naturw. 
IV., p. 47, (1853). 

AnemonanThaea S. F. Gray. 
The group of plants now usually included in the genus 
Anemone, but not having hairy achenes, typified by Anemone 
nemorosa Linn., were segregated by S. F. Gray as the genus 

1 The name Phtirium Raf. is an absolute synonym of Delphinium, 
Latin name for the Dolphin. 

2 The plant was first named by Dioscorides, a Greek, who lived in 
Italy in the first century. D. Consolida and D. Ajacis the plants made typical 
of Delphinium by Dr. Britton grow in Europe, Orient, and northern Asia. 
Linnaeus never designated types and it is worse than useless to accept the 
first named species of his genera as type of the genus without consulting 
the other authors from whom Linnaeus took the names he used. Types 
of his genera can only be determined in many cases by a careful study of 
the older authors. See Britton, N. L., 111. Fl. N. Am. II. p. 93, (1913). 
The native Delphinum of Italy is D. peregrinum- and is more probably 
the plant of Dioscorides, though D. Consolida may have been known to him 
as the second species mentioned in his work. See Daubeny C, Lectures on 
Roman Husbandry, (Oxford), p. 236, (1857) also P'ee, A. L. A. Flore de 
Theocrite, p. 102, (1832), also his Flore de Vergile, p. 67, (1822). Also 
Fraas, Flora Classica, Sibthorp in his Flora Graeca, I. p. 370-371 says 
that the Delphiftium of Dioscorides is Delphinium peregrinum, lann. and 
that the second species mentioned in his Materia Medica or the J£/^£V{«y 
£Tz/jir/ Diosc is Delphinium Consolida Linn. 

3 S. F. Gray 1. c. 



174 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

Anemonathaea. The groups doubtless deserves recognition for 
reasons as valid as some of the segregates lately made. Because 
of the resemblance in fruit these plants were by pre-Linnaean 
authors first referred to Ranunculus^ rather than to Anemone 
proper. Following are some of the eastern American allies as 
also one of the Pacific coast: 

AnEmonanthaea (DC.) vS. F. Gray, Nat. Arr. Br. PI. II, 
p. 724, (1822). 

Ancmanthus Fourr. Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon. N. S., XVI., 
p. 323, (1868). 

Anemonanthaea trifolia (Linn.). 

Anemone trijolia Linn., Sp. PI. p. 540, (1753). 

Anemonanthaea quinquefolia (Linn.). 
Anc'iuonanthata qiiiyiquejolia Linn. 1. c. p. 541. 

Corniveum. 

The plant represented from the northwestern United States 
as Dicentra nniflora Kellog, or Bicuctilla iiniflora, (Kellog) Howell 
has floral structure and other very important characters quite 
different from our eastern BicucuUa or~ Dicentra Cucullaria, and 
canadensis. Though externally the flowers may appear some- 
what like these, more careful examination shows them to be 
at least as diiTerent as the so-called Californian BicuciiUas such 
as B. ckrysantlia (Blanche) and B. ochroleuca (Engelm), and 
Adlumia itself, which have been segregated into new genera. The 
vegetative habit of the plant too is noticebly different. 

The sepals of BicucuUa uniflora are quite large, nearly if not 
half as long as the corolla. The outer petals saccate at the base 
are reflexed in an thesis below the middle by a long carinate tip. 
The inner petals, not crested are different in shape from any 
corresponding parts in any of this group of plants, and more 
notably modified than those of the other well accepted genera 
of Fumariaceae. They are arrow or halbred-shaped with a long 
narrow claw extending nearly to the middle and at least beyond 
one-third their length. Their apex is somewhat spoon-shaped 
but crestless. The stamens are somewhat united under the inner 
petals, the two lateral apparently the upper one-third of their 
length in pairs, the other two are long recurved into the saccate 

I See Parkinson, J. Paradisus Tcrrcstris, (1623). 



NOTES ON NEW AND OLD GENERA 1 75 

parts of the outer petals. The stigma is apparently 2 cleft, each 
part again slightly divided into two small lobes. The pistil is 
ovoid and bears the remainder of the withered persistent corolla 
as in the yellow Calif ornian allies, and in Adhmiia, and this is a 
notable character in these segregated recognized genera. 

As to the vegetable characters of habit, the plant bears at 
its base which is buried deep in the ground a cluster of fusiform 
tuberous roots above which are found in membranous leaf-scales 
which cormlets or bulblets. The plant therefore appears to use 
the latter only for propagation and the tuberous roots for food 
storage. The scape and leaf petioles are buried imder ground 
yi-^i of their length and the subterranean parts covered with 
outgrowths like root-hairs which seem to serve the function of 
absorbing moisture like roots. This last character is notable in 
a plant which is not only essentially glabrous itself, but shares 
that character with the whole group. 

Corniveum nov. gen. 

Planta glal^ra vel glauca perennis acaulis e radicibus fusi- 
formibus tuberosis oriens, foliis ternatis dissectis, petiolis et scapo 
subteranneis, ?< vel ^^ longitudinis, et sub solo pubescentibus. 
Fructus ovoidus cum stylo filiformi et stigmate diviso, corollam 
marcescentem ferente; staminibus sex, binis lateralibus sub 
aequilongis, Yj, longitimdinis supra unitis et duobus in calcar 
retro projectis vel incurvatis, omnibus plus minusve ad summu- 
tatem unitis; petalis exterioribus semicordatis apice longe re- 
curvatis, petalis interioribus hastatis unguiculatis, minime cristatis, 
apice rotundato (unguis fere dimidio totius partis longus), scapo 
bracteato, flore nutante sed florescente erecto, 1.3-2.5 cm. longo. 

Corniveum unifiorum (Kellog.) Nwd. 
Dicentra uni flora Kellog.^ 
CicMculla uniflora (Kellog) Howell.^ 

Despeleza nov. gen. 

The type species of the genus Lespedeza Michx. is L. virginica. 
There is another group of plants which has hitherto been 
associated with this genus usually, but which has characters as 
a group warranting separation therefrom. The absence or 

1 Kellog, in Proc. Calif. Acad. IV., p. 141, (1871). 

2 Dicentra uniflora, Kell. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. IV., p. 141, (1903). 



176 amp:rican midland naturalist 

presence of cleistogamous flowers has apparently become rec- 
ognized as a character sufficient to merit generic standing. 
Besides this the plants of which Lespedeza hirta (Linn.) Hornem. 
may be selected as typical, have in common other important 
characters. Their flowers unlike those of Lespedeza proper, are 
whitish or yellowish, and usually characteristically aggregated 
in only terminal or subterminal spike-like racemes, and the calyx 
segments exceed or include the fruit, whereas the typical plants 
beside having cleistogamous axillary and loosely aggregated 
purplish flowers, have their fruit longer than the calyx segments. 
We may designate the group devoid of cleistogamous flowers 
as a new genus Despeleza. 

Crocanthemum Spach, in the Cistaceae recognized of late 
as a good genus can be said to have scarcely much else but the 
presence of cleistogamous flowers to validate its generic standing 
as separate from Helianthcmtim and especially from Halimium. 

DespELKza nov. gen. 

Lespedeza Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. II. p. 71, (1803), segregate. 

Plantae perennes, stricte erectae, plus minusve e basi ra- 
mosae, plerumque etiam infime suff"ruticosae, floribus, albis, 
albescentibus vel flavescentibus, calice fructum superante, floribus 
cleistogamis omnino absentibus (i. e. tantum petaliferis perfectos 
habentibus) ; floribus in inflorescentia terminali spicato-racemosa 
aggregatis. 

Plants perennial, strictly erect, often more or less branched 
from the base, somewhat suffruticose below. Flowers whitish 
or vellowish; calyx segments surpassing the fruit: cleistogamous 
flowers absent, inflorescence spicate-racemose terminal or sub- 
terminal. 

Despeleza hirta (Linn.) Nwd. 

Lespedeza hirta (Linn.) Hornem. Hort. Harn. p. 699, (1807). 

Hedysanmi hirtum Linn., vSp. PI. p. 748, (1753). Type. 

Despeleza capitata (Michx.) Nwd. 

Lespedeza capitata Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. II., p. 71, (1803). 

Despeleza angustifola (Pursh) Nwd. 

Lespedeza angnstijolia (Pursh) Kll. Bot. vS. C. and Ga. II., 
p. 206, (1824). 

Lespedeza capitata var. angustifolia Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 
p. 480, (18 14). 



NOTES ON NEW AND OLD GENERA 1 77 

Despeleza leptostachya (Engelm.) Nwd. 

Lespedeza leptostachya Engelm. A. Gray. Proc. x\m. Acad. 
XI., p. 57, (1876). 

Hypogon kaf. 

In proposing the name Micheliella Briquet,'' the author 
must have overlooked the fact that just exactly eighty years before, 
Rafinesque had separated these plants as typical of his genus 
Hypogon f" Micheliella as a diminutive of a previously existing 
plant name is not a very desirable name at that, and its absence 
from our nomenclature by reduction to synonymy may be con- 
sidered beneficial. 

After examining carefully for possible homonymy, or synony- 
my in case of Rafinesque's name we can not find any reason 
whatever why Hypogon should not have been taken up lest it 
be that it was completely overlooked. This, however, is all the 
more inexcusable inasmuch as the Index Kewensis records Hypogon 
in two places, though the authors failed to notice one of the new 
combinations made by Rafinesque. Dr. SmalF in both editions 
of his Flora of the Southeastern United States accepts Micheliella 
with the same species exactly as quoted by Briquet and by 
Rafinesque so long before under Hypogon. 

In other places Rafinesque^ calls attention to the first pub- 
lication of his genus Hypogon. The exact quotations which are 
not too long may be here given. 

"119. Collinsonia verticillaris Raf. Caule villoso, foliis subin- 
tegris, floribus tetrandris paniculatis verticillatis. Raf. C. 
scabriuscula Rob. p. 390. Grows near woods, stem scarcely two 
feet, flowers yellowish. The variety of C. scabra found by Mr. Lyons 
with four stamens and larger flowers. (See the Flora of Pursh) 
belongs perhaps to this species which together with C. anisata 
might properly form a subgenus (or a new genus) having four 
fertile stamina to which the name Hypogon might be given, (p. 41). 

"5. Sp. 119. Collinsonia verticillaris. Its real name must be 
Hypogon verticillatum Raf. and the C. amisata must be Hypogon 

5 Briquet in Engler and Prantl. Pflanzensyst. IV., III., A. p. 325,(1897). 

6 Rafinesque, C. S. Flora Lyudoviciana p. 41, (1817). 

7 Small, J. K. Fl. S. E. U. S. p. , (1903 and 1913). 

8 Rafinesque, C. S. Am. Monthly. Mag. p. 101, (June 1818). 1. e. 
also Med. Fl. 2, p. 230, (1830). "Collinsonia anisata belongs to the gen 
Hypogon of the Florul Eudoviciana having 4 fertile stamens." 



Ijy AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIvST 

anisatmn Raf. since the number of stamina is constant and generic 
in this tribe, else the genera Salvia, Rosmarinus, Lycopus, etc., ought 
not to exist! Hypogon means beard beneath." (p. 148).' 

Another fact brought out by the above description is that 
Rafinesque's name C. verticillaris antedates Baldwin's C. verti- 
cillatus.^ Following is the resume of synonyms. 

Hypogon Raf. Fl. Lud. pp. 41 and 148, (181 7). 
Micheliella Briq. 1. c. (1897). 
Collinsonia Linn. seg. 

Hypogon vertlcillare (Raf.) Nwd. 

Collinsonia verticillaris Raf. Fl. Lud. p. 41, (181 7) Nomen 
prius. 

Collinsonia verticillata (Raf.) Baldwin.^ 1. c. (18 18). 

Hypogon verticillatmn Raf. Fl. Lud. p. 148, (18 17). 

Micheliella verticillata (Baldw.) Brifi. 1. c. i. e. Micheliella 
verticillaris (Raf.) 

Hypogon anisatum (Sims) Raf. F. L. p. 148, (1817). 
Micheliella anisata (Sims) Briq. 1. c. 
Collinsonia anisata Sims Bot. Mag. t. 12 13. 

PoLYGAivA Linn. 

The aggregated group of plants called by Linnaeus Polygala 
contains a mixture of types so dissimilar from one another that 
such would not be allowed together in other genera of the plant 
kingdom. Floral distinctions in one family are often over lookeed 
which elsewhere were sufficient to constitute at least distinctions 
of generic importance elsewhere. Were the same standard of 
differentiation used in the Polygalaceae as prevails without objec- 
tion or though of objection in the Orchidaceae what a difference 
there would be in the status of this so called genus. It would 
soon become a very much segregated one. In not a few of our 
floras and manuals the flowers are scarcely at all described. 

If floral characters are constant characters and of sufficient 
importance to warrant generic distinctions in one group of plants 
it would seem illogical to neglect totally such characters in another 
group. It is on the basis of such notable distinctive floral marks 

1 See also Rafinesqnc, C. S., Neogenyton. p. 2, (1825). Rnfinesque, 
I-'lorn Ludovic. p. 1.1.8, (1817). 

2 Baldwin c.\ Klliott, Sketch, I., p. 36., (1818), 



NOTES ON NEW AND OLD GENERA 1 79 

that we propose the following segregates from Polygala, some al- 
ready made. 

Galypola nov. gen. 

Planta subsimplex eglandulosa glauca erecta, foliis parvis, 
subulatis, remotis ,alternatis, cum ramis paucis erectis virgatis 
floribus subspicatis roseis vel purpureis aliquando subviridibus, 
calyce irregular!, alls lanceolatis vel oblanceolatis, obtusiusculis 
vcl acutis, sepalo superiore %-^\o breviore quam alae ovato, 
lanceolato, acuto; binis inferioribus ^-plo minoribus quam alae, 
lanceolatis acuminatis subfalcatis omnibus plus minusve erectis 
vel etiam divaricatis. Carolla sympetala, tubula, supra carinata 
et apice cristata et basi fissa, ex qua parte ovarium etiam florescens 
se extrudit. Stamina 8, inaequalia, parva, superiora, corollae insita. 
Stylus barbatus apice supra glandem incurvatus. 

Plant without glandular dots, annual, glaucous, erect, sub- 
simple, not much branched, with spicately arranged flowers and 
small subulate alternate leaves. Flowers rose-colored or purple, 
or often somewhat greenish. Calyx very irregular, wings oblanceo- 
late, obtuseish or acute, upper sepal about ^ as long as the wings, 
acute ovate lanceolate, the two lower similar less than ^4 as long 
as the wings, lanceolate acuminate somewhat falcately curved 
outward. Corolla sympetalous parts unite into a long cleft tube 
about three times as long as the greenish white, more or less in- 
conspicuous wings. Corolla expanded at the tip into a carinate 
unfolded crested tip with a number of protuberances (about 12) 
divaricately turned outward, some branched. Tube of the corolla 
cleft at its base on the upper side by the protruding ovary. vStamens 
8 unequal, situated obliquely on the expanded portion of the 
corolla tube. Style long with its tip bearded and bent at right 
angles over the gland beneath it on the style. Ovary two-celled: 
caruncle of the hairy seed two-lobed crest like. 

The very peculiar shape of the flowers of this plant with its 
peculiar habit of growth, bearded stigma, extended ovary, long 
tubed corolla, and short inconspicuous wings and sepals, combine 
with the other notable characters mentioned to make this plant 
totally different from the other members of this group. Unlike 
in most Polygalae the corolla is the most conspicuous parts of the 
flower and the wings of the calyx small and greenish. Though 
varying in many other respects the corolla in this plant most 



l8o AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

closely resembles that of the plant called Polygala paiicifolia 
Willd. The genus is, as far as I can find, to be considered as, 
monotypic. 

Galypola nov. gen. 

Polygala Linn. Seg. 

Galypola incarnata (Linn.) Nvvd. 

Polygala incarnata Linn. Sp. PI. p. 701, (1753). 

Other members of the Linnaean genus Polygala that msty 
well be removed therefrom arc the following: 

AnThalogea Rafmesque, New. Fl. Am. IV., p. 88, (1836). 

The plant is biennial and beside the characters referred to 
by Rafinesque, produces regularly subterranean and often aerial 
cleistogamous flowers. Together with Polygala paiicifolia Linn, 
it is the only other plant of the aggregate having apetalous or 
cleistogamous flowers. 

Anthalogea polygama (Walt.) Nwd. 
Anthalogca rubella Raf. 1. c. 
Polygala polygama Walt. Fl. Car. p. 17Q, (1788). 
For the characters of the cleistogamous flowers see Shaw, 
C. H., Cont. Bot. Lab. Penn. Univ. II., 2, p. 173, (1901). 

Trichlisperma Raf. 
The beautiful little plant with flowers most showy of all 
the group of Polygala has a number of notable distinctive characters 
that deserve consideration for generic standing. The plant was 
made by Rafinesque type of his genus Trichlispernia.' The crested 
elongated corolla recalls that of Galypola. The plant is perennial 
and produces cleistogamous flowers which were not unnoticed 
by Rafinesque though not so called by hiin, nor was he perhaps 
aware of their exact nature.^ The habit too of the plant is quite 
diff"erent from any other Polygala. The peduncled flowers are 
different from those of either this or Galypola, the corolla resembling 
the latter somewhat but the wings those of Polygala. Stamens 
only six in two sets of three. Rafinesque mentions also differences 
in the seed. Rafinesque says that the roots contain oil of winter- 
green.-' 



f 



I Rafinesque, C. S. Speech, i, p. 117, (1814). (See also following note). 
-' Kafincsque, C. S. Med. Fl. II., pp. 63-65, (1830). 
3 Rafinesque, C. S. Med. Fl. I., p. 205. (1828). 



NOTES ON NEW AND OLD GENERA i8i 

Trichlisperma Raf. Speech., I., p. 117, (18 14). 
Poly gala Linn., segregate. 

Trichlisperma paucifolia (Willd.) Nwd. 

Trichlisperma grandiflora Raf. 1. c. 

Polygala paucifolia (Willd., Sp. PI. 3. p. 380, (1800). 

Polygala uniflora Michx., Fl. Bor. Am. 2, p. 53, (1893). 

Senega Spach. 

Polygala Senega Linn, has been separated as a genus and 
perhaps a good one by Spach. as Senega officinalis Spach.' The 
characters are not as notable as those of the plants already dis- 
cussed. 

Acer Linn. 

The genus Acer has been left by phytographers even to the 
present day in nearly the same condition as treated by Linnaeus 
in 1753. Whether Rulac be segregated from it or not, it remains 
an aggregate containing plants with simple and compound leaves, 
plants that are dioecious and variously polygamous, flowers 
hypogynous and perigynous, flowers with or without petals and 
various kinds of perianth and difference in number of stamens, 
sepals separate or united. Some groups have intra-staminal, 
others extra-staminal disks. In fact, with Rulac removed from 
Acer the latter still presents anomalies greater than if left in 
because the segregation of the former only emphasizes the incon- 
sistency of a procedure that disregards in this separation characters 
more important than those that warrant us from considering 
Rulac as distinct. All the above mentioned variations constant 
in the groups manifest themselves at once to the student that 
attempts to study the maples, and yet the aggregate genus is 
left in this condition without apparently the slightest misgivings 
on the part of modern botanists! Alost diagnoses of the manuals, 
in fact, deftly gloss over the importance of the characters referred 
to by either scarcely referring to them or leaving the superficial 
student to deceive himself into believing they are variable 
characters. 

About the only notable character that is made to hold this 
Linnaean Acer unsegregated is the similarity of the fruit in all 
the species. On the same principle of classification one would 

I Spach. E. Hist. Nat. Veg. Phan. 7, p. 129, (1S39). 



1^2 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

be obliged to consider nearly all the members of the orchid family 
as one genus! Such neglect of fully appreciating the value of 
other important floral characters leads us to separate at least the 
Sugar Maples from Acer. If the characters are constant there 
can hardly be any good excuse for having plants with apetalous 
flowers in the same genus with petal -bearing plants. 

Saccharodendron (Raf.) Nwd. 

Segregate of Acer Linn. Subgenus Saccharodendron Raf. New. 
Fl. N. Am. p. 47, (1836). 

Arbores cum foliis 3-5 lobatis subtus saepius glaucescentibus 
et inflorescentiis terminalibus sessilibus umbellatis; floribus 
praecocibus andromonoicis vel androdioicis, staminibus, 3-8, in 
stamineis perigynis (vel hypogynis) calice sepalorum connatorum, 
petalis nullis. Fructus et alia fere omnia ut in Acer. 

Trees with leaves 3-5 lobed often glaucous beneath and with 
terminal (or lateral) sessile umbellate inflorescences. Flowers 
precocious, plants andromonoicous (or androdioicous). Calyx 
with sepals united: petals none. Stamens 3-8 perigynous (or 
hypogynous) in the staminate flowers. Fruit and most other 
characters as in Acer. 

Type Acer Saccharum Marsh. 

vSection i Saccharina. 

Flowers appearing just a little before the leaves, stamens 
in the staminate flowers perigynous. flowers andro-monoecious 
inflorescence terminal. 

Saccharodendron barbatum (Michx.) Nwd. 

Acer Saccharuni Marsh, ^ Arb. Amer. p. (1785). 

Acer barbatum (Michx.) Fl. Bor. Amer. 2. p. 252, (1803). 

Saccharodendron floridanum (Chapman) Nwd. 

Acer floridanum (Chapman) Pax. Bugler's Jahrbuch VII., 

p. 243, (1886). 

Saccharodendron leucoderme (Small) Nwd. 

Acer leucoderme Small. Bull. Torr. Bot. CI. XII., p. 367, (1895). 



2 The name Acer Saccharuni is absurd and licsides homonymous if 
admissable with Acer Sacchariiiuni IJnii. Saccharum is the noun, sugar 
.Saccharin urn adjective thereof. A tree can noc l)c the substance sugar! 
Marsh's name is unsrammatical and had better be dr{)i)ped out of our 
nomenclature. 



NOTES ON NEW AND OLD GENERA 1 83 

Saccharodendron hispidum (Schwerin) Nwd. 

Acer hispidum Gr. von Schwerin, Nutt. Deutsch. Dendr. 
Gesell, p. 77, (1894). 

Saccharodendron grandidentatum (Nutt.) Nwd. 

Acer grandidentatum Nuttall in Torrey and Grav Fl. N. Am. 
I., p. 247, (1838). 

Section or Subgenus Sacchrosphendamnus . 

Flowers notably precocious, appearing long before the leaves. 
Stamens in the staminate flowers' hypogynous. Plants andro- 
dioicous. Inflorescence lateral. (Habit different from the rest 
and perhaps a good genus, Sacchrosphendamnus.) 

Saccharodendron saccharinum (Linn.) Nwd. 
Acer saccharinum Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1055, (1753). 

[Sachrosphendamnus saccharinum (Linn.).] 

The silver maple, Saccharodendron saccharinum (Linn.) Nwd. 
{Acer saccharinum Linn.) by habit and in very important other 
characters seems different enough to form a good subgenus or 
genus and in many cases differences such as here found would 
seem sufflcient for generic distinction. The plants here included 
in Saccharodendron, however, will be seen to be very conspicu- 
ously and sufflciently different from the other maples to merit 
segregation. The calyx segments are not only united but the lobes 
are in all cases shorter than the tube in contradistinction to the 
almost distinct if not entirely distinct sepals of Acer. Petals are 
totally absent. The stamens are situated on the interior margin 
of the disk. The plants are andro-monoicous (and andro-diocous 
in 5. saccharinum.) These characters alone would seem to indicate 
that the genus segregated herewith deserves as much if not more 
right to be accepted thaji Rulac. One would suppose that the 
latter should be reduced if Saccharodendron seems inadmissable. 
This latter differs by as great distinctions from the other maples 
as well as from Rulac and stands out markedly besides by it syn- 
sepalous calyx. Perhaps for consistency's sake still other segre- 
gation would be desirable but such notable characters as have 
been discussed can scarcely be overlooked for generic standing 
of any plants when these marks are constant. 

CiRCAEA IN A Separate Family. 
Apart from the fact that the habit of Circaea is different from 



184 AMKRICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

that of nearly all if not all of the Onagraceae, it has beside this its 
flowers in 2's, the upper part of the ovary or the stiped hypanthium 
is deciduous in fruit, while the rest of the Evening Primrose family 
have their flowers in 4's. Ciraca would more logically be a member 
and type of a separate family called by Dulac Geminaceae.^ Cir- 
caeaceae might perhaps have been a more appropriate name, 
but Dulac did not believe that any genus or family should be 
named after individuals. He therefore suppressed such names 
as Circaea, Gcntiana, Hittchinsia, etc., though to be consistent he 
must have overlooked Heracleum and Hypericum, or made effort 
to explain them by different derivation. Type genus of family 
is, Circaea Linn., Gen. PI. p. 24, (1754). 

Perhaps we may take occasion to describe here the following. 

Circaea alpina var. aleutica nov. var. 

Planta cum caulibus, ramis, et petiolis crassis et praecipue 
nodis caulium et romorum intumescentibus, bracteis minutis 
aliquibus in inflorescentia sicut in C. intermedia; stigmate florum 
2-divisa, stylo tenui. 

Plant study with thick fleshy succulent stems, branches and 
petioles, and swollen nodes, also minute bracts present in the 
inflorescence. Stigma or style deeply 2-lobed. 

Type No. 256514 of the U. S. National Museum, M. W. 
Gorman's No. 119 collected at Spacious Bay, Alaska, July 16, 1895. 

Fraxinus Linn. 

The genus Fraxinus of Linnaeus is left at the present time 
after not a few attempts at segregation on the part of older phy- 
tographers almost in the same condition by our manual makers 
as is the genus Acer. As usually recognized in our floras and 
manual of to-day the socalled "genus" Fraxinus contains plants 
with petals and sepals, others with sepals only, others again that 
are perfectly achlamydeous. Some of the petaliferous ashes 
are quite choripetalous, others markedly sympetalous. This 
means that were one to arrange a key of a flora that would work 
satisfactorily one would have to make provision that the members 
of this genus could by amateur botanists (for which the manuals 
are principally intended) be determined with advantage if at 
all, only after searching among the apetalous, choripetalous, and 
sympetalous divisions of the dicotyledoneae. What is to be thought 

I Dulac, J. Flore Dept. Hautcs Pyr. p. 328, (1867). 



NOTES ON NEW AND OLD GENERA 1 85 

of a "genus" which has species with constant characters to be 
looked for in these three major categories of distinctions? And 
yet modern botanists, persist and have persisted and perhaps 
may for a long time to come continue to persist without apparently 
the slightest misgivings, to consider plants of such varied, im. 
portant and withal constant characters to constitute logically ^ 
genus ! 

The family Oleaceae is scarcely less of an anomaly than, 
Fraxinus as a "genus." It contains plants with flowers complete 
to various forms of declinism, fruits, capsule, berry, drupe or 
samara! Now, the American plants of this family having drupes 
or berries, have long been recognized and separated, among other 
characters principally by the presence or absence of petals or the 
union thereof in the genera Forrestiera (apetalous) Chionanthus 
(Choripetalous), Ligustrum (sympetalous). Why should it then 
be considered illogical or bold to suggest the segregation of the 
aggregate group, Fraxinus Linn, into segregates on the same 
principles of classification (and that in the same family at that) 
is be3^ond our comprehension. Granted that the characters 
hold constant it is difficult to com-prehend why the fleshy fruited 
members of the same family are separable when the dry fruited 
(samara) members are not. The genus Fraxinus Linn, was in fact 
not nearly as anomalous and illogical as the modern one because 
he had only three species in it, but since his time botanists have 
put into it many different types, and mostly for no other reason 
than that the newly discovered plants had winged fruits, like the 
Linnaean species. The attempts at segregation on the part of 
earlier botnaists not a few, attracted no serious attention on the 
part of modern bookmakers. 

The following segregations, mostly made at one time or another 
by older botanists and even pre-Linnaean, may here be suggested. 
The type species of the Linnaean aggregate is Fraxinus excelsior 
Linn. This plant is polygamo-dioicous and has achlamydeous 
flowers. As these notes are suggested principally in the interest 
of the Eastern American plants not much attention will be paid 
to others and foreign plants usually crowded into the Linnaean 
genus Fraxinus. 

Fraxinus (Vergil) Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1057, (1753), Gen. PI. 
P- 477. (1754) in part. 



1 86 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

Fraxinoides Med. Staats. Vorles. Churpf. Phys. Oek. 
Ges. I., p. 198, (1791). Phil. Bot. II., p. 30, (1791)- 

Fraxinus nigra Marsh, Arb. Am. p. 51, (1785). 
Fraxinoides nigra Medic. I. c. 

This species is the only one like the European achlamydeous 
F. excelsior Linn, and accordingly the only real Fraxinus in our 
region. 

Calycomelia Kostelm. Algem. Med. Fl. III., p. 1003, (1834). 

Leptalix Rafinesque New. Fl. Am. III., p. 93, (1836). Fraxinus 
Linn. 1. c. segregate. 

Corolla none; calyx present at least in the fertile flowers 
and persistent. Lateral leaflets petioled. Type F. caroliniana 
Nutt. or F. americana Linn. 

Calycomelia americana (Linn.) Kostel. 1. c. 
Fraxinus americana Linn. 1. c. 

Calycomelia biltmoreana (Beadle). 

Fraxinus hiltmoreana Beadle, Bot. Gaz. XXV., p. 358, (189.8). 

Calycomelia pennsylvanica (Marsh.) 

Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh, Arb. Am. p. 51, (1785). 

Fraxinus pubescens Lam. Encycl. II., p. 548, (1786). 

Leptalix pubescens Raf. 1. c. 

Fraxinus lanceolata Borck., Handb. Forst. Bot. I., p. 826, 
(1800). 

Fraxinus viridis Michx. f. Hist. Arb. Am. III., p. 115, p.l 
10, (1813). 

Calycomelia caroliniana (Nutt.) Kostel. Ind. Hort. Prag. p. 26. 
Fraxinus caroliniana Miller. Diet. Ed. 8, No. 6, (1768). 
Fraxinus platycarpa Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. II., p. 256, (1803). 
Leptalix platycarpa Raf. Alsog. Am. p. 35, (1838). 

Rafinesque also referred this plant to his genus Samarpses 
New. Fl. Am. III., p. 93, as 5. triptera, because of its peculiar fruit, 
but later put it back into Leptalix. 

Calycomelia qtiandraiigulata (Michx.) wostel. 1. c. 

Fraxinus quadrangidata Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. II. p. 253, (1903). 

Calycomelia profunda (Bush). 

Fraxinus projunda Bush, Britton, Man. p. 725, (1901). J 



NOTES ON NEW AND OLD GENERA 1 87 

Calycomelia pistaciaefolia fTorr.). 

Fraxinus pistaciaej olia Torr., Pacif. R. R. Rep. IV., p. 128. 

Ornus (Pliny, 16:18) Ludwig-Boehmer Def.' Gen. PI. p. 476, 
(1760). 

Mannaphorus Raf. Am. Monthly Mag. p. 175, (1818).' 

Ornanthes Raf. New. Fl. Am. III., p. 93, (1836). 

Plants with calyx and 4-parted corolla, of almost separate 
petals. Style none or short. 

Ornus europaea Person, Syn. I., p. 9, (1805). 

Ornanthes florida Raf. 1. c. 

Fraxinus Ornus Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1057, (1753). 

Ornus cuspidata (Torr.) 

Fraxinus cuspidata Torrey. Bot. Mex. Bound, p. 166, (1858). 

Ornus Greggii (A. Gray). 

Fraxinus Greggii A. Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. XII., p. 63, (1877), 

There are many species in Eastern Asia. A considerable 
number of these are from China and not very long known. 
Fraxinus sieboldiana Blume," {Ornus sieboldiana) of Japan belongs 
to this genus as also Fraxinus or Ornus longtcuspis (Sieb. & Zucc.) 
and Fraxinus or Ornus retusa (Champ), T. or Ornus bracteata 
(Hems.) from China has a very short lobed in completely 4-divided 
corolla campanulate or salver-shaped and should perhaps better 
be a seprate subgenus at least. 

Rafinesque referred Fraxinus anomala Torr. to his genus 
Aplilia.^ The plant has simple leaves. Specimens with more 
or less divided leaves of this or an allied species show this character 
as of not sufficient constancy to deserve consideration even if 
this character were otherwise of sufhcient importance, which 
may be questioned. 

Petlomelia nov. gen. 

Arbor parva cum floribus depetalis quorum stylus plus minusve 
evolutus est: foliis 3-9 foliolatis, plerumque petiolulatis plus 
minusve serratis, coriaceis, petalis binis breviter unguiculatis, 
ovato-oblongis, vel obovato-oblongis antheras lineares alquantibus; 
fructu spatulato, retuso; calyce truncato vel dentato. 

1 This reference could not be found in the place, cited in our copy. 
The obvious meanins^ of the word is the only reason given for this quotation, 

2 Blume, Mus. Hort. Lugd. Bat. I., p. 311, 

3 !• C: 



1 88 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

Small tree with tvvo-petaled flowers: style short but present, 
leaves 3-9 foliolate usually petiolulate, somewhat serrate, cori- 
aceous. Petals short-clawed, obovate-oblong to ovate oblong 
as long as the linear anthers. Fruit spatulate retuse to linear 
oblong. Calyx truncate or somewhat toothed. 

Type Fraxinus dipetala Hook, and Arn. 

Petlomelia dipetala (Hook, and Arn.) Nwd. 
Fraxinus dipetala Hook and Arn. Bot. Beech. Voy. p. 362, 
t. 87, (1841). 

Ornus dipetala Nutt. Sylv. III., p. 66, t. loi. 

This genus differs from Ornus in the number of petals which 
are two and so far distinct as to be in fact clawed. Style present, 
whereas it is absent or almost so in Ornus. 

LuNELLiA, A New Genus. 

When first discovered the plant now commonly called Syntheris 
or Wulfenia rubra was very mistakenly referred by Hooker"^ to 
the genus Gymnandra to which the plant bears no near relationship 
even. The author himself, however, later relegated it to Syntheris.^ 
This genus at first suppressed by Dr. Britton^ as not sufficiently 
distinct from Wulfenia as Dr. Greene showed in case of our Amer- 
ican plants.'' The validity of the standing of Syntheris was dis- 
cussed thoroughly by him, with the conclusion that the genus 
can be scarcelv admitted apart from Wulfenia. Later another 
segregation was proposed by Dr. Rydberg,^ with Wulfenia or 
Syntheris alpina A. Gray as type, under the name Besseya. 

All these attempts at segregation are based on characters of 
calyx, stamens or habit, and Syntheris rubra (Hook.) Benth., has 
successively been relegated to all of these. The presence or absence 
of corolla would seem certainly to be a character deserving generic 
consideration. Everyone seems, however, to have either over- 
looked, or disregarded this important character even though 
known as constant. Though in Wulfenia the stamens are epipet- 
alous the fact of their being situated on the outer side of the hy- 
pogynous disk in the plant called W. rubra indicates more than a 

4 Dougl. in Hooker, Fl. Bor. Am. II., p. 103, (1840). 

5 Britton, N. L. 111. Fl. N. Am. III., p. 166, (1898). 

6 Britton, N. L. 111. Fl. N. Am., III., p. 199, (1913)- 

7 Greene, E. L., Erytliea, I. p. 80, (1894). 

8 Rydbcrg, P, A. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club. p. 279. (1903). 



NOTES ON NEW AND OLD GENERA 1 89 

simple change involved in the disappearance or atrophy of corolla. 
Even if the latter is represented by the disk the stamen insertions 
were besides supposed to be carried downward to this disk or 
on this disk or they would have necessarily disappeared with the 
corolla itself in the process of variation phylogenetically. 

In addition to this important character of W. rubra (Hook.) 
Greene, we find the calyx rather irregular as distinguished from 
the plants it has been associated with. It is, therefore proposed 
to make it the type of a new genus named in honor of Dr. J. 
Lunell of Leeds, North Dakota, a most zealous and able botanist 
of that region, to whom as collector and phytographer American 
botany as well as local is greatly indebted, and whose contribu- 
tions of the botanical information on the plants of that region 
have frequently appeared in this journal. 

Lunellia no v. gen. 

Plantae erectae habitu Wulfeniae Bullii, rhizomate crasso. 
foliis basalibus petiolatis in caule quidem sessilibus alternis; 
floribus in spicis densis omnino apetalis; calice in segmenta in- 
aequalia diviso; staminibus duobus cum stylo exsertis, aequilongis 
in exteriore margine disci hypogyno insertis; capsula emarginata, 
compressa, obcordata, duas habente cellulas. 

Erect plants with the habit of Wuljenia Bullii with thick 
rhizomes, petioled basal leaves and sessile alternate cauline ones, 
flowers in dense spikes without corolla. Calyx deeply divided into 
unequal segments. Stamens two exserted with the style, and 
inserted on the outer margin of the hypogynous disk: filaments 
slender. Capsule emarginate not much compressed, two-celled. 
Type the following: 

Lunellia rubra (Hook.) Nwd. 

Gymnandra rubra Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. IL, p.. p. 103, (1840). 

Syniheris rubra (Hook.) Benth. in DC. Prod. X., p. 455, (1846.) 

Wuljenia rubra (Hook.) Greene Erythea, 1. c. 

Besseya rubra (Hook.) Rydberg 1. c. 

Beside this the new genus contains also the plants called 
Syntheris wyomingensis A. Nelson and Synthens gymnocarpa 
Heller both without corolla, plants of the western United States. 

Enetophyton nov. gen. 
Planta parva scaposa erecta simplex, (nunquam ramosa) 



190 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

floribus albescentibus vel purpurascentibus cleistogamis. 1-4, 
pedicellatis, inconspicuis et perparvis; calice 2-partito ejus labio 
inferiore minute 3-lobato et 5-nervato, superiore quidem 7-nervato: 
corolla breviter et obtuse saccata et bilobata: capsula globosa, 
multa perparva semina continente. 

Plant small, scapose, erect, simple, leafless or with a few 
scales, with 1-4 pedicelled inconspicuous small flowers. Calyx 
two parted the lower lobe minutely 3-lobed and five nerved, 
the upper 7-nerved. Corolla two-lipped, bluntly saccate: capsule 
globose with many minute seeds. 

This plant probably monotypic is distinct from l.Hricularia 
Linn, and the other genera recently segregated from this by its 
cleistogamous flowers. There seems some doubt that these minute 
flowers are really cleistogamous, but even then the character- 
istically peculiar shape of the flowers especially the corolla is suffi- 
ciently distinctive. If these flowers are then really chasmogamous 
and not cleistogamous they do not in any way resemble any of 
the flowers of the other Utriculariaceae. 

The corolla is a subglobose sac-like structure with a slit 
at one end and a blunt continuation of the sac at the insertion 
below. The lobes are neither recurved or even reflexed or spread- 
ing. The flowers are subcorymbose. The peculiar color of the 
flowers too seems to bespeak no close resemblance to Setiscapella 
suhulata (Linn.) Barnhart' {Utrictdaria subulata Linn.) of which 
it was first made a mere variety resembling it in habit. 

Type species Setiscapella or Utricularia cleistogama (A. Gray). 

Enetophyton cleistogamum (A. Gray) Nwd. 

Setiscapella cleistogama (A. Gray) Barnhart. p. 231 1. c. 

Utricularia cleistogama Britton, Trans. N. Y. Acad. Sci. IX., 
p. 12, (1889). 

Utricularia subttlata var. cleistogama A. Gray. Syn. Fl. 2, 
I., p. 317, (1878). 

Aphyllon Mitchell. 

The name Aphyllon Mitchell, (1769)' antedated Rafinesque's 
Thalesia^ and should be restored. The name was accepted by 

I Barnhart in Britton's 111. FI. N. Am. 2nd Kd. III. pp. 230-231, (1913). 

1 Mitchell, J. Diss. Brevis de Prin. Bot. and Zool. cum Append. 
Aliquot Gen. PI. etc. Norimbergae (1769). 

2 Rafinesque, C. S., Am. Month. Mag. 2, p. 269, (1818). 



NOTES ON NEW AND OLD GENERA 191 

Dr. Gray^ bul, found later to be preceded by Thalesia. Mitchell's 
reprint was, however, overlooked as it was in the case of the 
genera Pentstemon and Viticella elsewhere noted. '^ 

Phenianthus Raf. 

The plant called by Linnaeus Lonicera sempervirens by its 
almost regular corolla of four small subequal lobes and very long 
tube would seem to be at least as much entitled to generic standing 
as Nintooa Sweet. The latter has not nearly as characteristically 
different floral characters as the other. The flowers of Rafinesqne's 
segregate plant Phenianthus for L. sempervirens are even more 
strikingly different from typical Lonicera than are those of the 
recognized genus Xyiosteunt Adams. The genus was proposed by 
Rafinesque and is probably a good one. 

Phenianthus Raf., Ann. Gen. vSc. Phys. VI. p. 83, (1820). 
Phenianthus sempervirens (Linn.) Raf. 1. c. (Type.) 
Lonicera sempervirens Linn. vSp. PI. p. 173, (1753). 

Phenianthus arizonicus (Rehdcr). 

Lonicera arizonica Rehder. vSpring. Trees and Shrubs i, p. 
45. (1902). 

Triodanis Raf. 

The American plants hitherto referred to Specularia (Heist.) 
Fabr. or Legouzia Durand are in fact rather different from the 
common members of the old world genus with which they have 
almost invariably been associated. Rafinesque well acquainted 
with both the European Specularia Speculum, Veneris (or Specu- 
laria Speculum wrongly called) and also knowing well our American 
plants was quick to recognize the differences between the two. 
He therefore made our plant Specularia perjoliata (Linn.) DC. 
the type of a new genus Triodanis. 

The calyx according to his diagnosis is notably irregular 
in Triodanis. Three of the sepal lobes are narrower than the 
others and turned away from them giving the whole a bilabiate 
appearance. The corolla is deeply and the flowers are axillary 
on stems or the few branches, whereas in the European plant 

3 Gray, A., Syn. Fl. 2, pt. i, p. 312, (1878). 

4 Am. Mid. Nat. III., p. 155, (1913). 

5 See Small, J. K. Fl. S. E. U. S. p. 1125, (1903 also 1913). 



192 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

they are almost flat-topped cymosely terminal. Moreover, our 
American plants have two kinds of flowers; the earliest and 
lowest are almost devoid of corolla, clcistogamous and with smaller 
and fewer calyx teeth. The capsule in the type is short cylindric 
or obconic. 

Triodanis Raf. 1. c. 

Specularia (Heister) Fabr.^ or Legouzia Durand^ segregate. 

Triodanis perfoliata (Ijnn.) Nwd. 

Triodanis rupcsiris (Linn.) Raf. 1. c. 

Triodallus rnpestris (Linn.) DC. Prod. VIL, p. 491, (1839). 

Specidaria perfoliata (Linn.) A. DC. Mon. Campan. p. 351, 
(1830). 

Legouzia perfoliata (Linn.) Britton. Mem. Torr. Bot. CI. 
v., p. 309, (1894). 

Cavipamda perfoliata Linn. vSp. PI. p. 169, (1753). 

Triodanis biflora (R. and P.) Nwd. 

Campamda biflora (R. and P.) Fl. Per. 2, p. 55, pi. 200, (1799). 
Specularia biflora (R. and P.) F. and M. Ind., Sem. Hort. 
Petrop. L, p. 17, (1835). 

Triodanis leptocarpa (Nutt.) Nwd. 

Specularia leptocarpa (Nutt.) A. Gray. Proc. Am. Acad. IL, 
p. 82, (1876). 

Mesadenia Raf. a Synonym. 

The name Mesadenia^ as applied to the composite plants 
segregates of Cacalia Linn, is inapplicable because the name 
was used by Rafinesque several years earlier in attempt to displace 
Walter's name Frasera of the Gentianaceae.' Concerning the status 
of the well recognized genus of Compo'sitae, Dr. Greene has not only 
discussed fully its merits, but also thrown light on the somewhat 
confused condition of the nomenclature.^ De Candolle's first 
attempt at segregation was done as a section or subgenus under 

6 (Heister, L.) Kalricius, P. K. Enum. PI. Hort. H.lmst. p. 225, (1763). 

7 Durandc, J. Fr., Fl. Bourg. 2, p. 26, (1782). 

1 Rafinesque, C. S., Loudon's Gard. Mag. 8, p. 247. (1832), also Rafin- 
esque ,C. S., New Fl. IV., p. 78, (1836). 

2 Rafinesque, C. S., Med. I'l. I., p. 198. {1828). 

3 Greene, E. L., Pittonia, III., p. 180-183, (1897).. 



NOTES ON NEW AND OLD GENERA 1 93 

Cacalia which he called Conophora.'^ It would seem appropriate 
to perpetuate this as a generic name.^ 

Conophora (DC.) Nwd. 

Cacalia Linn. Subgenus or vSection Conophora DC. (1837).' 

Mesadenia Raf. Loud. Card. Mag. 8, p. 247, (1832), and 
Mesadenia Raf. New. Fl. IV., p. 78, (1836) not Mesadenia Raf. 
Med. Fl. L, p. 198, (1828). 

?[Arnoglossum Raf. Fl. Lud. p. 64, (18 17)]? nomen subnudum, 
not Arnoglossum of the Ancients.) 

Conophora atriplicifolia (Linn.) Nwd. 
Mesadenia atriplicifolia (Linn.) Raf. 1. c. p. 79. 
Cacalia atriplicifolia Linn. Sp. PL p. 835, (1753). 

Conophora reniformis (Muhl.) Nwd. 

Mesadenia renijormis (Muhl.) Raf. 1. c. p. 79 

Cacalia reniformis Muhl. Willd. Sp. PI. 3, 1735, (1809). 

Conophora tuberosa (Nutt.) Nwd. 

Mesadenia tuberosa (Nutt.) Britton. III. Fl. 3, p. 474, (1898). 

Adesadenia plantaginea Raf. 1. c. p. 79. 

Cacalia tuberosa (Nutt.) Gen. 2, p. 138, (18 18). 

}[Arnoglossum plantagineum Raf. Fl. Lud. p. 65, (1817)]? 

Conophora floridana (A. Gray) Nwd. 

Cacalia floridana A. Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. XIX., p. 52, (1883). 

Conophora ovata (Walt.) Nwd. 
Mesadenia ovata (Walt.) Raf. o. c. 
Cacalia ovata Walt., Carol, p. 196, (1785). 

Conophora diversifolia (T. and G.) Nwd. 
Mesadenia. diversifolia (T. and G.) Greene 1. c. 

Conophora similis (Small) Nwd. 

Mesadenia similis Small, Fl. S. E. U. S. p. 1301, (1903). 

Conophora maxima (Harper) Nwd. 

Mesadenia maxima Harper in Small, Fl. vS. E. U. S., p. 1301, 
(1903)., etc., etc. 

4 De Candolle, A. P., Prod. VI., p. 329, (1837)- 

5 It is possible that the name of the cryptogamic plant Coniop'hora 
DC. and Pers. may render Conophora a synonym. If so Adenimesa may be 
suggested for Alesadenia Raf. (1832), with the same type A. atriplicifolin — 
Mesadenia atriplicifolia (Linn.) Raf. New FL 4, p. 79, (1836). 



194 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

Cyphorima Raf.' 

This genus by important characters not ordinarily sufficiently 
emphasized deserves recognition even if Batschia be reduced to 
Lithospermiim Linn. De Candolle^ made Batschia linearifolia or 
Lithospermum linearifolhim Goldie typical of his genus Pentalophiis.^ 
Not well acquainted with the synonymy of the plant he simul- 
taneously had it under Lithospermum as L. angustifolium'* Michx. 
These are now shown to be identical. There is no doubt that ^ 
De Candolle described this plant as type of Pentalophus apparent 
from his description as well as quotation of synonymy. 

Apart from the very notable character of having cleistogamous, 
flowers, a character rather unusual in the Asperifoliae the plant 
is well distinguished in other ways even from Batschia itself. The 
corolla tube is very long, three to five times that of the calix, 
and the lobes erose-denticulate, notably salver shaped, or trumpet 
shaped. The nutlets are keeled and the corolla appendgaes 
large and arching, the flowers becoming reflexed on their pedicels 
when the fruit forms. 

Cyphorima Rafinesque, 1. c. 

Lithos permimi Tann. or Batschia Gmelin in part. 

Cyphorima angustifolia (Michx.) Nov. comb. 

Lithospermum linearifolium Goldie. Eiiinb. Phil. Jr. p. 322, 
(1822). 

Lithospermum angustijolium Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. i, p. 130, 
(1803). Not Forskal. 

Pentalophus longijiorus D. C. 1. c. 

Pentalophus angustijolius (Michx.) 

Batschia longiflora Nuttall. Gen. i, p. 114, (1S18). 

Why Matteucia? 

There can be little doubt to those carefully studying the 
original works thai the name Struthioptfrts was first used for the 
Ostrich fern, (Matteucia Struthiopteris (Linn.) Todaro), by the 
discoverer of this plant. Its first publication was made by Valerius 

1 Rafinesque, C. S., Am. Monthly Mat;;, p. 191, 357, (1819) Cat. 13, 
(1824). 

2 De Candolle, A. Prod. X., p. 86, (1846). 

3 1. c. p. 79. 

4 1. c. 78. 



NOTES ON NEW AND OLD GENERA 1 95 

Cordus.' Linnaeus reduced the genus to his Osmunda,' and unfor- 
tunately the first attempt at restoration of the name since 175.3 
was made to apply mistakenly to Lomaria Spicant (Linn.) Desv.-' 
Haller/ Scopoli,^ (Ludwig, Boehmer,)^ Weis,^ Trevisan,^ in fact 
all the followers of Haller thought apparently that the plant 
Valerius Cordus had at hand was Lomaria Spicant (Linn.) Desv., 
and not more than a year ago a, goodly number of species new 
and old were put under Struthiopteris though under former con- 
ditions referable to Lomaria.^ Now, because of the "rules" that 
tolerate an error or a mistake, when made since 1753, it would 
be worse than useless to insist that the name Struthiopteris, be 
applied to what is now called Matteucia, on the ground that the 
former was the first pre-Linnaean name of the latter, with Haller 
etc., to the contrary notwithstanding. Such an assumption of 
position would appear ridiculous to code followers, who may be 
expected to be logical or not as suits their whims. 

On the authority of Trevisan was it asserted even that the 
original Struthiopteris Cordus is the Linnaean Osmunda Spicant. ^° 
Trevisan like Haller and others must have put too much stock 
in the figure accompanying Cordus' description, to the detriment 
of careful study of his description, and all unmindful of the fact 
that the figures and illustrations of Cordus' History were put in 
by Conrad Gesner. The latter was not a very good botanist, 
but rather a zoologist, and in editing the other's work long after 
Cordus' death, added the figures, which in not a few cases were 
lamentably mixed up, and often so hopelessly transposed that 
even a botanical tyro in looking through the work must smile 
at mistakes, realizing immediately after reading the remarkable 
good descriptions of Cordus himself that this author could not 
have been responsible for such obvious blunders. 

In confirmation of the fact that Cordus described the Ostrich 

1 Cordus, V. Hist. PI. 2, p. 170, (1561) edited by C. Gesner. 

2 Linnaeus, C, Sp. PI. p. 1066, (1753). 

3 Desvaux, A. N. Ges. Nat. Fr. Berl. Mag. 5, p. 325, (181 1). 

4 Haller, A. P^num Stirp. Helv. p. 132, (1742) also 2nd Ed. 3, p. 6, (1768). 

5 vScopoli, J. A., Fl. Car. p. 168, (1760). 

6 Ludwig Boehmer, Def. Gen. PI. p. 479, (1760) as a synonym, also 
Gleditsch Fl. Pips. p. 296. 

7 Weiss, F. W., PI. Crypt. Fl. Gott. p. 286, (1770). 

8 Trevisan, V. C, Attis Tst. Yen. IIP, 14, pp. 553-558, (1869). 

9 Broadhurst, J. Bull. Torr. Bot. CI., 39, p. 257, (1912). 
10 Thalius, J. vSylva Harcynia, p. 119, (1588). 



196 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

fern we have also Thalius' remarkable diagnosis of the plant 
under the good liinomial caption Siruthiopteris Cordi. All this 
comment from our part is, of course, more or less useless perhaps, 
against a system that tolerates, any blunder or name provided 
it enjoy a certain priority in being perpetrated since 1753. It 
may serve, however, at least this much in as far as it calls attention 
to the mistake and its explanation. 

The question of the application of the name Struthiopieris 
apart, we see no reason why Matteucia Todaro, should be used 
for the Ostrich fern, when another name Pteretis Rafinesque, 
quite valid as far as we know, antedates it by nearly fifty years. 
For reasons about to be referred to, it seems to us a very diihcult 
matter to understand by what principles a name is often applied 
by our modern nomenclators. The followers of the Vienna Code 
will probably pay little attention to Rafinesque's publication of 
Pteretis,^ because under a system without even the semblance of 
fast rules, it will be easy to find "clauses" whereby it can be put 
back into oblivion. The followers of the American or New York 
Codes have disregarded Thelypteris Schmidel (1760), an older name 
than Dryoptens Adanson (1763),^ also rejected Pentaphylloides 
Duhamel (1755), for the later Dasiphora Raf. (1838). The logic 
of such procedure is difficult to see; concerning the reason or 
motive we will not venture a statement though perhaps we could. 
Ignorance of the fact of the publication of Thelypteris or Penta- 
phylloides need scarcely be considered. If Thelypteris is to be re- 
jected in favor of a later Dryopteris because there was a different 
apphcation of the name in its first pre-Linnaean publication, the 
name, Struthiopieris as used for Osniunda Spicant Linn, stands 
a parallel case. Then why is -the latter acceptable and the former 
not? No reason being given for the rejection of Thelypteris and 
Pentaphylloides it may be supposed that perhaps there is none 
or there is no good one. Any way the logic of it is quite incom- 
prehensible to us, unless there be a motive for ignoring it without 
any need or semblance of reason. 

Now that Pteretis is found to antedate Matteucia we wonder 
whether it will be found worth v or acceptable in spite of its pri- 
ority. We have seen so many cases lately of rejected names 
boasting priority since 1753, that we feel that all the much vaunted 

1 Rafinesqup, C. S., Am. Monthly Mag. II., p. 268, (181S). 

2 Britton.iN. L. 111. I<'1 .N. Am. I., p. 17, II., p. 262, (191,?)- 



NOTES ON OLD AND NEW GENERA. 197 

statements of fealty to the fetich of priority are meaningless noise 
or waste of good type space. 

Realizing then that it is scarcely worth while to call attention 
even to the fact of the priority of Pteretis Raf., because of the 
very peculiar exhibitions of logic on the part of the manual writers, 
we still venture to propose the accompanying synonymy of 
Struthiopteris Cordus, because, whether acceptable or not before 
the high court of the codes, we will in spite of this feel that we 
are a little nearer to the truth, as dictated by the logical methods 
of either limited or absolute historical priority. Which horn 
of the dilemma will be preferable to the manual makers, namely, 
the acceptance of Thelypteris Schmidel (1760)' or Dryopteris 
Adanson (1763) and the analogous Struthiopteris Scopoli or Stru- 
thiopteris Willd., or on the other hand the acceptance of Pteretis 
Raf. for Matteucia Todaro (1866), we need not hazard a guess. 
In order to save the mark we may venture that another, perhaps 
a safer way were the suggestion of the complete suppression of 
Pteretis or Matteucia in any future editions, and its consequent 
reduction to synonymy under Onoclea Linn. In view of the 
fact of the rather widespread acceptance in the past of the validity 
of this group called Matteucia, its suppression is not really neces- 
sary, as it is a good genus, but this procedure might perhaps 
more easily be effected without as much need of explanation or 
evident ignoring of the fact of any one calling attention to the 
priority cf Pteretis Raf. This procedure would render explanations 
needless, though of course in ignoring the truth it is scarcely 
necessary to hazard even an explanation for any mode of action. 
The following synonymy may be suggested: 

Pteretis Raf. Am. Month. Mag., II., p. 268, (18 18). 

Matteucia Todaro, Geor. vSci. Nat. Palermo, I., p. 235, (1866). 

Strithiopteris Willd. Hnum. p. 1071, (1809) also Thalius, J. 
Sylva Hercyna p. 119, (1588), Cordus, V. Hist. PI. 2, p. 170, 
(1561) [Opus Posth.] not Struthiopteris Haller, Scopoli, Weiss, 
Trevisan 1. c. etc. =Lomaria Spicant (Linn.) Desvaux. 

Pteretis Struthiopteris (Linn.) 

Struthiopteris Cordi Thalius 1. c. 

Matteucia Struthiopteris Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1066, (1753). 

Onoclea Struthiopteris Hoffm. Deutsch. Fl. 2, p. 11, (1795). 

I Thelypteris as used Vjy Schmidel was accepted also by Haller. See 
his Hist. Stirp. Indig. Helv. III., p. 7, (1768). 



198 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

PRIORITY OF HIEROCHLOA. 

BY R. M. KACZMAREK. 



Since the genus name (j'aleorchis,' {Orchis spcctabilis Linn.), 
taken as type, supplants the generic names Galearis and Galearia 
which constitute synonyms, and likewise since the genus Gillena 
(Adans)^ invalidates the genus Gillenia (Moench.)-^ or Elodes 
(Adans.)'* reduces Elodea (Pursh)^ to synonymy, accordingly, the 
genus name Hierochloa (Genelin) Beau v., ^ ought to be substituted 
for the genus name Savastana (vSchrank)^ which constitutes a 
synonym to Savastania (Scopoli).'^ 

Following is the resume of some of the species: 

Hierchloa odorata Wahl. Fl. Ups. p. 32, (1820). 
Savastana odorata (Linn.) Scribn. 

Hierochloa Nashii (Bicknell). 
Savastana NasJiii; (Bicknell). 

Hierochloa pauciflora R. Br. App. Parry's Voy. p. 293, (1824). 
Savastana pauciflora (R. Br.) Scribn. 

Hierochloa alpina R. and S. Syst. Vol. II., p. 515, (181 7). 
Savastana alpina (Si v.) Scribn. 

Dept. of Botany, 
University of Notre Dame. 

NOTES ON CLEISTOGAMOUS FLOWERS OF VIOLETS.- II. 

BY J. A. NIEUWLAND. 



In examining the cleistogamous flowers of acaulescent violets, 
it was found that there was often present a short lanceolate, ob- 



1 Britton N. I,. Manual Fl. N. U. S. Vol. I. p. 551, {1913). 

2 Adans. Fam. II., p. 166, (1763). 

3 Moench. Meth. Suppl. p. 286, (1802). 

4 Adans. Fam. Vol. II., p. 444, (1763). 

5 Pursh, Fl. Am. vSept. p. 360, (1814). 

6 Beauv. Agrost. p. 62, (1812). Hierochlot- Gmel. S. G. Fl. v^ihir. 
Vol. I., p. 100, (1747). 

7 Schrank, Baier, P'l. Vol. I., p. 100-137, ('7^'^9)- 

8 Scopoli, Introd. p. 213, (1777). 



CIvEJISTOGAMOUS I^LOWElRS 199 

lanceolate, to spatulate growth between the two fertile stamens.' 
It was thought at the first^ that this third body was a sterile 
stamen. More careful examination of flowers of Viola cucullata 
Ait, {Viola obliqua Hill) showed that this process of greater or 
smaller size is exactly alternate with the two stamens and also 
alternate with the lower sepals. Specimens were found in which 
the broader expanded portion was violet in color and even had 
a trace of spur-like sac. It is therefore the reduced lower petal 
or keel. This becomes all the more evident when, as is usually 
the case, we find that the other 3 stamens and the other 
4 petals are found exactly in their relative positions with respect 
to the very unequal sepals. These stamens and petals are, however, 
so far reduced or atrophied as to be represented only by small 
globular-tipped gland-like bodies. 

In not a few instances Viola cucullata Ait. shows also one or 
two other petals, one of these often colored blue oftener white. 
These correspond by position to the lateral ones of the spring 
flowers of the same plant. Another notable peculiarity of this 
violet is that occasionally one finds a small stiped ovary within 
the well developed seed capsule. This ovary within another, 
reminds us of the somewhat similar growth of the "navel" orange. 
The small long styled ovary is developed inside from the middle 
of the torus, and the style with its broad spoon-like stigma reaches 
well towards the apex of the outer one which is by this time well 
"run to seed." Often the style of the inner ovary is bent back 
upon itself the whole being often nearly 6-7 mm. long and appar- 
ently devoid of ovules. 

Cleistogamous flowers of violets being quite easily obtained 
and at the same time available during most of the summer and 
fall, may very appropriately serve teachers in demonstrating the 
germination and growth of pollen tubes into the ovary. The 
stigmas of these flowers being only openings at the end of the short 
curved style, and devoid of sticky exudation, the pollen grains 
often germinate in or near the anthers sending their tubes from 
the stamens to the ovary. Even in old cleistogamous flowers in 
which, as in Viola cucullata, the capsule is already over a centi- 
metre and even il4. cm. long, the cotton-like tufts of germinating 
pollen tubes may be seen with the naked eye near the top of the 

1 Nieuwland, J. A., Am. Mid. Nat. III. p. 85, (1913). 

2 1. c. p. 91. 



200 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

recurved style. The style may be sectioned even with a razor 
blade and the course of the pollen tubes traced within. Better 
results can perhaps be obtained by embedding in parafin and 
making thick sections of the style with any ordinary students 
microtome. Any of the caulescent or acaulescent violets serve 
the purpose. The flowers of Viola cucullata are, however, among 
the most suitable because of their larger size. The violet is readily 
distinguished even in summer by the long auricles to the rather 
long unequal sepals of the cleistogamous erect or ascending flowers. 
The flowers are in condition of showing pollen tubes when the 
peduncle which is at first erect, begins to curve giving the ovary 
a reflexed position. The degree of curvature is often a good indi- 
cation of the various stages of fertilization. Viola cucullata is 
usually formed in most situations, and bears a great abundance 
of cleistogamous flowers until late in fall. 



POLYGONUM LONGISTYLUM SMALL, A SYNONYM. 



BY J. A. NIEUWLAND. 



On reading Rafinesque's description of his Polygonum bicorne^ 
in the Flora Ludoviciana one can scarcely hesitate in believing 
that this author, or Robin from whom he may have gotten an 
original description, had in mind or more likely at hand, an ab- 
normally large specimen of Polygonum longistylum Small. -^ There 
are characters about the description especially that of the "elon- 
gated exserted styles," that are unique for this plant, and found 
in no other American Persicaria. The locality in both cases of 
publication is the same. Rafinesque describes the plant as large, 
four or five feet high; Small's plant is given as but one or two 
feet high. If this discrepancy in size may be overlooked, then 
Small's name is a synonym. As the work of Rafinesque is rare, 
I shall quote the paragraph of his diagnosis in full: 

"75. Polygonum bicorne. Raf. Caulibus ramosis, ramis 
geniculatis, patulis teretibus intus crenulatis; foliis petiolatis, 
lanceolatis, glabris; floribus spicatis confertis octandris, distylis, 
staminis inclusis, stylis exertis elongatis. Raf. — Renouee i, 

1 Rafinesque, C. S. Flora LiKloviciana, p. 29, (1817). 

2 vSmall, J. K. Bull. Torr. Hot. Club, i. p. 161), (iS()4). also, do. 
Monograph Am. Sp. Polygonum p. 62, (1895). 



OUR BIRDS IN SPRING 20I 

Rob. p. 366. Large plant, four or five feet high, branches purpHsh. 
every one of which bears a fine thick spike, about three inches 
long, of rose colored flowers. This species, and all the following, 
grow in swamps, moist grounds, and along the rivers; they are 
called vulgarly Curages, in Louisiana; all their flowers smell 
like honey, and afford it in plenty to the bees. Blossoms from 
August to December." 

Transferred to the genus Persicaria we have the following 
synonymy: 

Persicaria bicornis (Raf.) Nov, comb. 
Polygonum bicorne Raf., (18 17) 1. c. 
Polygonum longistylum Small, (1894) ^- c. 



OUR BIRDS IN THE SPRING OF 1913. 

BY BROTHER ALPHONSUS, C. S. C. 



Several species were observed but a few times in March. 
The long interval between the first and second dates on which 
the Golden-crowned Kinglet was seen is exceptional. The Herring 
Gull is an occasional visitant to our inland lakes and rivers. The 
Northern Shrike is a very rare species — seen only late in autumn, 
in winter, and in early spring. Species which are only occasionallv 
seen during their migration are: Kingfisher, Cowbird, Mourning 
Dove, Phoebe, Red-winged Blackbird and Killdeer. 

The Tree Sparrow was most regular in its appearance in March 
and early April, no interval during this period being a week in 
length. The species may be found during this time in gardens 
and orchards. In most other parts of its stay with us, this sparrow 
is only rarely found. 

Like the Tree Sparrow, the Brown Creeper was oftenest seen 
late in March and early in April. There were no long intervals 
between any of its dates in those two months; but in March, 19 12, 
the species was not once recorded; and in April there was one 
interval of 7 days, the total number of records for the month 
being 8. 

A comparison of the records for 191 2 with those for 19 13 
shows condiserable difference in the dates on which the Fox Sparrow 
was observed. In the former year there were five consecutive 
records from April 2 to 6 ; in the latter year there were four obser- 



202 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

vations in April, with a long interval of 8 days between the second 
and third record. The writer searched for the species twice a day 
on the days it was not seen, but failed to find the birds anywhere. 

In the dates of observation of the Hermit Thrush, one or two 
long intervals occur each year in April. In 191 2, there were periods 
of 12 and 14 days during which the species was not recorded. In 
1 9 13, 9 days was the long interval when this thrush was not ob- 
served. It would be difficult to assign a cause for these long in- 
tervals, for the weather was not cold during the absence of the 
species in April, 191 2. 

Another species whose records for 191 2 and 19 13, in April, 
show much difference is the Barn Swallow. In 19 13, there were 
but two records — x\pril 11 and 30; in 191 2, six records and no 
long period between is shown. Towards autumn I have found 
this species irregularly, and conclude that during times of mi- 
gration this swallow may not be found frequently. 

The presence of the Yellow Palmer Warbler in April, from the 
date of arrival almost daily until the time of departure in May, 
was usual for this species. In April, 191 2, this warbler was not 
once recorded, which was remarkable; for the Yellow Palm most 
often arrives in spring soon after the Myrtle Warbler, the earliest 
of all our warblers. 

Another species which had a record in April, 191 2, similar to 
that of the Yellow Palm Warbler was the House Wren. This bird 
generally arrives the last week in April; but this month was 
very cold for the season in 191 2, which, doubtless, was the cause 
of the late arrival of the House Wren in that year. 

On May 26, a very heavy rainfall occurred, beginning at i 
a. m. and lasting all day. At 2 p. m. the temperature was 50°. 
I went out for about half an hour and walked in ^ small park near 
the Main Building, but saw only a Robin and a Bronzed Grackle. 
But for this storm a number of species would have been recorded 
every day in May. 

The Towhee showed a marked difference both in April and 
May in 19 12 and 19x3. In the spring of 191 2 only 8 records were 
made for the species — 4 in April and 4 in May; whereas in 19 13, 
there were 14 records in April and 17 in May. The writer has 
found no species that shows more striking differences than the 
Towhee. Whole seasons may pass without the presence of this 
species in certain localities where it ought to be found. 



OUR BIRDS IN SPRING 203 

Species that were not seen before by the writer were: Blue 
Gray Gnatcatcher, Prairie Warbler, Blue-headed Vireo, Yellow- 
breasted Chat and Carolina Wren. The Yellow Rail was observed 
for the first time in the fall of 19 12. The Blue Gray Gnatcatcher 
and Blue-headed Vireo were certainly present here each spring 
previous to that of 19 13, but both are migrants that do not spend 
the summer in this locality. The Gnatcatcher is a common summer 
resident at Bankson Lake, Van Buren Co., Mich., where the species 
is found in deep woods. In spring the bird passes rapidly through 
Notre Dame, Ind., and may easily be overlooked by any but an 
experienced observer. The Blue-headed Vireo may also be easily 
overlooked, for the similarity of its song to that of the Yellow- 
throated Vireo will make most observers think the singer is the 
latter species. The Yellow-breasted Chat was observed in a very 
swampy place, where it alighted in a tree in full view but darted 
away in a few moments and was not seen again. The bird uttered 
no note. The Carolina Wren was observed in June as well as in 
May, and must have nested in this locality. The bird was in 
song in oak groves and in locust trees in a cemetery. 

March. 
Birds seen on the dates after their names: 

Blue Jay, 10, 11, 18, 19, 21, 23, 22, 23, 24, 29, 30, 31. 

24, 27, 31. Robin, 9 to 15, 17 to 31. 

Crow, 9 to 13, 15 to 21, 23 to 31. Killdeer, 12, 19, 20, 25, 29, 30. 

Snowbird, 11, 12, 15, 19, 20, 21, Red-winged Blackbird, 25, 30,31 

23 to 31. Phoebe, 19, 26, 30, 31. 

Downy Woodpecker, 10, 11, 12, Mourning Dove, 23, 31. 

20, 21, 23, 25, 26, 30, 31. Cowbird, 18, 20, 24, 30, 31. 

White-breasted Nuthatch, 10, Kingfisher, 22, 27. 

13, 16,1 19, 21, 25, 26, 29. Northern Shrike, 10. 

Tree Sparrow, 9 to 11, 17, 20, Bronzed Grackle, 12 to 20,22 to 

26 to 29, 31. 31. 

Bluebird, 11 to 14, 17 to 20, Field Sparrow, 22, 26, 29, 30, 31. 

24, 25, 26, 29, 30, 31. Herring Gull, 15, 28. 

Brown Creeper, 16, 20, 25, 26,30. Canada Geese, 15. 

Song Sparrow, 11, 12, 13, 15 to Golden-crowned Kinglet, 19,30, 

20, 23 to 26, 28 to 31. 31. 
Meadowlark, 12, 13, 18, 19, 20, 

Total number of species seen in March, 23. 



204 



AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 



April. 
Birds seen on the dates after their names: 
Bhie Jay. i, 3, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, Chic-ken Hawk, 16. 



12, 14 to 25, 27 to 30. 
Crow, T, 2, 3, 7, 8, 10, 12 to 17, 

20, 21, 23, 24, 25, 27 to 30. 
Snowbird, i to 16, 28, 29. 
Downy Woodpecker, i, 2, 3, 5, 

8, 9 to 12, 14 to 17, 20, 2\, 

23. 24, 
White-breasted Nuthatch, i, 2, 

6, 9, II, 14, 16, 17, 18, 20 

to 23, 25, 28, 29. 
Tree Sparrow, 2, 3, 4, 5,. 
Bhiebird, i, 2, 3, 5, 7 to 14,- 16, 

17, 19 to 24, 26, 27, 29, 30. 
Brown Creeper, 3 to 7, 11, 14, 

19, 20, 21. 
Song Sparrow, i to 30. 
Meadowlark, i to 30. 
Robin, I to 30. 
Killdeer, i, 2, 8, 16, 18, 20, 22, 

23, 28, 29, 30. 
Red- winged Blackbird, i, 2, 5, 
7 to 30. 
Phoebe, i to 7, 9, 10, 12, 13, 

14, 16, 18, 19, 21, 23, 28, 29. 
Mourning Dove, i. 4, 10, 11, 

12, 14 to 30. 
Cowbird, i to 23, 25 to 30. 
Kingfisher, 5, 8, 9, 12, 16, 19, 

22, 27, 29, 30. 
Fhcker, i, 3 to 26, 28, 29, 30. 
Chipping Sparrow, 15, 18 to 26, 

28, 29, 30. 
Purple Crackle, i to 30. 
Loggerhead Shrike, 8, 10. 
Field Sparrow, i, 2, 3, 5 to 24, 

28, 29, 30. 



Sparrow Hawk, 28. 
Golden-crowned Kinglet, 2, 3, 

4. 5. 6, 9- 
Chickadee, i . 
Vesper vSparrow, 2, 5, 7, 8, 12 to 

16, 18, 20 to 23, 25, 27 to 30. 
Fox Sparrow, 5, 8, 17, 18. 
Towhee, 6, 7, 10, 11, 16, 19 to 

24, 26, 28, 29, 30. 
Hermit Thrush, 19, 20, 22, 23 
Sapsucker, 3, 4 to 8, to to 13 

15, T9, 20, 23. 
Barn Swallow, 11, 30. 
Myrtle Warbler, 18, 20, 22 to 30 
Spotted Sandpiper, 24, 26, 28 

29, 30. 
Red-headed Woodpecker, 29, 30 
Warbling Yireo, 26, 29, 30. 
Brown Thrasher, 12, 14, 15, 16 

18 to 22, 24 to 30. 
Ruby-crowned Kinglet, 16, 18 

20, 21, 22, 23 to 26. 
Pine Warbler, 18, 23. 
Redstart, 20. 
White-throated Sparrow, 21 to 

26, 29, 30. 
Tennessee Warbler, 22. 
Yellow Palm Warbler, 22 to 26, 

28, 29, 30. 
House Wren, 22, 23, 24, 25, 30. 
Goldfinch, 23, 26, 30. 
Red-breasted Nuthatch, 23, 30. 
Swamp Sparrow, 23. 
Short-billed March Wren, 28. 
Baltimore Oriole, 29, 30. 
Yellow Warbler, 30. 



Total number of species seen in April, 50. 



OUR BIRDS IN SPRING 



205 



May. 
Birds seen on the dates after their names: 



Crow, 4, 5, 7 to 10, 12, 13, 14, 

16, 18, 19 ,20, 23, 24, 27, 31. 
Blue Jay, i to 6, 8, 9, 10, 12 to 

22, 24, 27, 28, 29, 31. 
Robin, I to 31. 
Bluebird, i, 2, 6, 7, 9, 10, 12, 

13. 14. 15. 17. iS, 22, 24, 

29, 30, 31- 
Song vSparrow, i to 25, 27, to 31. 
Meadowlark, i, 2, 3, 5 to 8, 10 

to 22, 24, 25, 27 to 31. 
Bronzed Grackle, i to 31. 
Killdeer, i, 2, 4, 13, 16, 17, 18, 

19, 20, 22, 24, 25, 28, 31. 
Towhee, i to 6, 8 to 16, 20, 24. 
Field Sparrow, i, 3, 5 to 17, 19, 

20, 23, 24, 25, 27 to 31. 
Vesper Sparrow, i, 2, 3, 5, 6, 10, 

12 to 19, 21, 22, 25, 27 to 31. 
Red-winged Blackbird, i to 13, 

15 to 25, 27, 28, 30, 31. 
Mourning Dove, i to 22, 24, 25, 

27 to 31. 
Hermit Thrush, 3, 5, 6 to 10, 

12 to 24, 27, 28, 29. 
Cowbird, i to 15, 17 to 25, 28, 

29, 31- 
Kingfisher, i, 10, 11, 15, 20, 29. 
House Wren, i to 25, 27 to 31. 
Yellow^ Palm Warbler, i, 2, 4 

to II, 13, 14, 16. 
Chimney Swift, 2 to 25, 27 to 31. 
Yellow Warbler, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 

II, 13, 14, 15, 17, 20, 21, 22. 
• 25, 27, 29, 30. 
Warbling Vireo, i to 25, 27 to 31. 
Catbird, i to 25, 27 to 31. 



Baltimore Oriole, i to 25, 27 

to 31. 
Indigo Bird, 9, 14, 15, 16, 17, 

20, 24, 27, 28, 30. 
Orchard Oriole, 3, 4, 6, 9 to 14, 

16 to 23, 25, 27, 28, 30, 31. 
Kingbird, 3 to 7, 11 to 21, 24, 

25, 27 to 31. 
Black-throated Green Warbler, 

2, 4. 23. 
White-breasted Nuthatch, 5, 12, 

13, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 27. 
Redstart, 16, 19, 23, 28, 
Scarlet Tanager, 13, 21, 25. 
Least Flycatcher, 12, 15, 16, 17, 

20, 23, 24, 29. 
Alder Flycatcher, 9, 15, 24, 27. 
Crested Flycatcher, 6, 7, 15 to 

24, 27, 28, 31. 
Cedarbird, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 31. 
Yellow-billed Cuckoo, 16, 18, 

19. 31- 

Nighthawk, 16, 17, 20, 25, 27 

to 31. 
Whip-poor-will, i. 
Red-headed Woodpecker, i to 

22, 24, 25, 27 to 31. 
Spotted Sandpiper, i, 2, 3, 5, 7, 

8, 9, II, 12, 14 to 21, 27, 28, 31 
Myrtle Warbler, i to 7, 9, 10, 

II, 14. 
Brown Thrasher, i to 21, 2^, 24, 

25, 27, 28, 29, 31. 
Chipping Sparrow, i to 14, 16 

to 22, 24, 25, 27 to 31. 
Flicker, i, 2, 3, 5 to 10, 12 to 

20, 23, 24, 27 to 31. 



?o6 



AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 



Goldfinch, i to 25, 27 to 30. 
Black-poll Warbler, 17 to 25, 

27, 28. 
Red-eyed Vireo, 9, 15, 16, 18 

to 21, 24, 25, 29, 30, 31. 
Magnolia Warbler, 16, 17, 19, 24 
Wood Pewee, 14 to 25, 27 to 31. 
Bay-breasted Warbler, 16, 22. 
Phoebe, 3, 4, 8, 12 to 16, 18. 
Ruby-crowned Kinglet, 2. 
White-throated vSparrow, i, 2, 3, 

5, 6, 8, II, 20. 
Blackburnian Warbler, 11. 
Nashbille Warbler, 6, 9, 10. 
Yellow Rail, 7, 8, 10. 
Kentucky Warbler, 23, 24. 
Red-breasted Nuthatch, 16. 
Black-billed Cuckoo, 21. 
Chestnut-sided Warbler, 5, 10, 

12, 15 to 20, 22, 23, 24. 
Cape May Warbler, 16, 17, 28. 
Bobolink, 5, 9. 
Rose-breasted Grosbeak, 5, 6, 

7, 10, II, 13, 14. 
Canadian Warbler, 23, 24. 

Total number of species seen 
Total number of species seen 



White-crowned Sparrow, 7, 10, 

II, 12, 14, 15. 
Black and White Warbler, 9, 16, 

17, 22, 23. 
Barn Swallow, 2, 4, 5, 10 to 14, 

16, 17, 18, 20 to 24, 27, 30, 31. 
Downy Woodpecker, 2, 9, 14, 

16, 18, 29. 

vScreech Owl, i, 20, 22, 31. 

Loggerhead Shrike, 18. 

Chicken Hawk, 7. 

Cardinal, 4. 

Swamp Sparrow, 5, 5, 24. 

Water Thrush, 5 to 10, 12 to 

17, 24, 25, 27, 28. 
Blue Gray Gnatcatcher, 6. 
Prairie Warbler, 6. 

Tree Swallow, 10. 
Blue-headed Vireo, 10, 16, 21, 

24, 29. 
Yellow-breasted Chat, 27. 
Yellow-bellied Flycatcher, 27. 
Hummingbird, 28. 
Carolina Wren, 28. 
Maryland Yellowthroat, 30. 

in May, 85. 
in spring, 98. 



Pages 79-134, published July 10, 1913. 
Pages 135-166, published October 3, 1913. 



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VOL. III. FEBRUARY, 1914. NO. 8. 

a«eTc*n midland 
naturalist 

Devoted to Natural History, Primarily 
that of the Prairie States 



Published by the University of Notre Dame, 

Notre Dame, Indiana ^^ — ^_j^~-. 

J. A. NIEUWLAND, C. S. C, Ph. D., Sc. D/<g^itor 




CONTENTS . '^Sgni 
Studies in Viola. — I. /. A . Xieuwland 207 

Notes on Our Local Plants. — V. /. .4. Nicuwland 217 

Our Birds in the Autumn of 1912 Brother Alphonsns, ( '. 5. ( '. 24,:; 

Our Birds in the Summer of 1913. 

Brother Alphonsns, C. S. C. 24S 

Critical Notes on New and Old Genera of Plants. — 11. 

/. .4. Xieii-u'land 253 



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VOL. III. FEBRUARY, 1914. NO. 8. 

/%'" 

Proposed Segregates oj Viola. [ l^lj^a 'M'. 

BY J. A. NIEUWLAND AND R. M. KACZMAREK. 



The presence or absence of cleistogamous flowers in plants 
has become more and more recognized as a basic character for 
classification. The genus Crocanthemnm of Spach,' lately recog- 
nized^ by Dr. Britton as the name applicable to our American 
Rock Roses or Frostweeds has as perhaps its most important 
character of distinction from Halimium and Helianthemum, the 
presence of the less conspicuous cleistogamous flowers. In a closely 
allied family, the Violaceae, in the genus Viola, these flowers 
serve no unimportant part in differentiating species from one 
another. As the presence or absence of them seems to be a constant 
character in the plants mentioned we can see no reason why 
further segregation of the old aggregate genus Viola may not be 
suggested with reason, all the more as there are very important 
characters of cleistogamous flowers, and the habit of the plants 
in question demands serious consideration of the matter. In fact 
vSpach and others before and after him without reference to presence 
of cleistogamous flowers thought the various groups now aggregated 
under Viola as sufficiently different from one another to constitute 
natural genera. Even before Ivinnaeus and by some after him, 
the Pansies were grouped by themselves. As already intimated 
in a former article by one of us'' not only are these flowers present 
constantly in some groups with other important differential 
characters, and absent in others, but when present, there are 

1 Spach, E., Am. Sci. Nat. II. 6, p. 370, (1836); also Hist. Nat. Veg. 
VI., p. 95, (1838). 

2 Britton, N. I.., 111. Fl. N. U. S. II., p. 539, (1913)- 

3 Nieuwland, J. A., Am. Mid. Nat. III., 3, p. 85-91. (p. 90). 



208 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

important characters of distinction in these cleistogamous flowers 
themselves. 

During the past season particularly, and in fact for nearly 
a decade past, this interest in the apetalous flowers was main- 
tained by us. Though not a great number of individual species has 
as yet been examined, in every one of the groups it has been found 
that e. g., acaulescent violets including, the white violets such as 
V. lanceolata, V. primulaejolia, V. hlanda, V. incognita, have 
uniformly, as far as examination of their cleistogamous flowers 
was made, two fertile stamens, with occasionally the presence 
of a very small abortive petal or two, as in case of V. cucullaia. 
The solitary abortive petal is usually the keel, or lower petal. 
The other petals and stamens are represented if at all as minute 
processes like small stiped capitate glands, found in their regular 
positions with respect to the more or less equal sepals. 

The caulescent violets represent three groups. The pancies 
which are annuals, biennials or winter annuals, have no cleisto- 
gamous flowers. Viola eriocarpa Schwein {Viola scahriuscula 
Schwein) and Viola pubescens Ait., have subequal sepals and only 
two stamens in their apetalous summer flowers. Viola canadensis 
Linn., Viola rostrata Pursh, Viola striata Ait., have five fertile 
stamens in their cleistogamous flowers. The first of these does 
not produce these flowers until very late in the season and then 
the transition from petaliferous to apetalous ones is a rather 
gradual process. The petals become gradually smaller and finally 
disappear completely, one or several at a time. The sepals are 
short and seem to be open when the capsule is fertilized. Even 
late in fall there may often be found what seem to be cleistogamous 
flowers with one to several minute whitish petals. In fact the 
budlike closed cleistogamous flowers of this species do not seem 
to be as fertile as they are in the rest of the violets, and appear 
to fall off aborted before producing seed. They are reproduced 
at the end of the shoots and are short-stalked apical and some- 
times in old leaf axils. 

The cleistogamous flowers of Viola rostrata are among the 
first to appear and continue to develop until winter. The sepals 
are at first and before fertilization somewhat unequal. The 
peduncle is not bent and this is the case in all the plants of the 
caulescent group. The stamens are five in number. They grow 
usually from the ends of the stems which do not elongate much; 



STUDIES IN VIOLA 209 

they are at first rather long and slender peduncled and become 
shorter late in season. The apetalous flowers are not produced 
by transition from the petaliferous ones but appear immediately 
in their characteristic form. 

Viola striata Ait., resembles the preceeding in the number 
of stamens. The sepals have long auricles that are characteristic 
of the plant. The sepals are very unequal, the inner being much 
shorter than the two or three outer ones. The transition to cleisto- 
gamous flowers is rather more gradual but not so much so as in 
V. canadensis Linn. The styles and stigmas of the caulescent 
cleistogamous flowers are usually nearly straight somewhat ex- 
panded above or but very little reflexed. 

Viola pedata Linn., stands in a class by itself as having no 
cleistogamous flowers. The follov.'ing key shows the relationship 
of the proposed segregates. No species will be transferred by us 
unless such as v\^e have examined and the number of stamens 
determined. Moreover, no species will be mentioned in Viola 
proper unless this fact of the presence of two stamens has been 
determined. 

KEY TO GENERA AND SUBGENERA 

A. t'lants acaulescent, the leaves and flowers of both kinds either 
directly from rootstock or rufiners. 

(a) Cleistogamous flowers none Genus 

Oionychion (type T'. pedata Linn.) 
(a) Cleistogamous flowers present in summer after the vernal 

petaliferous ones Genus Viola (type V. odorata Linn.) 

(b) Rootstock thick, plants with stolons, petals blue, the 

lateral bearded Subgenus Euion (type V. odorata). 

(b) Rootstock thick, plants without stolons, petals blue,^ the 

lateral bearded -Subgenus Hesperion (type V. palmata). 

(b) Rootstocks, slender, plants from and with stolons, petals 

white or pale lilac' .Subgenus. 

Verbasculum [old Genus] (type V. prinuilaefolia Linn.) 
A. Plants caulescent, flowers axillary. 

(a) Cleistogamous flowers present appearing after the petaliferous 
later in the season. Plants perennial. 

(b) Stamens of the cleistogamous flowers two, petaliferous 

flowers yellow Genus Crocion (type V. pubescens Ait.) 

(b) vStamens of the cleistogamous flowers five, petaliferous 
flowers white, purplish or blue.. Genus Lophion (tj'pe V. 

canadensis Linn.) 

1 White in Viola candidula. 

2 Viola rotundifolia Michx. with yellow flowers may perhaps form 
another subgenus. 



2IO AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

(c) Lower petal spurred, flowers violet blue. Style not 

capitate. . Subgenus Eucentrion (type V.rostrata) Pursh. 
(c( Lower petal not spurred, flowers not blue, white 
within, base yellow. Style capitate. Subgenus 

Eulophion (type V. canadensis Linn.) 
(c) Lower petal spurred. Flowers white or cream colored. • 
Style not capitate Subgenus Rhabdotion (type V. striata Ait.) 
(a) Cleistogamous flowers absent. Plants annual or biennial 

Genus Mnemion' (type V. tricolor Linn.) 

Onionychion Gen. Nov. Viola Linn, pro parte. 

Planta acaulescens ramulos stoloniferos carens, radicibus 
fibrosis rhizomate praemorso, carnoso, erecto, brevi, vel cormo 
elongate, stricte simplice nunquam ramoso; floribus cleistogamis 
nullis, vernalibus autem magnis purpureis; foliis vernalibiis 
parvis, subpedate 5-9-partitis, laciniis latioribus; aestivis yero 
linearibus longioribus et angustioribus cum pedunculo flores 
multo excedente, 4-angulato. Stamina cum appendicibus magnis, 
antheris sessilibus, bina inferiora caudata, inferius obtuse plus 
minus ve calcaratum. Petala non barbata. Stylus clavatus eros- 
tratus, apice oblique concavus, cum stigmate in tuberculo parvo, 
quod eodem medio apice concavo inclusum est. 

Acaulescent stolonless plants with fibrous roots without 
acstival cleistogamous floWers and with large showy purplish 
vernal ones. Rootstocks short, premose, erect, or elongate corm- 
like, unbranching. Leaves of two kinds, small early ones broad- 
lobed less dissected. Orange stamen tips large, or obovate, anthers 
sessile the two lower with a curved projection into the more or 
less saccate spur. Style club-shaped, beakless, obliquely concave 
at the summit. Stigma within a small protuberance near centre 
of cavity. Petals all beardless entire. Peduncles somewhat 4- 
angled much longer than leaves. 

Oionychion pedatum (Linn.) Comb. Nov. 

Viola pedaia Linn. Sp. PI. p. 933, (1753). 

Oionychion pedatum var. inornatum (Greene). 

Viola pedata var. inornata Greene Pitt. IIL, p. 35, (1896). 

I The name Ion. Medicus Malv. p. 102, (1787), is probably only a 
synonym for the Linnaean Viola, and not meant as a segregate of the pansics 
from the genus. The name was a synonym before Linnaeus and is but 
the literal Greek translation of the Latin Viola. Ion arvense would be less 
appropriate than Mnemion arvense. We therefore reject the name in favor 
of the later Mnemion Spach. 



STUDIES IN VIOLA 211 

Oionychion pedatum var. ampliatum (Greene). 

Viola ampliata Greene. Leaflets Bot. Obs. Grit. I, p. 3, (1903). 

The habit of these plants and their petaliferous flowers as 
well as lack of cleistogamous flowers, and peculiar structure and 
shape of stigma and style, even the cormlike erect rhizome which 
never branches, together with the other characters mentioned 
mark these plants as very distinctly different from any of the other 
violets. The habit of these plants could perhaps be more con- 
sidered as that of a perennial stemless pansy, than a violet proper. 
The absence of cleistogamous flowers emphasizes this so much that 
the earlier botanists before Linnaeus referred the plant called 
Viola pedata Linn., to Viola tricolor, or a stemless pansy, calling it 
''Viola tricolor, caule nudo foliis tenuius dissectis'"*^ or "Viola 
virginiana, foliis midtifidis caulicvdc aphyllo.''^ 

The name Oionychion comes from the Greek words oudvog, 
bird, ovv^, ovv'^og, claw, lov, violet. 

VIOLA (Vergil, Pliny) Linn. Sp. PI. p. 933, (1753)- 

Subgenus Kuion. 

VioivA ODORATA (Tragus) Linn., Sp. PI. p. 934, (1753). 

Viola purpurea Pliny, Hist. Nat. XXL: 6, also Ruellius, 
Nat. Stirp. 633, 49, (1543), etc., etc. 

Viola martia Gall. ex. Ruellio 1. c. 

Viola nigra Vergil 4: 120; also Brunfels, Herb. Viv. 
Ic. p. 137, (1530). 

Viola officinarum Ruppius. 

We have not been able to secure good cleistogamous flowers 
of this plant for study. 
Subgenus HespErion 

Viola fimbriatula J. E. Smith in Rees' Cyclop. Vol. 37, 
No. 16, (1817). 

\'iola ovata Nutt. Gen. Vol .L: 148, (1818). 

Viola sagittata var. ovata T.and G. Fl.N. A. Vol.1, p 133, (1838.) 

The auricles of the sepals of the apetalous flowers are as 
long almost as in V. cucidlata. Specimens from Mineral Springs 
(Porter Co.), Ind., were examined. Flowers sometimes especially 
late in season have a small spatulate whitish or bluish keel petal 
and one or two small abortive lateral petals. Stamens two. Once 

4 Banist, J., in Ray. J. Hist. PL II. p. 1928, (1688). 

5 Plukenett, L., Aim. p. 388, t, 114. f. 7, (1696). 



212 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

only was one found that had a third subabortive stamen with 
only one anther that appeared fertile. This anther being the 
only one found of many examined, it was thought to be a case of 
teratology. 

Viola cucullata Ait. Hort. Kew. 3 p. 228, (1789). 

Though the cleistogamous flowers very often .have one to 
three petals, never have more than two fertile stamens been 
found. The keel petal is spatulate bluish, la,rger than in the two 
preceeding, the lateral always linear though often expanded 
slightly at the colored tip. The cleistogamous flowers have long 
auricles and not infrequently a stiped aborted ovary is found 
within the mature fertile one arising from the middle of the 
torus. 

Viola variabilis Greene. 

Cleistogamous flowers on prostrate branches purplish, auricles 
very short, fruit ovoid or obovoid, stamens two. 

The earliest leaves are reniform crenate and vary to such as 
our palmately dissected into linear branching lobes. Stamens 
often with four anthers seldom three, one of which may be 
aborted. 

Viola palmata Linn. Sp. PI. p. 933, (1753). 

Specimens from woods S. E. of Notre Dame were examined. 
It grows with W variabilis Greene and V. popidifolia Greene. 

The summer flowers always have but two stamens. In shape 
these resemble those of the cleistogamous flowers of the preceding. 

Viola populifolia Greene. Pitt. Vol. III. p. 337, (1896- 
1898). 

Cleistogamous flowers were collected and examined from 
St. Mary's ravine, Notre Dame, Ind. and vStudebaker's woods. 
South Bend. Examinations in the field were made in the afore- 
said places. The plant is very common and produces prostrate 
cleistogamous flowers sometimes subterranean or at least under 
leaves and decaying vegetative matter. All the flowers were 
found to have invariably two fertile stamens. 

Viola papilionacea. Pursh. PI. Am. vSept, Vol. I. 173, (1814). 

Plants growing on the edge of the water line of an "Qx-bow- 
loop" of the vSt. Joseph" River near St. Mary's academy were 
examined. The plants at high water mark are not infrequently 



STUDIES IN VIOLA 213 

submerged early in spring and accordingly bloom later, while 
the flowers are paler often lilac or lavender colored. The stamens 
of the cleistogamous flowers are two always. Other flowers from 
plants near Terre Coupee showed similar characters. 

Viola cuspiDATA Greene, I.e. Vol. III., Pitt. p. 3 14, (1896-1898). 

Cleistogamous flowers have never been found to have more 
than two stamens. Rather common plant in the woods of our 
region. More material of this plant was collected and examined 
than of any other violet here noted. 

Viola affinis Le Conte Ann. Lye. N. York, II. p. 138, (1828). 

Cleistogamous flowers of plants from Four Mile Bridge 
north of Notre Dame were examined. The stamens are always 
two. 

Viola candidula Nwd. Am. Mid. Nat. III., No. 4. p. 85 (1913) 

For details of apetalous flowers consult reference cited. 
Stamens never more than two. The supposed abortive stamen 
mentioned on page 91 is really the keel or lower petal as else- 
where noted. 

Viola sagittata Ait. Hort. Kew. 3 p. 287, (1789). 

Specimens from Webster's crossing (two separate localities) 
were examined. The plants invariably have cleistogamous flowers 
with only two stamens. The cleistogamous flowers of V. sagittata 
are characterized by the long auricles of the sepals almost as in 
V. cucullata. The flowers are at first strictly erect on erect ped- 
uncles but about the time of fertilization become recurved, and 
at the time of dehiscence become again erect. 

Subgenus VERBASCULUM (Genus of the ancients.) 

Viola lanceolata Linn. Sp. PI. p. 934 (1753). 

Flowers from plants were examined from various places. 
Those collected in Brookland, D. C. in summer had but two 
stamens. Plants collected early in the season at Crumstown and 
Webster's Crossing, north of Notre Dame, had no trace of petals. 
From the same place in fall as also from Mineral Springs, the 
lower petal and traces of lateral petals were sometimes found. 
Pollen tubes were found in this species as also in V. primulae- 
folia Linn. 

Viola primulaefolia Linn. Sp. PI. p. 934, (1753). 

Plants were collected in the summer of 19 13 near a spring 



214 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

not far from Terra Cotta, D. C. A considerable amount of cleis- 
togamous flowering material was examined at the time and some 
preserved for histological study. The stamens were invariably 
only two. 

Viola incognita Brainerd. 

vSpecimens examined both from Mineral Springs (Porter Co.) 
in fall and from Crumstown, Ind. (St. Joseph Co.) The cleisto- 
gamous flowers have short auricles. The stamens are always 
two only. The keel petal is sometimes present as a spatulate 
semimembranous growth. The capsules and sepals are mostly 
purplish dotted especially late in season. 

Viola fallens (Banks) Brainerd. Rhodora 7, p. 247, (1905). 

Specimens of cleistogamous flowers from Crumstown invariably 
have but two stamens. No petals were found. Plants at Mineral 
vSprings agree in this respect. 

Crocion Nov. Gen. 

Type Species Crocion pubescens or V^iola pubescens Ait. Hort. 
Kew. ed. I., Vol. III., p. 290, (1789). 

Plantae caulescentes rhizomate carnoso foliis cordatis vel 
reniformibus, crenulatis vel dentatis, bracteolis perparvis, petalis 
flavis striatis, lateralibus quidem barbatis; appendicibus anthera- 
rum ovalibus; sepalis quinque, subinaequalibus auriculatis, 
staminibus quinque subsessilibus, binis inferioribus calcaratis, 
ovario oblongo vel ovali subtriangulari ; staminibus florum cleis- 
togamorum binis tantum, petalis parvis aliquando praesentibus 
spatulatis vel linearibus. 

Caulescent plants not much branched with fleshy rhizomes; 
leaves cordate or reniform crenulate usually not numerous, the 
upper short and stalked, the lower with long petioles especially the 
radical ones; stipules not much dentate or entire bractlets very 
small. Petals yellow, striate with dark veins, stamen appendages 
orange oval. Sepals five somewhat unequal slightly auricled. 
Stamens five sub sessile, the two lower slightly spurred. Ovary 
oblong or oval somewhat triangular. Stamens of the cleistogamous 
flowers two only with rarely an abortive third. One to three 
abortive petlas often present. The lower spatulate or linear, the 
lateral linear petabs flat. 

Crocion eriocarpum (Schwein) Nov. Comb. 

\'iola eriocarpa Schwein. Am. Jr. Sci. 5. p. 75, (1822). 



STUDIES IN VIOLA 215 

Viola pubescens var. scabriuscida T. & G. Fl. N. Am. i, p. 
142, (183S). 

Viola scabriuscula Schwein Britton and Brown 111. Fl. 2, 

p. 453, (1897). 

Though this and the following violet are caulescent, and the 
stemmed violets have ordinarily five perfect stamens in their 
cleistogamous flowers, these so called yellow violets have 
only two. One or two extra abortive stamens are not unfrequently 
found but not more than two perfect ones with both anthers. 

In a single instance was a third stamen found with an anther 
having a few pollen grains and the other anther aborted to a 
capitate gland. The lower petal and one or two lateral ones are 
occasionally met with. 

Crocion pubescens (Ait.) Nov. Comb. 

Viola pubescens Ait. Hort. Kew. 3, p. 290, (1789). 

Principally because of this remarkable difference in the 
number of the stamens of the yellow caulescent violets are they 
here segregated. Though the number of stamens in the cleisto- 
gamous flowers of Chrysion biflorum (L,inn.) Spach could not be 
studied we can not refer the American plants to Spach's genus 
where they might be thought to belong by habit and other charac- 
ters. There are, however, differences warranting their being taken 
out of this genus and put in a new one. More detailed study of the 
cleistogamous flowers of all the violets alone can decide the stand- 
ing of those. The stamens in Crocion pubescens are only two! 

LoPHiON Spach, Hist. Nat. Veg. V. p. 516, (1836). 

Viola Linn. 1. c. seg. 

The cleistogamous flowers of Lophion in the division Eulophion 
do not appear immediately after the season of flowering of the 
other vioU ts but are a gradual evolution of the spring petaliferous 
ones. The petals become smaller and finally disappear leaving 
occasionally only the lower petal, sometimes two lateral ones 
and often all are wanting. Many of the cleistogamous flowers 
are abortive, stamens are always five, fertile, spatulate, with the 
terminal .appendage shaped nearly as in those of the other groups. 
Plants of the group of V . rostrata cease to bloom sor>n and produce 
cleistogamous flowers all the rest of the year until snowfall. 

Type Viola canadensis Linn. 

EULOPHION. 



2l6 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

LOPHION CANADHNSE Spach, I. C. p. 5 1 7. 

Viola canadensis Linn. Sp. PI. p. 936, (1753). 

The sepals of the cieistogamous flowers are rather unequal 
usually, the inner being shorter, all at first firmly pressed against 
the ovary and stigma, later after fetilization open early, especially 
at the tips, leaving the apex of the ovary exposed while the five 
stamens and the petals fall off. Petals which are usually greater, 
in number (often five), and larger comparably than in the other 
violets, are not uncommonly present. It is therefore quite in- 
appropriate to call these aestival flowers apetalous, and more correct 
to call them cieistogamous. 

Subgenus Eucentrion. 

Lophion rostratum (Push.) Nov. comb. 

Viola rostrata Pursh, PI. Am. Sept. p. 174, (18 14). 

Cieistogamous fruit subglobose obtusely triangular, the 
carpels broadly carinate, with a slight small channel like depres- 
sion running from base to apex. Style rather long, recurved at 
the apex. vSepals subequal lanceolate, glabrous with a rounded 
short auricle. Later flowers sometimes possessing i — several 
lanceolate petals about >4 the length of the free upper end of the 
sepals. Stamens 5 spoon-shaped, spatulate, fruit and ovaries 
erect on their peduncles, produced at the ends of the branches 
all summer and fall until winter. 

Subgenus Rhabdotion. 

Lophion striatum (Ait.) Nov. comb. 

Viola striata Ait. Hort. Kew. 3, p. 290, (1789). 

Cieistogamous flowers somewhat erect on their peduncles, 
with five stamens; these flowers sometimes with small or abortive 
petals in transition early in summer. Transition flowers fewer 
and stages more abrupt; sepals rather long very unequal, the 
outer longest, linear lanceolate with appendages at insertion 
giving' them a hastate to sagittate appearance, these small 
appendages are wanting in the inner sepals. vSepals ciliate on 
margin with long, broad, spreading auricles erose-ciliate, at the 
free end somewhat pubescent. Style and stigma short closely 
appressed by the 5 imbricate stamens. Petals in the later summer 
cieistogamous flowers mostly absent. The anthers of all the cieis- 
togamous flowers of violets are with scarcely any exceptions two 
only, instead oj four, seldom three! 



NOTES ON OUR LOCAL PLANTS 21 7 

MnEmion Spach Hist. Nat. Veg. 5, 510, (1836). 

Sufficiently important diagnosis will be seen to be included 
in the key to the genera at the beginning of this study. 

Mnrmion Tricolor Spach. Hist. Nat. Veg. 5 p. 515, (1836). 

Viola tricolor Dodonaeus, Coron. p. 17, (1568). Pempt, p. 
158. (1583) also Linnaeus Sp. PI. p. 935, (1753). 

Mnemion arvense (Murray) Nov. Comb. 

Viola arvensis Murray, Prodr. Stirp. Goett. p. 73, (1770). 

Mnemion Rafinesquii (Greene) Nov. comb. 

Viola tenella Muhl. Cat. 26, (1813). Not Poiret (1810). 

Viola Rafinesquii Greene, Pitt. IV. p. 9, (1899). 

In conclusion we feel that the characters of the cleistogamous 
flowers of the plants known as violets seem sufficient to warrant 
the segregation suggested. We have refrained, however, from 
making any transfers of the numerous species of the groups because 
we were unable to examine the flowers of them all. We have reason 
to feel confident that the event may more than prove the sugges- 
tion here outlined, and should this be the case the study of violets 
by their cleistogamous flowers will further the knowledge thereof, 
and give us at least a very good means of distinguishing the groups. 

Dept. of Botany 
University oj Notre Dame, Ind. 



NOTES ON OUR LOCAL PLANTS.— V. 

BY J. A. NIEUWLAND. 



Subclass 2. DICOTYLEDONEAE. 

D. C. Syst. L, (1818), also Prodr. L, p. i, (1824). 

Dicoiyledones Haller Enum. PI. p. XXI., (1753); also Boer- 
haave Index. PI. Alt. 2, p. 171, (1727.) 

Order 15. PIPERINAE. 
Bartling, Ord. Nat. p. 83, (1830). 

Pipcrales Engl. Syllab. p. 93, (1892), also Engler and Prantl. 
Pflanzenfam. Nachtr. p. 345, (1897). 

Family 37. SAURUREAE Rich. Anal. (1808), Bartling, 
1. c. p. 84, also Lindley, Int. Veg. Syst. p. 172, (1830). 



2l8 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

SAURURUS Plumier, Nov. Gen. p. 51, (1703); also Linn. 
Hort. Cliff, p. 139, (1737). Gen. PI. p. 108; (1737), p. 159, (i754). 
Gronovius, Fl. Virg. p. 40, (1739). 

Saururus cernuus Linn., Sp. PI. p. 34, (1753). 

Lake Maxinkuckee (Marshall Co.) [H. W. Clarke.] (Marshall 
Co.) [Hessler], Tamarack (Porter Co.) [Deam], I have found the 
plant to be abundant in all the countries in the range of this report; 
notably at Millers and Dune Park (Lake Co.); Tamarack, Mineral 
Springs, (Porter Co.) ; Laporte, Michigan City, Sagunay, Smith, 
Grand Beach (Laporte Co.) ; in numerous places in St. Joseph 
Co. ; Southeast of Granger and along the rivers in Elkhart Co. ; 
New Buffalo, Stephensville, St. Joseph, Benton Harbor, Galien, 
Niles, Baroda, Berrien Springs, Munich, vScottdale, Twin Springs, 
etc. (Berrien Co., Mich.); Bankson Lake, (Van Buren Co., Mich.) 

Nos. 10412 Hudson Lake (Laporte Co.), 10436 and 1835 
Notre Dame, 1910 Webster's Crossing, (St. Joseph Co.) U. N. D. 
Herbarium. 

Order 16. JUGLANDALES. 

Engl. Syllab, ed. i, p. 93, (1892). 

Family 38. NUCIFERAE, Ray, Meth. PI. p. 36, (1682), 
also Syn. Meth. Britt., p. 438, (1724). 

Juglandeae DC, Theor. Elem., p. 213, (1813); Juglandceae 
Lindley, Nat. Syst., ed. 2, p. .180, (1836). 

Nuculaceae Lam. and DC. ex Dum. Fl. Belg. Stam. p. 15 (1827). 

JUGLANS Fuchs, Stirp. Hist. p. 215, (1549), (1542?). 

Nux Juglans Pliny, and of many of the pre-Linnaean writers. 
Nux Tour. Els. p. 452 (1694), L R. PL p. 581 (1700). 

Juglans Linn. Gen. p. 291, (1737), p. 460, (1742). 

Juglans Linn., Gen. p. 431, (1754). 

Juglans nigra (P. Hermann) Linn., vSp. PI. p. 997, (1753). 

Nux juglans Virginiana nigra, P. Hermann, Hort. Lugd., 
p. 453, (1683). 

Lake Maxinkuckee (Marshall Co.) [H. W. Clarke]. Nos. 446 
and 466 St. Joseph, Mich., also 3270 from near the same place. 
I have found the tree also in vSt. Joseph, Laporte, Porter, Berrien, 
and Van Buren Cos. It is rapidly disappearing and very few large 
specimens are now to be found. Not much effort is made to plant 
the tree or protect young specimens, though the tree grows well 
and propagates fast from seed. It does not find favor as a shade 



NOTES ON OUR LOCAL PLANTS 219 

tree in cultivation as it should and like the butternut is at times 
afflicted by caterpillars to such an extent as be deprived of its leaves 
almost entirely. Some years ago trees were cut down in a neighbor- 
ing city because these caterpillars were found to be strewn on 
sidewalks and falling from the branches on people passing by. 
Within a few years even medium sized trees wiil be verv rare 
in our region. Fifty years ago trees were cut down and used for 
fuel, so great was their abimdance in St. Joseph County. 

Juglans cinerea Linn., Sp. PI. 2nd ed., p. 14 15, (1763). 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke); Mineral Springs (Deam), 
No. 10414 Hudson Lake, U. N. D. Herbarium. Rather more 
common than the preceding as it is not as useful or valuable for 
lumber. I have found it quite abundant in all the counties. 

HICORIA Raf. Alsog. Amer. p. 65, (1838) changed from the 
earlier Hicorius Raf. Fl. Lud. or p. 109 (18 17). Scorius Raf. Med. 
Rep. N. Y. 5, p. 352 (1808). Probably a misprint for Hicorius 
Carya Nuttall, Gen. p. 220 (18 18) not Caryon of the Greeks, — 
Juglans regia: Linn. Hickorea Le Conte, Proc. Acad. Phil p. 402, 
(1850). 

Section Eucarya DC. in Prod. XVL, 2, p. 142,(1864). 

Hicoria ovata (Mihl.) Britton, Bull. Torr. Bot. CI. 15, p. 
283, (1888). 

Juglans ovata Miller^ Gard. Diet ed. 8, No. 6, (1768). 

Carya alba Nuttall, Gen. 2, p. 221, (18 18), not Juglans alba 
Linn. 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke, Nos. 2144, 2167, Notre 
Dame, 2109, 2107, 2 no, 9021, 90021, 2144A, Rum Villge, south 
of South Bend, 2110X and 2108, from the same place are quite 
typical. The others have nuts with thinner husk. The nut itself 
has a very thin shell and is not notably angled. It may prove 
a separate variety. 

Hicoria laciniosa (Michx. f.) Sarg. Mem. Tour. Bot. CI. 5, 
p. 354. (1894). 

Carya sulcata Nuttall, Cen. 2, op. 221, (1818 not Juglans 
sulcata Willd. 

Juglans laciniosa Michx. f. Arb. Am. i, p. 109, pi. 8 (1810); 

Hicoria sulcata Britton, ]\Iem. Torr. Bot. CI. 15, p. 283, (1888). 

Nos. 2167/-2, 2173, 2167, Notre Dame, along the St. Joseph 
River. Becoming scarce. 



2 20 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

Hicoria alba (Linn.) Britton, Bull. Torr. Bot. CI. 15, p 
283, (1888). 

Juglans alba Linn., Sp. PI. p. 997, (1753), Jtiglans tomentosa 
Lam. Encycl. 4, p. 504, (1797). Carya tomentosa Nuttall, Gen. 2 
p. 221, (1818). 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke); Nos. 10416, 10426 
10428, N. of Hudson Lake. 

Section Drimocaria (Raf.), as a sub-genus (?) Alsog. Am. p 
65, (183S). 

Hicoria cordiformis (Wang.) Britton, N. Am. Trees, p. 228 
(1908). 

Hicoria minima Britton, Bull. Torr. Bot. CI. 15, p. 284 
(1888), Juglans alba minima Marsh, Arb. Am. p. 68, (1785) 
Carya amara Nutt. Gen. 2, p. 222, (1818). 

Drimocaria minima Raf., 1. c. 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke); No. 2107a Rum Village 
S. of vSouth Bend. I have met it in all the counties in the region 

Hicoria microcarpa (Nutt.) Britton, 1. c. p. 283. 

Carya microcarpa Nuttall, Gen. 2, p. 221, (1818), Juglans 
alba odorata Marsh, Arb. Am. p. 68, (1785). 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke), No. 10415 N. of Hudson 
Lake, [Van Buren Co., Mich.] (H. S. Pepoon). 

Order 17. MYRICALES. 

Engler, in Eng. and Prantl. Pflanzen fam. Nachtr. p. 345, (1897). 

Family 39. MYRICACEAE Dumortier, Anal. 
P- 95. (1829). 

Myricaceae 1. c. p. 12, (1829); Ceriferae Tidestrom Ulyshim 
Marianum (1910); Myriceae L. C. Rich. Anal. Fruit, p. 193, (1808). 

COMPTONIA Banks: Gaertner, Fr. and wSem. 2, p. 58, 
pi. 90, (1791)- 

Comptonia peregrina (Linn.) Coulter. Mem. Torr. Bot. 5, 
p. 127, (1894). 

Myrica asplenijolia Linn., vSp. PI. ed. i, p. 1024. (1753). 
Liquidambar asplenifolia Linn. Sp. Pi. 2, ed. 14 18, (1763); Liqui 
dambar peregrina Linn. Sp. PI. p. 999, (1753); Comptonia aspleni- 
jolia Gaertn. Fr. and Sem. 2, p. 58, (i790- 

[Lake Co.) (Hill); Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke); 
Millers (Unibach). 



NOTES ON OUR LOCAL PLANTS 22 I 

Order i8. SALICINAE. 
Bartling, Ord. Nat. PL p. ii8, (1830). 

Salicales Lindley, Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, p. 186, (1836) emend. 
Engler, Fuhrer. Bot. Gart. Breslau, p. 31, (1886). 

Family 40. SALICINEAE L. Rich, ex A. Rich 
Now. El. Bot. 
ed. 4, p. 560, (1828) also Lindley Nat. Syst. p. 98, (1830), p. 96, 
(1831); Salicaceae Lindley, Nat. Syst. ed. 2, p. 186, (1836). 

POPULUS Vergil, Eel. IX; 4I, Pliny, XXIV; 8, Horace, 
Carm. II; 3. 

Leuce Theoc, Ed. II., V., 121; Theophrastus, III., 14; Dios- 
corides, I, 109. Populus of all the pre-Linnaean authors without 
perhaps a single exception. Populus Tour., El. p. 465, (1694), 
I. R. H. p. 592, (1700); Populus Linn., Gen. PI. p. 307, (1737). 
Populus Linn., Gen. PL, p. 465, (1754); Populus Linn., Syst. 
(1735), Hort. Cliff., p. 460, (1737); Octinia Raf. Alsog. Am. p. 
42, (1838); Tremula Dumort., Van Hall, Bijdr. Nat. Wet. i, p. 
46, (1826). 

Populus alba Pliny, Nat. Hist., XVI., 23, Horace. Carm. II., 
3 Ovid, Epist. 

Populus Candida Vergil, Eel. IX., 410, Popttlus alba Dodonaeus, 
Pempt. p. 835, (1583); Lobelius, Hist. p. 609, (15 16), Ruellius, 
Lonicer, Dalecli, Hist. p. 87, (1587), etc., etc.; Populus alba Linn., 
Sp. PL p. 1034, (1753)- 

I have found this tree throughout the region. 

Populus bolleana Masters, Gard. Chron. 18, p. 556, f. 96, (1882) 

Populus alba bolleana Masters. 1. c. 

No. 2467. (Cultivated) Notre Dame. The plant which bears 
the same relationship to P. alba that P. italica Moencli, the Lom- 
bardy poplar bears to A. or P. nigra Linn., does not spread 
as rapidly as the common white poplar. It is very susceptible to 
attacks of "borers" and other animal parasites and can scarcely 
be said on this account to be quite hardy. 

Populus grandidentata Michx., Fl. Bor. Am. p. 243, (1803). 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke) ; Mineral Springs, (Deam) ; 
Nos. 499, 448, 450, Notre Dame; 472, 3349, 3240, St. Joseph, 
Mich. Observed in all the counties. 

Populus tremuloides Michx. 1. c. 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke) (Deam), Mineral vSprings 



222 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

(Deam); [Lake Co.] (Deam); Nos. 3325, 3318, St. Joseph, Mich. 
(Tidestrom); Nos. 811, 2800, Notre Dame; 10367 Chain Lakes 
(St. Joseph Co.). Observed in all the counties. 

Populus heterophylla Linn., Sp. PI. 1034, (1753)- 

Ai^iros lictcrophyllos Raf. Alsog. p. 42, (1838). 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. Wl Clarke). Found by Dr. Greene 
and myself southwest of South Bend in low ground not far from 
the Sumption Prairie Road. Also in Berrien Co., Mich. 

AIGEIROS Homer, Odyss, VH, 106, XVII: 208 Hesiod, 
Scut. Here. 377 Theophrastus, III: 14: Dioscoridcs, i.: 144. 

Populus Vergil, Pliny, Tour., Linnaeus in part Aigeiros 
Tidestrom, Elysium., Mareanum, I., p. 15, (19 10) not Aigiros 
Raf. Alsog. Am. p. 42, ( iSt,8) = Popuhis heterophylla Linn. 

Aigeiros deltoides (Bartr.) Tidestrom. Elysium, Marianum, 
II. p. 16, (1910). 

Populus deltoides Bartr; Marsh., Arb. Am. p. 106, (1785) 
Popuhis canadensis Moench. Weisents. p. 81, (1785) Populus 
marilandica Poir. in Lam., Encyc. Suppl. 4: p. 378, (1816)? 
Populus monilifera Ait., Hort. Kew. 3 p. 406, (1789) Populus 
angulata 1. c. p. 407, Populus carolinensis Moench, Verz. PI. Si, 
(1789), Aigeiros virginiana. Tm. 1. c, Populus virginiana Fouger, 
Mem.Soc.Ag.Par. 1786, 87. (17S7) 

Nos. 3343, 3401, St. Joseph, Mich. (Tidestrom); Lake Max- 
inkuckee (H. W. Clarke), (Deam); No. 475, St. Joseph, Mich., 
450, 1 1 159, Notre Dame. I have seen it in every county. 

Aigeiros nigra (Pliny). 

Populus nigra Pliny, Nat. Hist. XVII: 23, XVI.: 23, Ruellius 
Nat. Stirp., p. 277, (1543), also Matthioli, Camerarius, Dodonaeus, 
Pempt. p. 836, C. Bauhin, Pin. p. 429, Tour. Els. p. 465, (1694), 
I. R. H. p. 592, (1700), etc., etc. Populus nigra Linn., Sp. PI. 
p. 1034, (1753)- 

Sometimes cultivated and may escape, though the following 
which bv some is considered but a variety is oftcner found. 

Aigeiros italica (Duroi) Tm., 1. c. 

Populus italica Moench, Weisenst. p. 79, {Populus nigra 
italica Duroi, Harbk. Baumz. 2: p. 141, (1772); Populus pyra- 
midalis Roz. Cours. d'Agric. 7: p. 619; Populus dilatata Ait., 
Hort. Kew. 3, p. 406. 

Found throughout the range, but perhaps always in culti- 
vation or near houses. 



NOTES ON OUR LOCAL PLANTS 223 

Aigeiros candicans (Ait.)- Populus candicans Ait. Hort. Kew. 
3, p. 406, (1789). Populus halsamifera var. candicans A. Gray, 
Man. ed. 2, p. 419, (1856). 

Found at South Haven by Bailey. I have not found it south 
of the Michigan boundary Hne except as one specimen west of 
South Bend in cultivation in a farm yard. It grows wild near 
Rochester, Michigan near Detroit, whence I have herbarium 
specimens collected by myself. 

SALIX Vergil, Eel., II., 83, V: 16, X: 140. Georg., IV: 
184, Culex, 54. Pliny, Nat. Hist. XXI: 20. 

Ilea Homer, II., $, 350, Odys. K, 510. Theophrastus, III: 
13, Dioscorides I: 115. Siler Vergil, Georg., II: 12. — Salix vitellina 
Linn. Salix Varro, T. Cato. and of all the pre-Linnaean authors 
none perhaps excepted. Salix Tour. Els. p. 464 (1694), I. R. H., 
p. 580, (1700). Linn., Gen. p. 300, (1737), vSyst. (1735). Salix 
Linn., Gen. p. 447, (1754). Amerina Pliny, XXIV: 9. 

Salix vitellina Pliny, XVI: 37, Linn., Sp. PI. 1442 ed 2, (1763). 
Salix alba Linn., Sp. PI. p. 1021, (1753). Salix perticalis Colum- 
ella Salix Candida Pliny 1. c. Ruellius. Nat. Stirp. p. 251, (1543). 

St. Joseph, Mich.(Tidestrom) : Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. 
Clarke). Found in every county. 

Salix fragilis Linn., Sp. PI. p. 1017, (1753). 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke); St. Joseph, Mich., 
(Tidestrom) : Notre Dame, No. 491. 

Salix babylonica Linn., Sp. PL, p. 1017, (1753). 

Cultivated and often persisting in places when left to itself. 

Salix hicida Muhl., Neue Schrift. Ges. Nat. Fr. Berlin, 4: 
p. 239, pi. 6, f. 7, (1803). 

[Lake Co.] (Hill) ; Dune Park [Lake Co.] (A. Chase) ; Clarke, 
Ind. [Lake Co.] (Umbach) ; [Laporte Co.] (Deam) ; Benton Harbor 
and vSt. Joseph, Mich., (Tidestrom); No. 484, St. Joseph. Mich.; 
No. 9150 Notre Dame. 

Salix interior Rowlee, Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 27, p. 253, (1900). 

Salix longifolia Muhl., 1. c. p. 238, pi. 6, f. 6. not Lam. (1778). 

[Laporte Co.] (Deam); Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke); 
St. Joseph and Benton Harbor, Mich. (Tidestrom); Nos. 213, 
491, Notre Dame. 

Salix pentandra Linn., Fl. Lapp. p. 370, t. 8, f. 3. (1737); 
also vSp. PI. p. 1016, (1753). 

No. 10108 Mineral Springs [Porter Co.]; It grows at Notre 



2 24 AMKRICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

Dame near St. Joseph's Lake, but perhaps cultivated, or escaped 
from plants formerly cultivated. 

Salix falcata Pursh Fl. Am. Sept. 2, p. 616, (1814). 

Salix nigra Marsh Arb. Am. p. 139, (1785), not Salix nigra 
Pliny and of the pre-Linnaeans. 

Dune Park (A. Chase); St. Jo.seph, Mich. (Tidestrom) ; 
Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke); No. 465, St. Joseph. Mich. 

Salix exigua Nuttall, vSylva i, 75, (1842). 

Salix fluviatilis exigua vSarg. Silva, 9, p. 124, (1846). 

Nos. 446, 448, Notre Dame, 445, 803, Webster's Crossing, 
North of Notre Dame. 

Salix cordata Muhl., 1. c. p. 236, pi. 6, f. 3. 

Salix angustata Pursh 1. c. p. 613, Salix cordata angusiata 
Anders., Vet. Acad. Handl. 6, i, p. 159, (1867). 

Whiting, Ind. [Lake Co.] (Higdon and Raddin) ; [Lake Co.] 
(Hill); Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke). 

Salix syrticola Fernald, Rhodora 9, 146, (1907). 

Salix adenophylla of Am. authors not Hooker, Fl. Bor. Am. 
2, p. 146, (1839). 

[Lake Co.] (Hill) (Deam); [Porter Co.] (Cowles); Pine, 
Ind. [Lake Co.] (Umbach); Nos. 2645 Millers, Ind. [Lake Co.], 
3348 St. Joseph, Mich. I have found it also in Laporte Co., at 
Tamarack and Grand Beach and in Berrien Co., at Stephensville. 

Salix amygdaloides Anders., Ofv. Handl. Vet. Akad. p. 
114, (1858). 

Clarke, Ind. [Lake Co.] (Umbach); [Lake Co.] (Deam); 
Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke). 

Salix glaucophylla Bebb. in A. Gray, Man. Ed. 6. p. 483, (1889). 

[Lake Co.] (Hill); [Porter Co.] (Cowles); Millers, Ind. 
(Umbach); St. Joseph, Mich., (Tidestrom); Nos. 484, 11082, 
St. Joseph, Mich. I found it at Webster's Crossing, North of Notre 
Dame. 

Salix viminea Pliny, 1. c. 

Salix viminalis, Linn., Sp. PI., p. 102 1, (1753) South Haven, 
Mich., (Bailey); Escaped from Notre Dame from a plot where it 
is cultivated for wickerware. 

Salix purpurea Linn., Sp. PI. p. 1017, (1753). St. Joseph, 

St. Joseph, Mich. (Tidestrom). 

Salix humilis Marsh, Marsh. Arb. Am. p. 140, (1785). 



NOTITS ON OUR LOCAI. PLENTS 225 

[Laporte Co.] (Barnes) ; [Lake Co.] (Hill) ; Mineral vSprings, 
(Beam); Nos. 11 133, 4467, Notre Dame. 

Salix tristis Ait. Hort. Kew. 3, p. 393, (1789). 

Salix hiimilis var. tristis Griggs. Proc. Ohio. Acad. 4 p. 301, 

(1905)- 

Pine [Lake Co.] (Higdon and Raddin) ; [Lake Co.] (Hill); 
Clarke, Ind., (Umbach) Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke). 

Salix discolor Muhl., 1. c. p. 234 pi. 6, f. i. 

Salix eriocephala Michx., Fl. Bor. Am. 2, p. 225, (1803). 

Salix prinoides Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. p. '613, (1814). 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke). 

Salix sericea Marsh, 1. c. p. 140. 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke); South Haven, Mich., 
(Bailey). 

Salix petiolaris J. E. Smith, Trans. Linn. Soc. 6, p. 122, (1802). 

Salix gracilis Anders., Proc. Am. Acad., 4, p. 67, (1858). 

Colehour [Lake Co.] (Higdon and Raddin). 

Salix bebbiana Sarg., Gard. and Forest. 8, p. 463, (1895). 

Salix rostrata Richards. Frank. Jr. App. p. 753, (1823), not 
Thuill., (1799)- 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke); Clarke, Ind., "[Lake Co.] 
(Umbach) ; St. Joseph and Benton Harbor, Mich. (Tidestrom) ; 
No. 541 Chain Lakes. 

Salix candidula Nom. Nov. 

Salix Candida Fluegge, Willd., Sp. PI. 4, p. 708, (1806), not 
Salix Candida Pliny or Ruellius above = Salix vitellina. 

[Lake Co.] (Hill); Millers, Ind., (Higdon and Raddin); 
Clarke, Ind. (Umbach) ; Nos. K8 Hudson Lake, Sagunay [Laporte 
Co.]: 9738 Dune Park, 2335 Bankson Lake [Van Buren Co.]. 
I have found it in all the tamarack swamps in the range, Mineral 
vSprings, Chain Lakes, Stephensville, Mich., Tamarack, [Laporte 
Co.] St. Joseph Co. 8 miles South westof South Bend on the Turkey 
Creek Road. Lakeville and North Liberty. 

Salix pedicellaris Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. p. 611, (1814). 

Salix niyrtilloides var. pedicellaris Anders. Vet. Acad. Handl., 
6 :i, p. 96, (1867). 

Pine, Ind. [Lake Co.] and Casella, Ind (Higdon and Raddin) ; 
Millers, Ind. (Hill); [Lake Co.] (Umbach); Lake Maxinkuckee 
(H. W. Clarke). 



226 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

Order 19. AMENTACEAE. 

(Ray, Boerhaave) Gmelin, Fl. Sibir i, p. 150, (1747). 
also Linn., Phil. Bot. p. 28, (1751), Jussieu. Gen. p. 407, (1789). 
Bartling, Ord. Nat. PI. p. 96, (1830). Juliferae Haller. Fl. Helvet, 
II., p. 292, (1768), Julijlorae Endl., Geh. p. 270, (1837), Cupuliferae 
Bentham, in Benth. and Hooker, Gen. III., p. 402, (1830), Fagales 
Engler, 1. c. p. 31, (1886), also Engler and Prantl Pflanzenf. Nachtr. 
p. 345, (1897) Venosae Riechenbach, Fl. Ger. Clav. XIV. (1830). 
Family 41. CORYLACEAE Mirbell ex vS. F. Gray, 

Nat. Arr. Br. PI. II. p. 244, (1821) in part, Corylideae . F. 
Gray, and Cupulaceae Rich. ex. vS. F. Gray, 1. c. 

CARPINUS Pliny XVI : 15. 

Carpinus Dodonaeus. Pempt., 6:4:19, Caesalpinus, De 
Plantis. p. 38, (15 S3). 

Lobelius. Obs. p. 607, Adv. p. 440, (1576), Ruellius Nat. 
Stirp. p. 137, (1543) : Tour Els. p. 453, (1694), I R. H. p. 582, 
(1700) Linn., Gen. p. 292, (1737), Carpinus Linn., Gen. p. 432 
(1754); Ostrya Linn., vSyst. (173.5) ^^ part. 

Carpinus caroliniana Walter, Fl. Car. p. 236, (1788). 

Millers, Ind. (Higdon and Raddin); Lake Maxinkuckee 
(H. W. Clarke) ; Mineral Springs, (Deam) ; No. 10299 Rnni Village, 
vSouth of vSouth Bend, Ind. [St. Joseph Co.] I have found it in all 
the counties. 

OSTRYA Pliny, XIII : 21. 

Ostrya Thalius, Sylva Here. p. 83, (1588) also Gesner; 
Caesalpinus De Plantis p. 39, (1583); Ostrys Theophrastus, III : 
10; Ostrya Linn., Syst., (1735) in par. Carpinus Linn., Gen., 
p. 292, (1737), o. 432, (1754)- Hort. Chff. p. 447, (1737). Ostrya 
Micheli. Gen. p. 223, (1729); C. Bauhin, Pinax p. 427, (1623). 

Ostrya virginiana (Miller) Willd., Sp. PI. 4, o. 469, (1768) 

Carpinus virginiana P. Miller, Gard. Diet. 8 ed. (1769). 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke); [Porter Co.] (Deam); 
[Laporte Co.] (Deam); vSt. Joseph, Mich. (Tidestrom); Nos. 4, 
804, Notre Dame, 814 Lydick, Ind. [St. Jo.seph Co.], 7748 St. 
Joseph, Mich. Found in the other countries by me also. 

CORYLUS Vergil, Eel. I : 14, II 13; Georg., II., II : 65, 
299, also Pliny, XVI :'i8.. Caesalpinus, De Plantis, p. 38, (1588), 
also Dodonaeus, Lonicer, Castor Durante, Turner, Lobelius, 
V. Cordus, Gesner, Tragus, Mathtioli, etc., etc. Avellana or Nux 



NOTBS ON OUR LOCAlv PLANTS 227 

Avellana Bnmfels, Fuchs, Camerariiis, etc. Corylus Tour. Kls. 
p. 453, (1694), I. R. H., p. 581, (1700), Unn., Syst., (1735), Gen. 
p. 293, (1737). CoRYi.us Gen. p. 433, (1754). 

Corylus americana Walter, Fl. Car. p. 236, (1788). 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke). I have found it abundant 
throughout the range but not fruiting in woods. 

Family 42. BETULACEAE C. A. Agardh. Aphor. p. 
208, (1825) also Bartling, 1. c. p. 99. 

BETULLA Pliny XVI: 30. 

Betiila Tragus, Matthioli, Dodonaeus, Anguillara, Bellonius, 
Lonicer, Lobelius, Castor Durante, Gesner, Thalius, etc., Betula 
Tour., Els. p. 460, (1694), I. R. H. p. 588, (1700) : Linn. Syst. 
(1735) stricto sensu, Gen. p. 285, {ij^j), stricto sensu, Betula, Gen. 
p. 422, (1754) in part. 

BetuUa populifolia Marsh, Arb. Am. p. 19, (1785), (cor.) 

Betula alba var. populifolia Spach. Am. Sci. Nat. II., 15 p. 

187, (1841). 

Pine [Lake Co.] (Higdon and Raddin); [Laporte Co.] (Deam): 
820 Notre Dame. * 

Betulla papyrifera Marsh. 1. c. (cor). 

Betula papyracea Ait. Hort. Kew. 3, p. 337, (1789). 

[Lake Co.] (Deam); Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke); 
Mineral Springs (Deam); Pine [Lake Co.] (Umbach). Found 
also in vSt. Joseph, Laporte, and Berrien Co. 

Betulla nigra Linn., Sp. PL p. 982, (1752). 

[Starke Co.] (Deam); Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke); 
No. 806 Notre Dame. 

Betulla lenta Linn., Spl PI. p. 983, (1753). 

South Haven, Mich. (L. H. Bailey). Found also by Dr. Greene 
and myself three miles south of Lakeville, Ind 

Betulla lutea Michx. f., Arb. Am.. 2, p. 152, pi. 5, (1802), (cor.) 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke); [Laporte Co.] (Deam); 
Mineral Springs (Deam): Nos. 9157 vSagunay [Laporte Co.] 
9097 Chain La.kes [St. Joseph Co.]. The tree has been found by 
me in Berrien, Van Buren, Porter, Laporte, Lake, Cos. It is often 
found in Tamarack swamps or on their borders, and not infre- 
quently supercedes the larches as they disappear by drainage. 

Betulla pumila Linn., Mant., p. 124, (1767). 

[Lake Co.] (S. Coulter); Millers, Ind. (Babcock), (Umbach); 



228 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke); Mineral Springs (Deam) ; 
Nos. kij, 880, 60, 9432 Chain Lakes, 38 N. of Notre Dame. Found 
also in Van Buren, Berrien, Laporte, Porter, and Lake Cos. 

ALNUS Pliny XVI : 24. 

Alnus Brunfels, Tragus, Matthioli, Anguillara, Dodonaeus, 
Turner, Lonicer, Lobellus, Caesalpinus, Castor Durante, Thalius, 
Tabernaemontanus, etc., etc. Almis Tour., Els. p. 459, (1694), 
I. R. H p. 587, (1700). Linn. Syst. (1735), Gen., p. 285 (1737), 
Hort. ClifT. p. 441 (1737) Betula Gen. p. 442 (1754) in part. Alnus 
P. Miller, Abr. Gard. Diet. (1763-), Hill, Br. Herball, p. 510 (1756). 

Alnus Duhamel, Arb. et Arbustes, p. 41 et seq. (1755). Clethra 
Homer, Odys. E., 64 and the Greeks Clethros Theophrastus 
IH: 114. 

Alnus incana C. Bauhin ex J. Bauhin Hist. 1. c. 

Alnus hirs2ita C. Bauhin ex J. Bauhin, Hist. 1. c. 

Alnus incana (Linn.,) Willd., Sp. PI. 4 : p. 335, (1805). 

Betula Almis var. incana Linn., Sp. PL, ed. 2, p. '1395, (1763). 

[Lake and Porter Cos.] (S. Coulter) [Laporte Co.] (Deam); 
Clarke, Ind. (Umbach) ; Mineral Springs (Deam); [Lake Co.] 
(Deam). 

Alnus rugosa (Duroi) Spreng. Syst. 3, p. 848, (1826). 

Almis serriilata Willd., Sp. PI. 4, p. 336, (1805). Betula Alnus 
rugosa DuRoi, Hanbk. i, p. 112, (17^1). 

Edgemoor, Ind. [Lake Co.] (Baltwood) ; [Starke Co.] (Deam) ; 
Nos. 1 1648, 11649 Mineral Springs. Found also in Berrien, St. 
Joseph, Laporte and Lake Cos. 

. Alnus vulgaris (Clusius) ex C. Bauhin Pinax p. 428, (1623); 
also J. Bauhin Hist. 6, p. 157, (1650). 

Alnus vulgaris Hill, Br. Herb. p. 510, (1756), Alnus glutinosa 
Gaertn. Fr. and Sem. 2, p. 54, (1791); Betula Alnus Linn., Sp. 
PI. p. 983, (1753), Alnus glutinosa Linn, and Hesselgren, Pan 
Suecus, (Am. Acad. 2, p. 259, (1751). 

(No. 10389, Notre Dame, Ind. Cult.?) 
Family 43. GLANDIFERAE Theodore Gaza, de Hist, and 
Causis. Plantar (1529) (1483?) also Caesalpinus De Plantis p. 31, 
(1583). Glandiferi Pliny, XVI : 3 and 4 (!) Cupuliferae L. C. 
Rich. Anal. Fruit, p. 32 and 92, (1808). Lindley, Syst. ed. 2, p. 
170, (1836); Fagineae Consp. p. 83, (1828). Enum. XVII., 
(1833). Cupuliferae Bartl. Ord. Nat. p. 99, (1830) in part, also 



NOT^S ON OUR LOCAI^ PLANTS 229 

Dumortier Com. Bot. p. 53 (1823). Fagaceae Drude Phan. p. 409, 
(1879). A. Br. Ascherson, Fl. Pv. Brand, i, p. 62, 615 (1864). 
Quercineae Dumortier as a tribe. 

FAGUS Vergil. Eel., I. : i, II : 3, III : 12, Georg., I : 177, 
II : 71. Pliny XVI : 10, Pall. Novemb. 15. 

Fagus Brunfels, Tragus, Matthioli, Anguillara, Dodonaeus, Gesner, 
Pfegus Dioscorides I : 144, Oxya Theophrastus, III : 10. 
Fagus Brunfels, Tragus, Matthioli, Anguillara, Dodonaeus, Gesner, 
Lonicer, Ivobelius Caesalpinus, Castor Durante, Tabernaemon- 
tanus, etc.. Tour., Els., p. 455, (1694), I. R. H. p. 584, (1700), 
Linn., Syst. (1735), Gen., p. 292, (1737) in part. 

Fagus Gen. p. 432, (1754). 

Fagus grandifolia Ehrh., Beytr. Naturk. 3, p. 22, (1788). 

Fagus americana Sweet Hort. Brit. p. 370, (1826). Fagus 
ferruginea Ait., Hort. Kew., 3, p. 362, (1789). 

[Laporte Co.] (Deam); Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke), 
Mineral Springs (Deam); No. 2738 Pine Station on the Wabash 
R. R. [St. Joseph Co.]; found in every county. 

QUERCUS (Lucretius) Vergil, Eel., I : 17, IV 130, VI : 13; 
Georg. I : 349, II : 16, III : 332; Culex, 132. Cat. XI : 17; 
Pliny XVI: I etc. Drys Homer — ■ : 12, also Hesiod, Aristophanes. 
Theocritus, Eid. I : 23, V : 45, VIII : 79 etc. Quercns Lobelius, 
Gesner, Valerius Cordus, Acosta, Anguillara, Bellonius, Caesal- 
pinus, etc., etc. 

[Aesculus Pliny XVI. 6 ( = Q. Aesculus): Ilex Vergil, Col- 
umella, { = Q. Ilex). This is the Prinus of Hesiod Theophrastus, 
Dioscorides, and the Greeks. Siiber Fliny = Phellos Theophrastus 
{ = Q. Suher) Aigilops Theophrastus { = Q. Aigilops) Rohur of the 
latins ( = Q. Rohur).] Cerris Pliny { = Quercus Cerris) Quercus 
Tour., El.s p. 454, (1694), I. R. H. p. 582, (1700) exclusive of 
Ilex and Suber Tour, which are separate genera with this author 
Quercus Linnaeus, Syst. (1735), Gen. p. 291, (1737), QuERCUS 
Linn., Gen., p. 431, (1754). 

Quercus alba Banister in Ray's Hist. PI. p. 1928 et seq. (1688). 

Quercus alba Linn., (1688) Sp. PI., p. 996, (1753). 

[Laporte Co.] (Deam); Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke). 
I have found it in all the counties as one of the commonest species. 

Quercus minor (Marsh.) vSargent Gard. P'or. 2 p. 471, (1989). 

Quercus alba minor Marsh., Arb. Am. p. 120, (1789). 



?30 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURAIJST 

Quercus stellata Wang. Amer. p. 78 pi. 5 f. 15, (1787), Ouercus 
obtusiloha Michx., Hist. Chen. Am. I., p. I., (1801). 

Whiting, Ind. (Higdon and Raddin), No. 10207 Mineral vSpring. 

Quercus bicolor Willd. Neue vSchrift. Ges. Nat. Fr. Berlin, 3, 
p. 396, (1801). 

Mineral Springs (Deam); [Starke Co.] (Deam) Nos. 475^^ 
St. Joseph, Mich., 1917, 583 Notre Dame along the St. Joseph 
River. 

Quercus lyrata Walt., Fl. Car. p. 235, (1788). 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke). 

Quercus macrocarpa Micx., Hist. Chen. Am., 2, p. it,, (1801). 

Quercus olivaeforniis Michx. f. Hist. Arb. Am. 2, pi. 2, (1812). 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke); [vStarke Co.] (Deame); 
[Laporte Co.] (Deam); St. Joseph, Mich. (Tidestrom). I have 
found it South of South Bend, Ind., St. Joseph Co. Not as common 
as formerly. 

Quercus Michauxii Nuttall, Gen., 2, p. 215, (1818) 

[Van Buren Co.] (H. S. Pepoon). 

Quercus prinoides Willd., 1. c. p. 397, (1901). 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke). 

Quercus imbricaria Michx., Hist. Chen. Am. p. 9, pi. 15, 
16, (1801). 

Nos. 2142 vSumption Prairie Road S. of South Bend, Ind.; 
9522, 10442 Notre Dame; 584 near marsh on I. I. I. R. R. Notre 
Dame. Found also in Porter and Laporte Cos. 

Quercus ellipsoidalis E. J. Hill, Bot. Gaz. 27, p. 204, (1899). 

St. Joseph, Mich. (Tidestrom). 

Quercus velutina Lam., Encycl. i, 721, (1783). 

Ouerctis tinctoria Bartram, Travils p. 37, (1791); Quercus 
coccinea var. tinctoria A. Gray, Man. Ed. 5, p. 454, (1867). 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke); [Laporte Co.] (Deam). 

Quercus coccinea Wang. Amer. p. 44, pi. 4, f. 9, (1787). 

No. 9348 Notre Dame, Ind. 

Quercus palustris Du Roi, Hanbk., 2, p. 268, pi. 5, f. 4, (1772). 

[Lake Co.] (Hill); Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke). 

Quercus rubra J. Banister, Cat. in J. Ray. Hist. 1. c. (1680). 

Quercus rubra Linn., Sp. PI. p. 996, (1753). 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke); [Laporte Co?] (Deam). 
No. 2669 vSagunay [Laporte Co.]; seen also in Elkhart, St. Joseph, 
Van Buren, Porter and Berrien Cos. 



NOTES ON OUR LOCAL PLANTS 23 1 

Order 20. URTICALES. 

Engl. Syllab. ed. i, p. 95, (1892). 

Family 44. ULMACEAE Mirbel, El., II., p. 905, (18 15). 
also Linclley Nat. Syst., Ed. 2, p. 178, (1836); Planch in DC. 
Prodr. XVII., p. 151, (1873). 

ULMUS Vergil, Eel. II : 70, V : 3, Georg. I : 170, II : 18, 
72, 222, IV : 144, also Catullus, Columella, V : 6, Pliny XVI : 17, 
Claudian. Ptelea Homer. II., <$>, 350, Hesiod, Theophrastus III : 14 
Dioscorides, I : iii, Theocritus, Eid. I : 21, VII : 8. Claudius, 
etc., Ulmiis Tragus, Matthioli, Dodonaeus, Bellonius, Turner, 
Cordus, Gesner, Lonicer, Lobellius, Caesalpinus, Camerarius, 
Clusius, Anguillara, Castor Durante, Tabernaemontanus, etc., 
etc. Ulmiis Tour., Els., p. 473, (1694), E R. H., p. 601 (1700), 
Linnaeus, Syst., (1735), Gen. p. 68, (1737). Ulmus Sen., p. 106, 

Ci754)- 

Ulmus americana Linn., Sp. PI., p. 226, (1753). 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke); No. 7721 St. Joseph, 
Mich. Found in all the counties. It seems to be the healthiest 
of our tees under the rapidly changing conditions due to deforesta- 
tion in our area. 

Ulmus Thomae Sarg., Silva 14, p. 102, (1902). em. 

Ulmus racemosa Thomas, Am. Jr. Sci. 19, p. 170, (183 1). not 
Ulmus racemosa Borck. 

Nos. 1T475, 1 1688, Studebaker's Woods, South of South Bend, 
Ind. ; [7380 Kalamazoo, Mich. [Kalamazoo Co.] (Tuthill.)]. I 
have found this plant only in the above mentioned place where 
it is quite abundant growing with U . americana and U. fulva. 
Doubtless it will be found in other large woods. 

Ulmus fulva Michx., FI. Bor. Am., i, p. 172, (1803). 

Lake Maxinkuckee (II. W. Clarke); No. 9369 Notre Dame, 
Ind. Rather abundant in Studebaker's Woods South Bend, Ind. 
Many of the younger trees are annually injured by the removal 
of large strips of bark for medicinal purposes. Found also in 
Elkhart, Laporte, Porter, Berrien and Van Buren Cos. 

CELTIS -Pliny XIII : 17, also Celtis Gaza, Turner, Lotos 
Dioscordes I : 134, alo Pliny 1. c. Celtis Tour., p 485, (1694). 
I. R. H. p. 612, (1700): Linn., Gen., p. 337, (1737), CelTis Linn., 
Gen. p. 467, (1754). 

Celtis occidentalis Linn., Sp. !1. p. 1044, (1753). 



232 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

[Starke Co.] (Deani); Millers, Ind. (Higdon and Raddin) ; 
Found in Laporte and vSt. Joseph Co. also. 

Celtis occidentalis var. pumila. 

Celtis pnniila Pursh. V\. Am. Sept., p. 200, (1816). 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke); [Lake Co. J (Deam, 
Hill). 

Celtis crassifolia Lam. Lncyl. 4, o. 138, (1797). 
No. 10388 Notre Dame, Ind. 

Family 45. MORACEAE Lindl., Veg. Kingd. p. 266, 
(1847) ex Hngler and Prantl. Pflanzenf. IIL, i, p. 66, (1888). 

MORUS Columella, V : 10, X : 402, Palladius, Ins. 127. 

Morea and Sykaniinea Dioscorides, I : 180. Morum Vergil. 
Morus Brunfels, Tragus, Matthioli. Fuchs, Dodonaeus, Turner, 
Lonicer, Rauwolf, Caesalpinus, Tabernaemontanus, Gesner, Ca- 
merarius. Cordus Lobelius, etc. Morus Tour., Els., p. 462, (1694), 
I. R. H. p. 5S9, (1700); Linn., Syst. (1735). Gen. p. 283, (1737)- 
Morus Linn., Gen. p. 424, (1754). 

Morus rubra Linn., Sp. PI. p. 986, (1753). 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke) (Deam). Scarce. One 
large tree on Notre Dame grounds. 

Morus alba Matthioli Com. in Diosc. p. 149, (1554), Anguil- 
lara, Camerarius Tabernaemontanus, Gesner, Rauwolf, etc. 

Morus Candida Dodonaeus, Pempt., 6 :3 : 18. (1583) also 
Valerius Cordus, Lobelius Obs. p. 610, (1576). 

Morus alba Linn., vSp. PL, p. 986, (1753). 

No. 689 Studebaker's Woods. Escaped and spreading from 
plants introduced at Notre Dame. 

TOXYLON Raf., Am. Monthly Maf. 2, p. 118, (181 7). 

Madura Nuttall, Gen. -2, p. t,22» (1818). 

Toxylon pomiferum Raf. 1. c. 

Madura aurantiaca Nuttall, 1. c. p. 234. 

Madura pomifera Schneider. Handl. Laubh. i, p. 806, (1906). 

No. 9562, Notre Dame, Indiana. Escaped from plants intro- 
duced for hedges. 

Family 47. CANABINACEAE Lindley. Veg, Kigd. 
p. 265, (1846). 
Lupulus J. de Manliis ex Brunfels Herb. Viv. 
Ic, 2, p. 169, (App.) (1531) also Matthioli, Turner, Dodo- 



NOTES ON OUR LOCAL PLANTS 233 

naeus, Clusiiis, Talemaemontanus, Tragus, Lonicer, Castor 
Durante, Lobelius, Camerarius, Ruellius, etc. 

Lupulus Tour. Els. p. 427, (1694), I- R- H. p. 535, (1700). 
Humulus lyinn. Ssyt., (1735), Gen. p. 304, (1737). Humulus 
Gen., p. 453, (1753). Lupulus Gaertner, Fruct. I, p. 358, (1788). 

Lupulus salictarius Dodouaeus. Trium Prior. 

Stirp. Hist. p. 386, (1553), Lupulus salictarius Tragus Lonicer, 
Castor Durante. Lupulus communis Gaertner, 1. c. p. 75. Hum- 
ulus Lupulus Linn., vSp. PI. p.. 1028, (1753), Humulus americanus 
Nuttall, Jour Acad. Phil. VI p. iSi, (1840). Humulus salictarius 
Linn, and Hessel gren. Pan Suecus, Am. Adad. 2 p. 260, (1751). 

[Lake Co.] (Deam) : No. 11676 N. of Notre Dame near Four 
Mile Bridge. Found also at St. Joseph, Mich., and near Michigan 
City [Laporte Co.]. 

CANNABIS Dioscorides III : 157, Pliny XIX : 4, XIX : 9, 
XXI : 23. 

Cannabis Brunfels, Matthioli, Anguillara, Lacuna, Turner, 
Lonicer, Lobellius, Caesalpinus, Castor Durante, Tabernaemontanu 
Lonicer, Lobelius, Caesalpinus, Castor Durante, Tabernaemon- 
tanus, Gesner, Fuchs, Tragus, Dodonaeus, Marcellus Vergilius, 
etc., etc. Cannabis Tour., Els.,- p. 427, (1694), I. R. IL, p. 531, 
etc., etc. Cannabis Tour., Els., p. 427, (1694), I. R. H., p. 531, 
(1700), Linn., Syst., (1735), Gen. p. 304, (1737). Cannabis Linn., 
P- 453> (1754)- 

Cannabis sativa (Dioscorides) Marcellus Vergilius, Comment. 
Diosc. p. 453, (1529) also Conrad Gesner, Hist. Plant, p. 30 b. 
(1541), Ruellius, Diosc. Mat. Med. p. 298, (1547), also Fuchs, 
Cordus, Dodonaeus, C. Bauhin Pinax p. 320, (1623) also Tour. 
Els. and I. R. II. 1. c. Cannabis sativa Linn., Sp. PI. p. 1027, 

(1753)- 

[Lake Co.] (Deam); Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke): 
Nos. 11518 Notre Dame near St. Joseph River, 9376 N. of Notre 
Dame at Webster '3 vStation. Found also at St. Joseph, Mich., 
along the Pere Mrquette R. R. 

Family 48. URTICEAE Ventenat. Tabl. Reg. Veg. 
P- 524. (1794)- 

Urticaceae Endl., Gen. p. 282, (1837). 

URTICA IPlinyXXII: 13. 

Acalyphe Dioscorides IV : 94, Theophrastus VIII : 7. Urtica 



234 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURAUST 

Bnmfels, Fuchs, Dodonaeus, Lonicer, Thalius, Tabernaemontanus, 
Tragus, Matthioli, Cordiis, Gesner, Caesalpino, I.obelius, Castor 
Durante, Clusius, Turner, Camerarius, etc., etc. Cnida Hippo- 
crates Urtica Tour., Els. p. 426, (1694), I. R. A., p. 534, (1700) 
Linn., vSyst., (1735), Gen. PI. p. 283, (1737), Urtica Linn., p. 
423. (1754)- 

Urtica major (Brumfcls) Ftichs, vStirp. Hist. Jr. 59, (1549) 
(1542?) Plant, Hirt. p. 40b, (1546). also Dodonaeus, Tabernae- 
montanus, Thalius, Hare. p. 131, (1588), C. Bauhin, Phytopinax 
p. 438, (1596), etc. 

Vriica rubra Tubernaemontanus, Gesner. 

Urtica perennis Linn, and Hessel., Pan vSuecus., Am. Acad. 
2',p. 259, (1751). 

Urtica dioica Linn., Sp. Rl. p. 984, (1753). 

No. 11443 Notre Dame, Ind. 

Urtica gracilis Ait., Hort. Kew. 3 p. 34,1 (1789). 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke); Millers (Umbach); 
No. 1 1684 Studebaker's Woods, vSouth Bend, Common also in 
Laporte, Lake, Elkhart, Berrien, Van Buren and Porter Cos. 

URTICASTRUM Moehring, Hort. Prov. (1736) also Fabric- 
ius, Enum. p. 204, (1759). 

Laportea Gaudich., Freye. Voy. Bot. j. 498, (1826). 

Urticastrum divaricatum (Linn.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. p. 
635. (1891). 

Urtica divaricata Linn., Sp. PI. p. 985, (1753), Urtica canaden- 
sis Linn. 1. c. Laportea canadensis (Linn.) Gaudich. 1. c. 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke); Nos. 1801, 11477, 
Studebakers Woods, South Bend, also Hudson Lake, Laporte 
Co., vSt. Joseph, Mich., Van Bur.en Co., Porter Co., Elkhart Co. 

ADICEA Raf. An. Nat. p. 129, (1815). 

Adike Raf. N. Fl. p. 63, {1836). 

Adicea Nieuwlandii Lunell, Am. Mid. Nat. p. to, (1913). 

Nos. 10236, 1 1739, Mineral Springs; 1802, 11719, 11592, 
11610, 15007A, 15006A, 15005A, 15003A, 15004A, Studebaker's 
Woods, South Bend; 15002A, 15009A, 15010A, 11726, Notre 
Dame, Ind. 

RAMIUM Rumphius, Herb. Amb. V. p. 214, (1747). 
Boehmeria Jacq., Stirp. Am., p. 247, p. 157, (1763), Duretia 
Gaudich., Freyc. Voy, Bot. p. 500, adn (1826). 



NOTBS ON OUR LOCAL PLANTS 235 

Ramium cylindricum (Linn.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. II., p. 632, 
(1891). 

Urtica cylindrica Linn., Sp. PI. p. 984, (1753), Boehmeria 
cylindrica Sw., Prod. p. 34, (1788), Urtica capitata Linn., Spl PI. 
P- 985. (1753)- 

HELXINE Dioscorides IV : 86, also Oribas., Matthioli. 
Lonicer, Lobelius, Caesalpinus, Brunfels, Cordus Perdicimn 
Theophrastus (?) also Galen, 6 simpl. Parietaria Brunfels, 2, 
(1531) Turner, Cordus, Dodonaeus, Tabernaeraontanus, Gesner, 
Tragus, C. Bauhin, Muralis herba Pliny and Celsus. 

Parietaria Tour., Els. p. 409, (1694), I. R. H., p. 509, (1.700) 
Linn. Syst. (1735), Gen. p. 317, (1737). 

Parietaria Gen., p. 471, (1754). 

Helxine pennsylvanica (Muhl.) 

Parietaria pennsylvanica Muhlenberg, Willd. Sp. PI. 4, p 
155, (1806). 

No. 15001a Notre Dame, Ind. Found in all the counties. 

Order 21. SANTALALES. 

Engler. Syllab. ed. I., p. 98, (1892). 

Family 49. SANTALACEAE R. Br. Prodr. p. 350, (1870). 

COMANDRA Nuttall, Gen. i, p. 157, (181 8). 

Comandra umbellata (Linn.) Nutt., 1. h. 

Thesium umbellatum Linn., Sp. PI. p. 208, (1753). 

Nos. 2034, 3309 Notre Dame, (Dr. F. Powers). Lake Maxin- 
kuckee (H. W. Clarke); Millers (A. Chase) [St. Joseph Co.] 
(Rothert); [Lake Co.] (Deam); [Laporte Co.] (Deam); Nos. 
404, 9295 Notre Dame, Ind. No. 404 North of 'Notre Dame at 
Websters. Found in every county. 

Order 22. ARISTOLOCHIEAE. 
Bartling, Ord. Nat. PL p. 79, (1830). 
Aristolochiales Engler, Syllab. i, p. 100, (1892). 

Family 50. ASARINEAE Dumortier An. PL, p. 14, 
(1829). also Daubeny. Lect. Rom. Husb. p. 315, (1857), Asaraceae. 
AS ARUM Dioscorides I : 9. Pliny XXI : 6. 
Asarum Brunfels, Tragus, Matthioli, Fuchs, Dodonaeus, 
Dalechamps, Lacuna, Cordus, Turner, Gesner, Lonicer, Castor 
Durante, Morrison, Thalius, Tabernaemontanus, Lobelius, Cam- 
erarius, Cuba, Hort. Sanit. (1491) also Marcellus Vergilius, Disc. 



236 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

Com. p. 21, (1529) etc.,. etc., Asarum Tour., Els. p. 402, (1694), 
J. R. H., p. 501, (1700), Linn. Syst., (i735)> Gen. p. 137, (1737). 
Asarum Linn., Gen. p. 201, (1754). 

Asarum canadense Cornuti., PI. Canad., p. 24, (1635), also 
Linn., Sp. PI. p. 442, (1753). 

Nos. 432, 9364, III 74 Rum Village, S. of South Bend. 7789 
Notre Dame (Tidestrom). Found by me also in Laporte, Berrien, 
Porter and Marshall Cos. 

Family 51. ARISTOLOCHIACEAE Blume, Enum., 
PL, Javan., i, p. 81, (1850). 

ARISTOLOCHIA Dioscorides, III : 4. Pliny XXV : 8. 

Aristolockia Tragus, Lonicer, Camerarius, Matthioli, Dodo- 
naeus, Anguillara, Cordus, Gesner, Turner, Lacuna, Lobellius, 
Castor Durante, Clusius, Caesalpinus, Fuchs, Rauwolf, Marcellus 
Vergilius, Cuba, Hort. Sanit. (1491) Ruellius, etc., etc. Aristolockia 
Tour., Els. p. 132, (1694). I. R. H., .. 162, (1700) Linn., Syst., 
(1735). Gen. PI. p. 275, (1737). Aristolockia Linn., Gen., p. 
410, (1754). All the above incl. of Pistolochia Clusius, Dodonaeus, 
Gesner, Camerarius, Castor Durante, etc. 

Aristolochia Serpentaria Linn., Sp. PL, p. 96, (1753). 

Nos. 11807a, 63, S. E. of Notre Dame, Ind., 2994, 2798, 
Notre Dame University grounds. Quite abundant. 

Order 23. FAGOPYRINAE. 

Bartling, Ord. Nat., p. 106, (1830). 

Polygonales Engler, in Eng. and Prantl, Pflanzenf Nachtr., 
p. 346, (1897). 

Family 52. POLYGONEAE Jussieu. Gen. p. 22, (1787). 

Polygonaceae Lindley, Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, p. 211, (1836). 

Persicariaceae, Post and Kuntze, Lexicon p. 309, (1904). • 

RuMEX Vergil, Mov. 72. Pliny XIX : 12, 60. 

Oxylapathum Dioscorides. Acetosa Cuba, Hortus Sanitatis, 
(1491). also Nevenara, ex : Brunfels Herb. Viv. Ic. II. p. 68, 117, 
also J. de Manliis, 1. c. p. 168, (1531), Acetosa P. Miller, Abr. 
Gard. Diet. (1763), also Parkinson, Moench, Lonicer, Castor 
Durante, Columna, Carmerarius, C. Bauhin. Prod., Acetosa Tour. 
Els. p. 403, (1694), I. R. H. p. 502, (1700); 

^ Rumex Acetosella Linn., Sp. PL, p. 338, (1753). 

Acetosa minor Castor Durante. 

Acetosa repcns St. Gray, Nat. Arr. 2, p. 276, (182 1), 



NOTES ON OUR LOCAL PLANTS 237 

Acetosa tennijoUa Moench, Meth. p. 357, (1794). 

Acetosa Acetosella Miller. Gard. Diet., 8, Ev. (1768). 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke); [Lake Co.] (Hill) ; Millers, 
Ind. (Umbach); No. 2497 Notre Dame. Dr. F. Powers. Found 
in all the counties. Abundant. 

LAPATHUM Theophrastus, I : 9, 7 : 2 Dioscorides II : 140. 

Lapathos Columella X : 373. 

Lapathum Gesner, Anguillara, Dodonaeus, Tragus, Ray, 
Lobelius, Camerarius, Lonicer, Castor Durante, Caesalpinus, 
Tabernaemontanus, Dalechamps, Clusius, etc., etc. Lapathum 
Tour., Els. p. 404, (1694), I. R. H. p. 504, (1700). Runiex Linn. 
Syst. (1735). Gen. p. 105, (1737). Rumex Gen. p. 156, (1754). 
Lapathum Haller, Adanson, Scopoli, Lamarck, etc. 

Lapathum verticillatum (Linn.). 

Rtimex ver tic Hiatus Linn., Sp. PL, p. 334, (1753). 

Nos. 2303, 2699, 1 1332, Notre Dame, Ind., 2742, Pine [St. 
Joseph Co.], Ind. Found in all the other countries. 

Lapathum altissimum (Wood). 

Rumex altissimus Wood, Classbook, p. 477, (1853). 

Millers, Ind. (Umbach); Nos. 11290 Crumstown [St. Joseph 
Co.]; 9086 Notre Dame, Ind. 

Lapathum brittanicum (Linn.). 

Rumex hrittanicus, Linn., Sp. PI. p. 354, (1753), Rumex 
Hydrolapathum var. americana A. Gray, Man. ed. 2 p. 377, (1856); 
Rumex orbiculatus A. Gray, Man. ed. 5 p. 420, (1867). 

Clarke, Ind. [Lake Co.] Umbach. 

Lapathum crispum (Linn.) Scopoli, Fl. Car. ed. 2, p. 261, (1772) 

Rumex crispus Linn., Sp. PI., p. 335, (1753). 

Found in Berrien, St. Joseph, Laporte, Marshall, Porter, 
Van Buren Co. 

Lapathum mexicanum (Meisn.). 

Rumex mexicanus Meisner, DC, Prod. 14, p. 45, (1856). 

Rumex salicif alius Hooker, Fl. Bor. Am. 2, p. 129, (1840). 
not Weinm. (182 1). 

No. 9556 South Bend, Olivers. 

FAGOPYRUM Lobelius, Obs. p. 513, (1576). Dodonaeus 
Pempt. 4:1 : 32, (1583), Stapelius, Theoph. Int. p. 929, (1644). 

Tragopyrum Gerard. Fagopyrum Tour., Els., p. 411, (1694), 
I. R. H., p. 4511, (1700), Helxine Linn., Syst. (1735), Gen. p. 116, 
U737)> Polygonum Linn., Gen., p. 170, (1754). FAGOPYRUM 



238 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

Hill. Br. Herb. p. 486, (1756) also Morandi (1761), Gaertner, (1791) 

Fagopyrum vulgare Hill, 1. c. (1756). 

Fagopynim esculentum Moench, Meth. p. 290, (1794). 

Polygonum Fzgopyrum Linn., Sp. PI., p. 364, (1753). 

Nos. 10335, 2521, Notre Dame, Ind. 

PERSICARIA J. de Manliis ex Brunfels, Herb. Viv. Id. 
II., p. 173, (153 1), Tragus, 1. c. p. 161. Ruellius Nat. vStirp. p. 410, 
(1543). Pulciaria Brunfels 1. c. p. 14, 15, 16, (1531). Persicaria 
Fuchs, Dodonaeus, Anguillara, Castor Durante, Matthioli, Taber- 
naemontanus, Ericius Cordus, Gesner, Lobelius, Caesalpinus, 
Lonicer, etc., etc. Persicaria Tour., Els. Bot. p. 410, (1694), 
I. R. H. p. 509, (1700); Linnaeus, Syst., (1735), Gen. PI. p. 35-, 

(1737)- 

Persicaria Trew. Herb. Blackw. t. 118, 119, (1754), Hill. 
Br. Herb. p. 486, (1756), Shaw. Trav. Obs. Lev. Collect, p. 466, 
(1757). Morandi, Hist. PL p. u8, (1761), Adanson, Fam. des 
PL II., p. 276, (1763). Hydropiper Fuchs, Anguillara, Dodonaeus, 
Matthiole, V. Cordus, Gesner, Caesalpinus. 

Section Potamocallis Nwd., Am. Mid. Nat. II., p. 216, (1912). 

Persicaria emersa (Michx.) Small., Fl. S. E. U. S. p. 376, (1903) 

Persicaria coccinea (Muhl.) Greene, Leaflets I. p. 24, 36, (1904). 

Polygonum amphibium var. cmersum C. Rich in Michx. Flor. 
Bor. Am. I. p. 240, (1803). 

For other synonyms as also for occurrences in our region 
of this and the following amphibious smartweeds see Am.. Mid. 
Nat. II., p. 219, et. seg. (1912), p. 20, (1911). 

Also Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke). 

Persicaria emersa var. asprella. 

Persicaria coccinea var. asprella Greene. 1. c. p. 36, Am. Mid. 
Nat. II., p. 221, (1912). 

Persicaria pratincola Greene. Leaflets 1. c. p. 36, Am. Mid. 
Nat. 1. c. p. 223, also Millers, Ind. (LTmbach). 

Persicaria grandifolia Greene 1. c. p. 37, 49, Am. Mid. Nat. 
1. c. p. 225, (1912), p. 20, (1911). 

Persicaria tanaophylla Nwd. Am. Mid. Nat. 1. c. p. 226, 

Persicaria carictorum Nwd. Zm. Mid. Nat. 1. c. p. 230. 

The pond from which this type was collected is now being 
drained for the purpose of forming farm land. The aquatic phase 
will perhaps be extinct in this place next season. The terrestrial 



NOTES ON OUR LOCAL PLANTS ^39 

phase, will, however, persist for a long time as in this form it 
is a weed hard to eradicate. 

Persicaria mesochora Greene. 1. c. p. 28. Am. Mid Nat. p. 
234 1. c. p. 17, (191 1). also Millers, Ind. (Umbach), Dune Park 
(A. Chase), both [Lake Co.]. 

Persicaria mesochora var. arenicola Nwd. 1. c. p. 235. 

Persicaria ammophila Greene. 1. c. p. 471, Am. Mid. Nat. 
1. c. p. 236. 

Persicaria fluitans (Eaton) Greene. 1. c. p. 26, Am. Mid. Nat. 
1. c. p. 244, (1912), also p. 15, (1911). 

Persicaria Hartwrightii (A. Gray) Greene 1. c. p. 24, Am Mid. 
Nat. II., p. 15, (1911). 

Section Eupersicaria. 

Persicaria lapathifolia (Linn.) S. F. Gray, Nat. Au. II., p. 
270, (1821). 

Polygonum lapathifolium Linn., Sp. PI. p. 360, (1753). 

Polygonum incarnatum Ell., Bot. S. C. and Ga. i, p. 456, 

(1817). 

[Lake Co.] (Higdon and Raddin) ; Clarke, Ind. (Umbach); 
Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke), [Lake Co.] (Deam); Nos. 
2 733 A, Notre Dame, 369A, 9094, 9089, Webster's Station N. of 
Notre Dame. Found also in Van Buren, Berrien, Laporte, Porter, 
and Marshall Cos. 

Persicaria pennsylvanica (Linn.) Small, Fl. S. E. U. S. p. 

377. (1903)- 

Polygontim pennsylvanicum Linn., Sp. PI. p. 362, (1753). 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke); [Lake Co.] (Deam); 
Nos. 1 84 1, 10334, 9494, 9485. Notre Dame, Nos. 9419, 9488, 
Collected at Webster's Station, were affected by some smut-like 
parasitic fungus which caused the destruction of nearly all the 
inflorencesces on the plants in the locality. 

Persicaria persicarioides (H. B. K.) Small. 1. c. p. 378. 

Polygonum persicarioides H. B. K., Nov. Gen. 2, p. 179,(1817). 

Nos. 1825, 9409, Notre Dame, Ind. 

Persicaria maculata Euricius Cordus, Botanologicon, (155 1). 

Also Thalius, Hercyna p. 85, (1588), also S. F. Gray Nat. 
Air, p. 270, (182 1 ), Persicaria maculosa Trew, Herb. Blackw, 
t. 118, (1754), also Gesner, Ray, Persicaria mitis J. Bauhin, Lobelius 
(1576) Linn. Fl. Lapp. No. 71, Morandi, Persicaria mitis Linn., 



240 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

Am. Acad. II., p. 46, (1751), Polygonum Persicaria Linn., Sp. PI. 
p. 361, (1753). 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke); Nos. 1825, 9409, Notre 
Dame, Ind. Found also in Berrien, Laporte, Marshall, Van 
Buren, Cass, and Porter Co. 

Persicaria hydropiperoides (Michx.) Small. 1. c. p. 378. 

I olygonum hydropiperoides Michx., Fl. Bor. Am. i, p. 239, 
(1803). 

Polygonum mite Persoon, Syn. I, p. 440, (1805). 

Millers (Umbach) : Nos. 10258, 102 18, 10257 Mineral vSprings 
[Porter Co.], 773 Hudson Lake, 205, 10257A Webster's Station 
N. of Notre Dame, 2694 Rum Village, S. of South Bend. Found 
also in Berrien, Van Buren, Marshall, Elkhart and Lake Cos. 

Persicaria urens Lobelius. Obs. p. 171, Ind. 16, (1576), also 
Ray, Meth. p. 68, (1682). 

Persicaria Hydropiper (Linn.) Opiz, Seznam, p. 72, (1852). 

Persicaria mordax Thalius Sylva, Hercyna, p. 85, (1588). 
Polygonum Hydropiper Linn., Sp. PI. p. 361, (1753). Persicaria 
urens Linn, and Hesselgren, Pan Suecus, Am. Acad. II., p. 246 

(1851). 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke); Millers (Umbach); 
Nos. K35 Hudson Lake, 9480 Notre Dame. Found also in Marshall, 
Porter, Van Buren, Cass, Berrien, Lake Cos. 

Persicaria punctata (Ell.) Small, 1. c. p. 379. 

Polygonum punctatum Ell., Bot. S. C. and Ga. I, p. 435, (1817); 
Polygonum acre H. B. K., Nov. Gen. 2, p. 179, (1817). Not Lam. 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke); Dune Park (A. Chase). 
[Lake Co.] (Deam). 

Persicaria punctata var. leptostachya (Meisn.)Small.l.c.p.379. 

Polygonum punctatum var. leptostachyum (Meisner) Small, 
Bull Torr. Bot. Club. 19, p. 356, (1892). Polygonum acre var. 
leptostachyum Meisner, DC. Prod. 14, p. 108, (1856). 

No. 9408 Notre Dame, 102 16 Mineral Springs. 

Persicaria tomentosa (vSchrank) Bicknell. 

Polygonum tomentosum Schrank, Baier, Fl. i, p. 669, (1789). 

No. 2733 S. S. S. R. R. 4 miles from Galien, Mich, in St. 
Joseph Co., Ind. 

Section (Old Genus) Heptarinia Raf., Fl. Tell. III., p. 12, 16, 
94, 95, (1836); also New Fl. Am. IV., p. 48, (1836). 



NOTES ON OUR LOCAL PLANTS 24 1 

Persicaria orientalis (Linn.), vSpach, Hist. Nat. Veg. lo, p. 
535 (1841). 

Polygonum orientale Linn., Sp. PI., p. 362, (1753). 

No. 1 1502 Notre Dame escaped from cultivation. 

POLYGONUM Dioscorides, IV : 4, Plin3^ XXVII : 12. 

Polygonum E. Cordus, Tragus, Lacuna, Anguillara, V. Cordus, 
Rucllius, M. Vergilius, Herrriolaus Barbarus Gesner, Caesalpinus, 
Thalius, Camerarius, Castor Durante, Lobelius, Lonicer, Taber- 
naemontanus, Dalechamps, Dodonaeus, C usius, Matthioli, etc., 
etc. Polygonum Tour. Els., p. 411, (1694), I- R- H. p. 511, (1700), 
Polygonum Linn., Syst. (1735) and Gen. p. 116, (1737), n a 'imited 
sense. Polygonum Linn., p. 170, (1754) in part. 

Polygonum vulgare Camerarius, Hort. Med. p. 129, 130, (1588). 

Polygonum latifoliiim C. Bauhiii Pinax p. 281, (1623). Poly- 
gonum AVicuLARE Linn., Sp. PI. p. 362, (1753). Polygonum lati- 
jolhim Tour., Els. p. 411, (1694), I. R. H. p. 510 (1700). Polygonum 
mas Matthioli, Fuchs, Dodonaeus, Anguillara, Cordus, Polygonum 
masculum Tragus, Lacuna, Polygomim primum Turner. Polygonum 
majus Lonicer, Tabernaemontanus. Polygonum vulgare Linn., and 
Hesselgren. 1. c. p. 246, (1751) 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke); No. 9187 Granger, Ind. 
[St. Joseph Co.]; Found also in Elkhart, Berrien, Van Buren, 
Laporte, Marshall, Porter and State Cos. 

Polygonum erectum (Linn.) vSp. PI. p. 363, (1753). 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke). No. 11483 Studebaker's 
Woods, South of South Bend. Also Laporte and Berrien Cos. 

Polygonum tenue Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. i p. 237, (1803). 

[Lake Co.] (Hill, Deam) ; [Porter Co.] (Cowles) ; Lake Maxin- 
kuckee, (H. W. Clrake); Clarke, Ind. (Umbach). 

PLEUROPTERUS Turzc. Bull, Soc. Nat. Moscow, 21, p. 
87, (1848). 

Pleuropterus Zuccarinii Small, Mem. Dept. Bot. Col. Coll. 
I. p. 158, pi. 66, (1895). 

Polygonum ciispidatum Sieb. ond Zucc. Fl. Jap. 2, p. 84, (1846) 
not Willd. (1825). 

Nos. 10350, 10350A. Waste grounfl, Notre Dame. Spreading 
from specimens once probably cultivated nearby. 

TOVARA Adans., Fam. PI. 2, p. 276, (1763). 

Tovara virginiana (Linn.) Raf., Fl. Tell. 3, p. 12, (1836). 

Polygonum virginianum Linn., Sp. PI. p, 360, (1753). 



242 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke); No. 804 South Bend, 
Ind. Found abundantly in all the countries. 

BILDERDYKIA Dumortier. Fl. Belg. Stam. p. 18, (1827). 

Tiniaria Webb, and Moq. ; Webb and Berth. Hist. Nat. 
Canar. ,3, p. 221, (1836-40). 

Bilderdyckia Convolvulus (Linn.) Dum. 1. c. (1827). 

Polygonum Convolvulus Linn., Sp. PI. p. 364, (1753); Tiniaria 
Convolmilus Webb, and Moq. 1. c. (1836); Orobanche Ruellii Gesner, 
Helxine cissampelos Dodonaeus, Centunculus Plinii Anguillara 
Voluhilis nigra Tabernaemontanus, Gesner, Polygonum hederaceum 
Columna. 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke); Pine, Ind. [Lake Co.] 
(Umbach). Found by me in St. Joseph and Berrien Cos. 

Bilderdykia dumetorum (Linn.), Dum. 1. c. (1829). 

Polygonum dumetorum Linn., Sp. PI. 2nd Ed. p. 522, (1762); 
Tiniaria dumetorum Opiz, Segnam, p. 98, (1852). 

Nos. 9431, 2520, 1 1354, 1 1444, Notre Dame, Ind. 

Bilderdykia cilinodis (Michx.) Greene, Leaflets., p. 23, (1904). 

Tiniaria cilinodis (Michx) vSmall, Fl. vS. E. U. S. p. 382, (1903). 
Polygonum cilinode Michx., Fl. Bor. Am. i p. 241, (1803). 

South Haven [Van Buren Co.] (L. H. Bailey). 

TRACAULON Raf., Fl. Tell. 3, p. 13, (1836). 

Echinocaulos (Meisn.) Hassk., Fl. XXV., 2, Beibl. p. 20, (1842). 

Tracaulon sagittatum (Linn.), Small. 1. c. p. 381, (1903). 

Polygonum sagittatum. Linn., Sp. PI. p. 363, (1753) 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke); Dune Park (A. Chase); 
Clarke, Ind. (Umbach); Nos. 9384, 2249, 1824, Notre Dame, Ind. 
745 Sagimay [Laporte Co.]. 

Tracaulon arifolium (Linn.) Raf. 1. c. 

Polygonum, arifolium Linn., Sp. PI. p. 364, (1753). 

Mineral vSprings (Deam) South Haven (Bailey); Nos. 757 
vSagunay, Ind., 9153 South Bend, Ind. 206, 708 Tamarack, [Laporte 
Co.]; No. 708 seems to be intermediate between T. arifolium and 
T. sagittatum 

PSAMMOGONUM Nwd., Am. Mid. Nat. III. p. 171, (1914)., 

Gonopyrum Fisch., and Mey ex C. A. Meg. Mem. Acad. St. 
Petersb. Scr. VI., VI., p. 144, (1840), not Gonopyros Raf., Med. 
Fl. I., p. 155, (1828). Polygonella Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2, p. 240, 
(1803), segregate. 

Psamnogonum articulatum (Linn.), Nwd., 1. c. 



OUR BIRDS IN AUTUMN 243 

Polygonello articulata (Linn.) Meisner, Gen. 2 p. 228, (1836-43) 
Gonopyrum articulatuni (I,inn.) F. and M. 

[Lake Co.] (Hill) ; Tolleston [Lake Co.] (Hill) ; Millers (Umbach) 
(Bastin) ; [Porter Co.] (Cowles) ; Dune Park (A. Chase); No. 10233, 
10264, 10264A, 720, Mineral Springs, 720A Tamarack [Laporte Co]. 

Department of Botany, 
University of Notre Dame, Ind. 



OUR BIRDS IN THE AUTUMN OF 1912. 



BY BROTHER ALPHONSUS, C. S. C. 



August the 2ist is the date from which the records for 
the season start. The Killdeer was absent 8 days after the 23rd. 
This species in August, flies about in small flock — ^ probably 
families — and may occur in certain locality only occasionally. 
In September there were 10 records of this species; in October, 
12; in November none. What was said of the Killdeer in August 
is substantially true of the species during the rest of its stay in 
autumn. 

The Kingfisher was recorded 3 times in August, 5 times in 
September, 3 times in October and not once in November. These 
records indicate that this species is uncommon after August 29th. 
During autumn the Kingfisher must move from one place to another 
until it finally disappears altogether. 

Records of the House Wren become rare after August 15th. 
In August there were 4; in September i; in October i. The 
scarcity of observations is due to the fact that the species usually 
stays in brush heaps or wood piles in autumn, and unless such 
places are visited in numbers, the observer may fail to find the 
Wren. 

Like the Wren, the Catbird and Brown Thrasher are partial 
to certain places in autumn. They stay in thickets which 
border roadsides, and are very quiet, seldom uttering even a 
call-note. Sometimes they may be seen in the road feeding. In 
August there were 2 records for the Catbird; in September, 8. 
The Brown Thrasher was observed twice in August and the same 
in September. 

For the Flicker in August there were 3 records; in September, 



244 AMERICAN MIDI^AND NATURALIST 

to; in October, i. After the loth of September, there were but 
3 records, very widely apart. A probable explanation of the 
great difference between these three records is the following. 
Before the loth of September most of this species that were res- 
ident here during summer migrated south, while those seen after 
this date were birds from farther north. 

In September the Yellow-billed Cuckoo was recorded 5 times, 
the greatest difference between any two of the dates being 13 days. 
No doubt the species was abundant in our locality until the date 
of its departure on Sept. 25.; and should, therefore, have been 
seen often during the first half of the month. No satisfactory 
explanation offers itself for such a long period of absence. 

The Bluebird shows no records for August, 3 for September, 
none for October, i for November. In autumn this species is 
known to gather in considerable flocks, which feed in favorable 
localities. Should the observer not visit such a place, he may 
not see a single individual of the species for many weeks. There 
were 48 days between the last two dates on which the writer 
saw the Bluebird this autumn. 

In the Meadowlark we have a species that disappears in 
late summer for more than a month. This year the time of migra- 
tion was from August 2 to Sept. 19 — 48 days. After its reappearance, 
the species may be found regularly until its final migration. 

After August i6th, the Vesper Sparrow was recorded but 
once — Sept. 29th. It is difficult to record this species when the 
song season is over. Being a bird that resorts to outlying fields 
and pastures, the observer has to go out of his usual way to find 
the species. I was fortunate to make this one accidental record, 
for otherwise I should have missed the date of migration by a 
big margin. 

The Mourning Dove was regularly seen in August and in 
September until the 8th. After this date there were two irregular 
records for vSeptembcr and none during the rest of the season. 
In other years I have made fortunate records of this species in 
October, which, I think, is the month when the Dove finally 
departs. As the species is not abundant, the observer must find 
it difficult to record toward the end of its stay in the north. 

The Phoebe was recorded 3 times in September and October. 
These dates are late in September and early in October. Like the 
Meadowlark this species migrates in summer. This year the 



OUR BIRDS IN AUTUMN 



245 



bird disappeared on July 31 and was absent until Sept. 25 — 56 
days. When the last brood is fledged, the families wander about 
in field and grove, and thus may be wholly absent from certain 
localitites until they begin to pass south in force. 

A number of species were recorded but a few times, indicating 
that they were migrants passing rapidly to the south. Such were: 
Crested Flycatcher, Purple Martin, Baltimore Oriole, Chipping 
Sparrow in September; Sapsucker, Yellow Palm Warbler, Hermit 
Thrush in October; Bluebird, Bronzed Crackle, Canada Goose, 
Northern Shrike in November; Song and Tree Sparrows, Yellow 
Rail in December. 

August. 
Crow, 21, 23, 25, 29, 31. Catbird, 23, 24. 

Blue Jay, 21 to 31. Kingfisher, 21. 

Robin, 21, 22, 23, 25 to 28, 30. Red-headed Woodpecker, 21 to 



3i. 



Song Sparrow, 21 to 31. 
Bronzed Crackle, 21 to 31. 
Killdeer, 21, 22, 23. 
Field Sparrow, 23, 24, 26, 30, 31 
Mourning Dove, 21, 23, 24, 27 

30. 
Screech Owl, 25. 
Kingfisher, 21, 22, 23. 
House Wren, 21, 26, 28. 
Chimney vSwift, 21, 23 to 30. 
Warbling Vireo, 21, 23 to 27 

29. 30, 31- 
Baltimore Oriole, 21, 24, 25 

27. 31- 
Indigo Bird, 21, 23, 24, 25, 30,31. 

Total number of species seen, 29. 
September. 



25. 



Brown Thrasher, 21, 26. 
Downy Woodpedcker, 2 1 , 

27. 29, 30, 31. 
White-breasted Nuthatch, 21, 

26, 30. 31. 
Goldfinch, 21 to 31. 
Flicker, 23, 27, 29. 
Wood Pewee, 21 to 31. 
Yellowlegs, 21, 24, 29. 
Bobwhite, 25. 

Yellow-billed Cuckoo, 29, 31. 
Wilson Warbler, 30. 
Cedarbird, 29, 30. 



Crow, 7, 8, II. to 15, 18, 23, 

27, 28, 29. 

Blue Jay, i to 16, 18 to 25, 

28, 29. 
Robin, I, 3, 4 to 11, 13, 14, 

20, 22, 23, 24, 28, 29. 

Bluebird, 12, 18, 20. 



7, 



19, 



Song vSparrow, i to 6, 8. 12, 13, 

17, 21 to 30. 
Meadowlark, 19, 22, 26, 27, 

28, 29. 
Bronzed Crackle, i, 2, 4 to 11, 

13 to 16, 18, 20, 22, 25 to 28. 
Killdeer, 3, 5, 6, 21 to 25, 27. 



246 



AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 



Vesper Sparrow, 29. 
Mourning Dove, i, 2, 4, 6, 8, 

17, 22. 
Cowbird, 6, 10. 15, 18, 20, 22, 

25, 26, 27, 29, 30. 
Screech Owl, 5, 28. 
Kingfisher, 5, 12, 14, 21, 23. 
House Wren, 17. 
Chimney Swift, i to 6, 8 to 12, 

15, 18, 19, 20, 22, 24, 25, 28. 
WarbHng Vireo, i, 3, 4 to 10, 12. 
Baltimore Oriole, 2, 4.- 
Indigo Bird, i to 8, 21. 
Catbird, 4 to 8, 13, 14, 17. 
Purple Martin, 3, 4. 
Red-headed Woodpecker, i, 2, 

4, 5, 8. 
Brown Thrasher, 11, 12. 
Whip-poor-will, 19. 



White-breasted Nuthatch, i, 2, 

5, 6, '9, 14, 15, 16, 21, 24, 28. 
Goldfinch, i, 2, 4 to 7, 9, 14, 16, 

21, 22, 23, 25, 27 to 30. 
Flicker, i, 3, 4 to 8, 10, 14, 27. 
Phoebe, 25, 29, 30. 
Wood Pewee, i to 4, 8, 9, 13, 

16, 17. 
Yellowlegs, 5. 
Yellow-billed Cuckoo, i, 14. 16, 

21, 24. 
Crested Flycatcher, 2. 
Red-breasted Nuthatch, 4. 
Herring Gull, 1 1. 
Black-throated Green Warbler, 

16, 21, 23. 
Redstart, 19. 
Myrtle Warbler, 30. 
White-throated Sparrow, 26, 27, 

29. 



Chipping Sparrow, i, 3. 
Downy Woodpecker, 4, 5, 14, Golden-crowned Kinglet, 28 
17, 26, 28, 29. Snowbird, 28, 29. 

Total number of species seen, 41. 



October. 



Crow, I, 7, 10, 12, 15, 16, 19, 21, 

22, 23, 25, 26, 28, 30, 31. 
Blue Jay, i to 13, 15 to 19, 21, 

22, 24, 25, 26, 28 to 31. 
Bluebird, i, 14, 16. 
Song Sparrow, i to 5, 7, 8, 10, 

II, 14 to 17, 20, 21, 24, 26, 

28, 31. 
Robin, I, 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, 11, 13, 

14, 17, 20, 21, 24, 26. 
Meadowlark, 2, 5, 6, 7, 14. 
Bronzed Grackle, i to 6, 8 to 16, 

18 to 21. 
Towhee, 15, 16, 23. 
Field Sparrow, 2, 3, 9, 10, 15. 



Cowbird, i, 2, 3, 10. 

vScreech Owl, 19. 

Kingfisher, i, 8, 26. 

House Wren, 7. 

Downy Woodpecker, i, 2, 5, 6, 

7, 12, 16, 17, 25, 27 to 31. 
White-breasted Nuthatch, i, 5 

to 14, 16, 21, 22, 23, 26 to 30. 
Goldfinch, i, 2, 7, 11, 12 to 16, 

18, 21, 23, 26, 28, 30. 
Flicker, 14. 
Phoebe, i, 2, 3. 
Chickadee, 15. 
Myrtle Warbler, i, 2, 4, 7, 15, 

16, 26. 



OUR BIRDS IN AUTUMN 



247 



Golden-crowned Kinglet, i, 5, 

6, 9, 12, 13, 15, 16, 19, 21. 
Snowbird, i, 2, 5 to 8, 10, 12 

to 31. 
Brown Creeper, i, 15, 18, 21. 
Sapsucker, 2. 
White-throated Sparrow, 2 to 5, 

7, 8, 9, II, 12, 14 to 20, 22, 24. 
Killdeer, 5, 8 to 11, 17, 18, 20. 
Red-winged Blackbird, 2, 31. 

Total number of species seen, 36 



Cardinal, 11. 

Hell Diver, 9, 15. 

Yellow Palm Warbler, i r . 

Hermit Thrush, 12. 

Sparrow Hawk, 18. 

Canada Geese, 23. 

Yellowlegs, 24. 

Tree Sparrow, 25, 28, 30. 

Red-breasted Nuthatch, 25. 



Nove;mbe;r. 
Blue Jay, i, 3, 4, 6 to 12, 14, Tree Sparrow, i, 2, 5, 7, 8, 11, 



15, 16, 18 to 21, 2 5to 30. 
Crow, 3, 4, 7, 9, 10, 13, 14, 15, 

18, 22, 23, 25, 27, 28, 30. 
Song Sparrow, 2, 7, 12, 20, 25. 
Bluebird, 7. 
Downy Woodpecker, 3, 4, 7 to 

12, 14, 15, 17 to 22, 25, 28, 30. 
White-breasted Nuthatch, 2, 3, 

4. 5. 7. 9. II to 16, 19 to 23, 25. 
Goldfinch, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 15, 16, 18. 
Chickadee, 7, 9, 11 to 17, 25, 29. 
Snowbird, i to 7, 9 to 23, 25, 

27, 29. 

Total number of species seen, 19 



12, 13. 15. 17 to 22, 25. 
Golden-crowned Kinglet, 2, 3, 

4, 7- 
Bronzed Grackle, 7. 
Screech Owl, 9, 17. 
Brown Creeper, 11 to 15, 18 to 

22, 24. 
Cardinal, 12. 
Canada Geese, 17. 
Hairy Woodpecker, 21. 
Northern Shrike, 25. 
Herring Gull, 30. 



December. 



Blue Jay, i, 3, 4. 
Chickadee, i, 2, 4. 
Suowbird, i, 2, 3, 4, 5. 
Crow, 3, 4. 
Song Sparrow, 5. 



Downy Woodpecker, 4. 
White-breasted Nuthatch, 4, 5. 
Tree Sparrow, 2, 5. 
Brown Creeper, i, 3. 
Yellow Rail, 3. 



Total number of species seen, 10. 
Total number of species in autumn, 58. 



248 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

OUR BIRDS IN THE SUMMER OF 1913. 



BY BROTHER ALPHONSUS, C. S. C. 



In June 191 2 there was only one record of the Bluebird against 

7 records in the same month in 1913. In July 191 2, 12 records 
were obtained; for this month, in 19 13, the number of records 
was 28. For August, 1912 showed 4 records and 1913, 20 records. 
As the totals for the three months in each year, 19 12, had 17 
records and 1913, 55, or more than three times as many records 
for 19 13. In both years the species was most plentiful in July, 
after the first brood was reared. The great disparity between 
the records of the two years seems incredible in such a common 
species, and the writer does not know what can have been the 
cause of this great difference. 

The Meadowlark was recorded in June, 191 2, 22 times; in 
June, 1913, 24 times; in July, 1912, 12 times; in July, 1913, 
3 times; in August, 191 2, once; in August, 19 13, not once. In 
July, 1 91 2, the writer was staying in St. Joseph Co., until the 
1 7th inst. ; he then went to Van Buren Co., Mich., where no records 
were obtained except one, on Aug. i. The character of the country 
where the writer was living in the latter place was hilly and, there- 
fore, not favorable for finding the Meadowlark. 

A comparison of the summer months in 191 2 and 1913 shows, 
for the Killdeer, 3 records for June, 1912, and 6 for June, 19 13, 

8 records for July, 191 2, and 2 for July, 1913; one record for Aug., 
191 2 and 10 for Aug. 1913. Although the writer was living both 
years in places where water was adjacent, the Killdeer was seldom 
found. In other summers the species was abundant, especially 
in July. Perhaps changed conditions on the shores of the lakes 
in the latter seasons were not favorable for feeding. 

The records of the Towhee for June, 19 12, were one; for 
June, 1913, 2; for July, 1912, 6; for July, 1913, one; for August, 
191 2, 3; for August, 19 1 3, none. Total records for 191 2 — 10; 
for 19 1 3 — 3. These records show that this species is very rare 
in places in two counties of different states. 

The few records of the Nighthawk — 9 in 191 2 and i in 19 13 — 
show that this species may not be observed at all or very rarely 
in the summer months out in the country. The three records for 
July, 1 91 2 were obtained while the writer was visiting the neighbor- 



OUR BIRDS IN SUMMER 249 

ing city of South Bend, where on cloudy afternoons he saw Night- 
hawks flying above the buildings. No doubt the species may be 
seen frequently in any city. 

The total records of the Hummingbird for two summers 
were 9, showing that this species may be placed among those that 
are very rare. Probably the observer who would frequently visit 
flower beds would make more records than one who made no 
special effort to do so. But the average person, and even the 
careful observer, may not see a Hummingbird except on rare 
occasions, covering a long period of time. 

Like the Nighthawk, the Purple Martin is a species that is 
an inhabitant mostly of towns and is rarely seen in the country. 
The records of two summers show 14 for 1912 and 7 for 19 13. 
This species can easily be attracted in the country if there are 
suitable nesting places for it. Both the song and habits of the 
Martin are very pleasing to all bird-lovers. 

Species that were not seen in June, 19 13 were: Yellow Warbler, 
Redstart, Scarlet Tanager, Bittern, Wood Thrush, Cardinal, 
Red-shouldered and Sparrow Hawks, Marsh Wrens, Chickadee. 
Most of these species are locally distributed — in deep woods or 
their vicinity, and may not be observed elsewhere in June. The 
Redstart was not found in July either, reappearing on Aug. 29. 

The only record of the Blue Jay after July 27, 19 13, when the 
writer left St. Joseph Co., Ind. for Van Buren Co., Mich. — where he 
stayed until Aug. 23 — was on Aug. 11. Even this record would 
not have been made if he had not taken a long walk some six miles 
away from Bankson Lake, his summer resort. Other summers 
this species was present in the oak grove near the lake. 

The absence of the Maryland Yellowthroat in the vicinity 
of Bankson Lake, from July 4 until the writer left the Lake (Aug. 
23), was remarkable. In other summers the note of this species 
was common in marshy places. A very dry season, in 19 13, may 
have had something to do with the scarcity of the Maryland 
Yellowthroat. 

Among some rare species seen this summer were: Acadian 
Flycatcher, Veery, Cardinal, Grasshopper Sparrow, Dickcissel, 
Sandhill Crane and Ovenbird. The only record of the Acadian 
Flycatcher that the writer has ever made was on July 13. The 
bird was found in deep woods not far from Bankson Lake. The 
Veery was still in song on July 25, when the bird was found at 



250 



AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 



the edge of the same woods. Grasshopper Sparrows were also 
observed for the first time — locally in hilly fields. The only records 
of the Dickcissel this year were those made in June and July — 
none last year. The vSandhill Crane was observed for the last 
two summers — more frequently in 191 3. The Ovenbird has been 
seen but twice by the wTiter in nine years. 



Crow, 1, 4, 7, 10, 12, 13, 

18, 23, 27 to 30. 
Blue Jay, i to 5, 8, 10, 12, 13, 

17 to 25. 
Robin, I to 30. 

Bluebird, 3, 9, 11, 13, 23, 27, 29. 
Song Sparrow, i to 30. 
Meadowlark, i to 9, 11, 12, 13, 

15 to 18, 20 to 24, 26, 27, 29. 
Bronzed Crackle, i to 27, 29. 
Killdeer, i, 9, 20, 22, 23, 27. ' 
Towhee, i, 21. 
Fi^ld Sparrow, i, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 

10, II to 14, 16, 17, 20 to 

25, 28, 30. 
Vesper Sparrow, i to 7, 9 to 13, 

16, 17, 20 to 24, 27 to 30. 
Red-winged Blackbird, i to 10, 

14, 16, 17, 18, 20, 23, 27 to 30. 
Mourning Dove, i to 7, 9 to 13, 

18, 21, 22, 23, 27, 28, 29. 
Cowbird, i to 7, 9 to 25, 27. 
Kingfisher, i, 11, 12, 21, 2 7to 30. 



June. 
17, Orchard Oriole, i to 5, 7 to 26, 



28, 29, 30. 
Kingbird, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 9 to 13, 

17, 18, 20, 25, 27 to 30. 
Alder Flycatcher, 2 to 6, 18. 
Crested Flycatcher, i to 7, 10, 

11, 13, 14, 16, 18, 21. 
Cedarbird, i, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 11, 

12, 15, 17, 19 to 22, 26, 27, 28. 
Yellow-billed Cuckoo, i to 4, 

6 to 12, 16, 22, 24, 27, 28. 
Black-billed Cuckoo, i. 
Red-headed Woodpecker, i to 

13, 16 to 23, 25 to 30. 
Spotted Sandpiper, i, 2, 4, 6, 7, 

8, 10, II, 12, 17, 20, 24, 25. 
Brown Thrasher, i to 4, 6 to 13, 

16, 17, 18, 20 to 23, 25, 30. 
Chipping Sparrow, i, 2, 4, 5, 6, 

7, 9 to 13, 15, 17, 18, 20 to 

23, 26, 27 to 30. 
Goldfinch, i to 5, 7 to 13, 16, 17, 

18, 19 to 25, 28. 



House Wren, i to 12, 14, 15, Flicker, i to 13, 16, 17, i8, 20 

17 to 23, 25, 26. to 30. 

Chimne}' Swift, i to 13* 15 to Red-eyed Vireo, i, 2. 



18, 21, 22, 23, 26, 29. 
Warbling Vireo, i to 30. 
Baltimore Oriole, i to 30. 
Indigo Bird, i to 11, 14 to 18, 

21, 23 to 30. 
Catbird, i to 27. 



Phoebe, i, 5, 6, 8, 20, 27 to 30. 
Barn Swallow, 3, 4, 6, 22, 27, 

28, 29. 
Downy Woodpecker, 10, 14, 20, 

23, 24, 25, 27 to 30. 
Loggerhead Shrike, i, 9. 



OUR BIRDS IN SUMMER 



251 



Man'land Yellowthroat, 3, 4, 

14, 18, 20, 21, 23. 
Carolina Wren, i, 6, 11, 20. 
Purple Martin, i. 
Bobwhite, 7. 
White-breasted Nuthatch, 19. 

20, 23, 27 to 30. 
Dickcissell, 28, 30. 

Total number of species seen, 53 

July. 

Crow, I to 13, 15 to 31. 

Robin, I to 31. 

Bluebird, i to 11, 13 to 23, 25, 

26, 28 to 31. 
Song Sparrow, i to 31. 
Meadowlark, 5, 7, 15. 
Bronzed Grackle, 2, 3, 7, 10, 13. 
Killdeer, 28, 29.. 
Towhee, 6. 
Field Sparrow, i to 4, 6, 7, 9 to 

II, 13 to 26, 28, 30, 31. 
Vesper Sparrow, i to 8, 10, 11, 

13 to 22, 29, 30. 
Red-winged Blackbird, i to 23, 

25, 28, 30. 
Mourning Dove, 15, 19, 21, 25, 

28, 29. 



Loon, 30. 

Bittern, 30. 

Wood Pewee, i to 30. 

Screech Owl, 27. 

Bobolink, 27. 

Yellow-throated Vireo, 18, 27,28 

Whip'poor-Will, 28, 29. 

Nighthawk, 7. 



Orchard Oriole, i, 2, 8, 10, 11, 

15, 20, 21, 22, 
White-breasted Nuthatch, i to 

12, 14 to 31. 
Scarlet Tanager, 2, 3, 13, 15, 17, 

18, 22, 23. 
Alder Flycatcher, 7, 10,11,18,20. 
Crested Flpcatcher, 7, 8, 25. 
Cedarbird, i, 3, 4, 5, 7, 11, 13, 

16, 17, 20, 23, 24. 
Yellow-billed Cuckoo, i to 5, 

7, 13, 17, 18, 21, 23. 
Whip-poor-will, i, 5, 7, 14, 20, 

22, 28. 
Red-headed Woodpecker, i to 3 1 
Spotted Sandpiper, 3, 4, 11, 12, 

13, 17, 19, 20, 21, 23, 27 to 31. 



Kingfisher, i to 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, Brown Thrasher, 15, 18. 



13, 15 to 19, 21, 23 to26, 28, 29. 
House Wren, 15. 
Chimney Swift, 8, 21. 
Yellow Warbler, 4, 6, 7, 15, 16, 

18, 25, 27, 28, 31. 
Warbling Vireo, i to 31. 
Baltimore Oriole, i to 6, 8, 9, 

15, 17, 18, 20, 21 to 29, 31. 
Catbird, i, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10 ,11 

13, 15, 16, 18, 20 to 25, 27, 28. 
Kingbird, i to 31. 



Chipping vSparrow, i to 31. 
Goldfinch, i, 6 to 12, 18, 19, 

21 to 31. 
Flicker, i to 24, 27, 29, 30. 
Yellow-throated Vireo, 3, 7, 23. 
Red-eyed Viroe, 13, 15, 18, 22, 

23, 25, 31. 
Phoebe, i to 17, 21, 22, 26 to 29. 
Bobolink, 15. 
Downy Woodpecker, 2, 5, 7, 9, 

10, 12, 15, 17, 21, 22, 23, 25,28. 



252 



AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 



Barn vSwallow, i to 31. 
Maryland Yellowthroat, 2, 3, 4. 
Loon, 5, 21, 23, 24. 
Dickcissel, i, 2, 3. 
Tree Swallow, i, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 27. 
Greater Yellowlegs, i, 3, 18, 21, 

. 23, 24, 26, 29, 30, 31. 
Purple Martin, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 

9, 15, 18, 21, 23. 
Chickadee, 3, 6, 7, 13, 16, 18, 

21, 22, 30. 
Hairy Woodpecker, 4, 5. 
Grasshopper Sparrow, 5, 6, 7. 

Total number of species seen, 60. 

August. 



Bobwhite, 7, 15, 18. 
Acadian Flycatcher, 13. 
Blue Gray Gnatcatcher, 13, 18. 
Hell Diver, 21, 23, 24. 
Cardinal, 22. 
Veery, 25. 
Screech Owl, 27. 
Red-shonldered Hawk, 27. 
Sandhill Crane, 2, 3, 8, 19, 23, 

27- 31- 
Indigo Bird, 3, 7, 10, 11, 13, 15 

to 18, 20 to 25, 27, 28. 
Cowbird, 3, 12, 15. 



Crow, I to 23, 25, 28, 31. 
Blue Jay, 11, 24 to 31. 
Robin, I to 21, 24 to 31. 
Bluebird, i to 4, 6 to 15, 18 to 

20, 22, 28, 31. 
Song Sparrow, i to 31. 
Bronzed Grackle, 9, 24 to 31. 
Killdeer, 4, 11, 12, 13, 21, 23, 

26, 27, 30, 31. . 
Towhee, 11. 
Field Sparrow, i to 7, 10 to 13, 

15, 18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 25, 28, 

29- 31- 
Vesper Sparrow, 4, 5, 9, 10, 12. 
Red-winged Blackbird, 4, 11, 

16, 22. 

Mourning Dove, 24 to 30. 
Cowbird, 26 to 30. 
Kingfisher, i, 4, 6, 8, 12, 13, 15, 

17, 18, 22, 25. 
House Wren, 24, 25, 29. 
Chimney Swift, 25 to 31. 
Yellow Warbler, 2. 
Warbling Vireo, i to 31. 



Baltimore Oriole, 2 to 28, 31. 
Indigo Bird, i to 9, 13, 15, 19, 

23, 28. 
Catbird, 3, 7, 9, 11, 13, 19, 21 

to 25, 27, 28, 31. 
Kingbird, 2 to 21, 23, 25 to 30. 
White-breasted Nuthatch, i to 

9, II to 17, 19 to 21, 23, 25, 

27, 30, 31- 
Scarlet Tanager, 7, 23. 
Alder Flycatcher, 13. 
Crested Flycatcher, 27, 29. 
Cedarbird, 3, 4, 7, 13, 15, 20, 

21, 28 to 31. 
Yellow-billed Cuckoo, 5, 7, 8. 

10, 12 to i6, 19 to 21, 24, 
25, 27, 28, 29. 

Whip-poor-will, 14. 
Red-headed Woodpecker, i to 4, 
vSpotted Sandpiper, i, 2, 4, 6, 7, 

8, 12 to 15, 18 to 23. 
Brown Thrasher, 25 to 31. 
Chipping Sparrow, i to 5, 7, 8, 

9, II to 31. 



OUR BIRDS IN SUMMER 



253 



6 to 13, 15 to 19, 21 to 31. 
Goldfinch, i to 31. 
Flicker, i to 5, 10, 16, 18, 19, 

20, 22, 24 to 31. 
Red-eyed Vireo, i, 17, 23. 
Phoebe, 2. 5, 8, 14, 15, 23. 
Barn vSwallow, i to 9, 11, 12, 15, 

17, 18, 20 to 23, 27, 30. 
Downy Woodpecker, 2, 4, 7, 11, 

12, 13, 17, 19, 21, 22, 23, 25, 

28, 30. 
I^oon, 4, 15. 
Greater Yellowlegs, i to 4, 6 to 

10, 12, 13, 16, 17, 19, 20, 22,30. 
Purple Martin, 3, 7, 8, 9, 12, 24. 
Chickadee, 3, 6, 7, 9, 13, 14, 

15, 18, 20. 
Grasshopper Sparrow, i, 3, 4. 
Blue Gray Gnatcatcher, 15, 17, 

18 to 22. 



Hell Diver, 6, 7. 
Screech Owl, 14, 27, 28. 
Red-shouldered Hawk, 2, 9, 12, 

15, 16, 18, 20, 21. 
Wood Pewee, i to 31. 
Hummingbird, 7, 21, 27. 
Sandhill Crane, i, 9, 11, 14, 

19, 21. 
IvCast Flycatcher, 25, 29. - 
Lesser Yellowlegs, 26. 
Sparrow Hawk, 26. 
Long-billed Marsh Wren, 27. 
Ovenbird, 28. 
Redstart, 29, 30. 
Black and White Warbler, 29. 
Black-throated Green Warbler, 

30- 
Bay-breasted Warlber, 30. 
Hermit Thrush, 30, 31, 



61 



Total number of species seen. 

Total number of species seen during summer, 77. 



CRITICAL NOTES ON NEW AND OLD GENERA OF 
PLANTS.— 11. 

Proposed Thalictrum Segregates 



BY J. A. NIEUWLAND 



In some of our manuals of botany Syndesmon and Thalictrum 
are by position kept so far apart that it seems as if it were in- 
tended to destroy their obviously close relationship. Michaux' 
reduced the Rue Anemone to Thalictrum, following Linnaeus' 
idea that habit was scarcely a character for generic distinction. 
There are, however, groups now aggregated under the name 
Thalictrum that are more different from one another than any 
separate one is from the long and universally recognized Syn- 

I. Thalictrum anemonoides Michx. Fl. Bor. Am., I, p. 322 (1803). 



254 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

desmon. Thalictrum clavaium has already been recognized as 
sufficiently distinct from T. jociidum typical of the genus as to 
have been segregated under the name Physocarpum.^ There was, 
however, an older Physocarpon Necker, (1790). To replace 
Physocarpmn Bercht. and Presl. I suggest Sumnera, in honor of 
Dr. George Sumner, an early American botanist, who wrote 
one of our first works on physiological botany. 

Dr. Greene has already emphasized the great difference 
between our polygamous and dioicous American Rues and the 
real typical Rues, of which we have, in the limits of Britton's 
Illustrated Flora only T. alpinuni a plant with perfect flowers 
and racemose inflorescence. He has suggested that the allies of 
T. canadense {i. e., T. Cornviti or T. polyamum Muhl.) constitute 
"at least subgenerically as Leticocoma"^ a group apart. Either 
of the above mentioned sections were a more distinctly good 
genus apart from Thalictrum than Syndesmon, and they would 
seemingly deserve recognition as genera. Following is a resume of 
synonymy of some of our American plants: 

Sumnera Nwd., Nom. nov. 

Physocarpum, Bercht., and Presl. 1. c.' (1823), not Physocarpon 
Necker, Elem., II, p. 164, (1790). 

Sumnera clavata (DC.) Nwd. Physocarpum clavatum Bercht 
and Presl, 1. c. Thalictrum clavatum DC. Syst. I, p. 171 (1818). 

Leucocoma (Greene) Nwd. Nov. gen., [Subgenus or section 
Leucocoma Greene, 1. c] 

Plantae aestate florentes dioicae (vel polygamae?), fructibus 
sessilibus, ovato-oblongis, longitudinaliter striatis, vel nervatis 
foliis exstipellatis compositis vel decompositis in utroque sexu 
diversis, floribus paniculatis, petalis nullis, sepalis 4-5, staminibus 
multis exsertis, aliquando clavatis. Typus. Thalictrum canadense 
Miller. (7. polygamum Muhl.). 

Leucocoma canadensis (Miller) Nwd. 

Thalictrum canadense Miller, Gard. Diet., Ed. 8, (1768), 
Thalictrum polygamum Muhl., Cat., 54 (1813), Thalictrum Cornuti 
T. and G., Fl. N. A. I., p. 38 (1838). 

2. Bercht. and Presl, Rostl. i. Ranunc., p. 14 (1823). 

3. Greene, E. L., Leaflets, II, p. 55, et praec., 89 et seq. (1910). 

Pages 167-206 published January 12, 1914. 
Pages 207-254 published February i, 19 14. 



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VOL. III. MAY, 1914. NO. 9. 

amIrTcan MIDLAND 
NATURALIST 

Devoted to Natural History, Primarily 
that of the Prairie States 



Published by the University of Notre Dame, 
Notre Dame, Indiana 

J. A. NIEUWLAND, C. S. C, Ph. D., Sc. D., - '^'-^' 



CONTENTS 

Forest Arboreta - Charles M. JJoiv 255 

Some New American Lythra /. .4. Nicuwland 265 

Migration of Our Birds in the Spring of 1913 

Brother Alphonsus, C. S. C. 271 

Notes on Our Local Plants /. ^.4. Nietnvland 274 

Some Common Birds Victor Carpenter 283 



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VOL. III. MAY, 1914. NO. 9. 



FOREST ARBORETA. 



BY MR. CHARLES M. DOW. 



I am to have the privilege of talking to you about forest 
arboreta. I shall extend that privilege somewhat, and talk a 
little about forests and forestry as well. 

A practical man would satisfy himself as to the reasons for 
doing a thing before he considered the method for doing it. Before 
we take up the question of the method of establishing a forest 
arboretum, let us first see whether such an object lesson in forest 
planting is necessary or desirable. 

A lecturer in the science of medicine would not be likely to 
impress or properly instruct his students, did he talk glowingly 
about the hospitals, but omit all reference to the patients them 
selves. And I think we would all be disappointed, if we attended 
a lecture on scientific farming and listened to a lengthy disser- 
tation on hoes and plows, and rakes and fertilizers — and heard 
not a single word about seeds and crop yields, and how to harvest 
them. 

It is the same with forestry. Before a man talks about an 
arboretum, or about sylviculture, or forest management, or forest 
utilization, or before he advises others to practice them, he should 
be wholly sure in his own mind that all these things are wise and 
necessary and wholly practicable. I want to make this point very 
clear — the need for being sure about the justification and the. 
need for doing the thing before we talk about the method of doing it. 

* Address given at the meeting of the New York State Foresters' asso- 
ciotion, held in New York, January 24, 1914. 

Mr. Dow is superintendent of Letchworth park and his work has 
attracted so much attention that he is frequently in demand as a speaker 
On forestry. 



256 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

Suppose a man, a wise man, thinks of building a house — 
does he go right to employing an architect and buying brick and 
lumber, and hiring men, or does he go straight and hunt up a 
reliable contractor? I think the wise man first says to himself: 
"Can I afford to build this house? What can I spend on it? What 
are our needs for rooms? When is the best time to begin?" And 
then and only then he begins to think about how to build. 

Or think of the artist with his camp stool and his easel, who 
faces some wide sweep of coast and sea, or mountains wreathed 
in clouds, or a- similar and more intimate bit of Nature's handi- 
work — a babbling mountain stream perhaps, or a patch of wild 
flowers in the foreground and blue mountains in the distance. 
Does the artist set right in to mixing his paints and sketching 
in the picture? First he asks himself: "Is there a picture there? 
Does it compose? Does it tell a faithful story as true pictures do?" 

I am not a professional forester in the technical sense, but a 
business man who has dealt in private and some public afifairs, 
an American citizen, and therefore deeply interested in the forest 
and its welfare. I did not become enthusiastic over forest arboreta 
in general and over one forest arboretum in particular until 
came to realize that such object lessons were greatly needed to 
help bring this whole great principle of practical forestry into 
effect. 

First, however, I had to convince myself that practical 
forestry was needed in America. I looked about me, and I travelled. 
I travelled somewhat widely. And the more I looked, the more 
I saw — apart from all matters of statistics — that wherever trees 
are, men follow. And I saw that these men, this army of loggers, 
which contains no fewer numbers than the army of the United 
vStates, is busy everywhere. For the loggers are busy in the resinous 
snow-laden north woods and in the forests of the Lake states. 
They are busy in the Rocky Mountains from Montana to Arizona, 
among the Lodgepole and the Western yellow pine. They are 
busy among the great red fir and cedar and sugar pine of the 
Pacific forests. And the size of this army of loggers grows steadily 
with the years. 

So different are the conditions under which the loggers work, 
that some of them have to wear the warmest clothes to be had 
as a protection against the northern cold. Others work stripped 
to the waist in the southern pine woods. Others again, are clad 



rOKKST ARHOHIITA JtSJ 

ill lioiMcspiin, and rra<k long whips over the slow-moving oxen, 
as they snake the big logs of oak and chestnut and poplar out of 
the rich coves of the Blue Ridge. It is a varied army of loggers, 
facing many different conditions in this great country of ours. 
PVench -Canadians, Americans, Irishmen, Scotchmen, negroes, 
Indians, mountaineers and plainsmen, go to make it up; and the 
army is iigliting forests (\uiUi effectively. And you will readily 
n;di/.c that the lumber cut in one year in the United States would 
make a row of wooden houses more than ten thousand miles 
long, or about the same distance as the mail rowU- frf>m .\ew York 
lo Hong Kong. 

Hut, while lumbering is interesting and even picturescjue to 
watch, while it is varied in its methods, ranging from steam 
>kidders to the aerial tramways, to the logging railroads, and to 
river driving, and while each method has its elements of interest; 
still, the thing ^/hich counts most is not just how the loggers do 
their wrjrk hut what results they leave behind. 

1 hold no brief against the lumbermen. They have been 
(jioneers in industry. They have added greatly by their initiative, 
their abilities, and their remarkably skilful methods in turning 
ffjrests intf> lumber and lumber into money, in the material develop- 
ment of these United States. liut in the woods work they have 
<\<)uc, ihcir last thought as a rule has been the safety and per- 
pctuatirju of the forest. The result has been to devastate some 
one hujidred million acres of forest land in America. This land has 
been stripped so clean by careless use of the axe and the saw 
and the following fires, that trees must be planted by hand upon 
this vast area to bring back a commercial forest upon it, and thus 
lo rest'jre it to [)roductive use. 

We do not need to go far from liouu- to see this waste. We 
have it at our dof^rs, right in the Adrirjndacks. . Some one has made 
the forceful statement that forestry is practical in the Adriondacks 
everywhere except right in the woods. I realize that here and there 
Adriondack forest (owners have turned their thoughts to thrift., 
Hut on the whole the Adriondack forests are not being perpetuated 
or improved by careful iitrlization, but are being destroyed by 
reckless use. 

This matter you all understand so well, it seems to me a matter 
not merely of science and theory and technique, but a matter 
of the common variety of common sense. As you are possibly 



258 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

aware, I am a banker, somewhat interested in lumbering and 
farming. Bankers get into the habit of dealing not much in 
glittering generalities as in contrasting concrete cases with tangible 
results — things so concrete and tangible, for example, as capital and 
interest. 

Let us apply the same wholesome standard and measure to 
this question of forestry. I hardly need to argue, at least not here, 
that forests are essential to all human welfare. Next to our need 
of food, comes our need of timber. And forests not only yield 
timber but they yield water as well; water for domestic use, for 
power, for irrigation, for every useful purpose known to man. 
Not only do forests render these two great services to mankinfd 
but they harbor game, they make the world beautiful, and they 
upbuild, as all history drives home the fibre, health and happiness 
of all human beings. 

So I think that we may fairly assume that forests are needed. 
Now if they are needed, what is the common sense in utterly 
destroying them, or partly destroying them, or reducing their 
yield, and consequently reducing their usefulness to men? I 
am inclined to think that part of the reason why forestry is 
adopted so slowly by private owners in America, part of the reason 
why forestry is still looked upon by many as an obtruse science, is 
that it is not yet generally understood that forestry is the further 
application to the woods of the great basic principle of agriculture. 
The principle of so raising and tending crops and so husbanding 
the land, as to keep the land productive for all time. 

I do not need to delve into statistics. You know how this 
nation stands, with respect to her forests. The forest is capital. 
The yearly growth is the interest thereon. That growth can be 
measured and taken just as can the interest from capital invested 
as money instead of as trees. This nation, as you are aware, has 
thrown away all considerations of the safety of the capital, and 
is rapidly spending both interest and forest capital about three 
times as fast as the forests grow. Our yearly use of wood in the 
United States is about three times as fast as wood is being pro- 
duced in all our forests. 

vSuch a procedure would not work in banks. I hardly need 
to tell you that it does not work well for a nation which will need 
wood and timber, and running streams, and all industries de- 
pendent upon the forest so long as the nation stands. 



FOREST ARBORETA 259 

Where is the remedy for this wastefulness? For this obUvioiis- 
ncss to the future? For this feverish appetite for wood, about 
twenty times as great per capita as that of the great nations of 
Europe. Where hes the remedy for this — what shall I say — 
for this somewhat perverted, artificially stinmlated appetite? 
What are the methods under which our forests may be madi^ 
not only storehourses, but factories of wood? Three great forces 
must work together to save our forests — the nation, th(> states 
and individual citizens. No one force can in time accomplish 
adequate results in forest conservation. 

Assuming effective co-operation between these three great 
forces, these are the things Americans need to do: First, to protect 
all forests from fire. That is the fundamental thing. The first 
duty of any man to whom is entrusted the funds of other men 
is to see to it that they are made safe, so far as safety is humanly 
possible. Our first duty towards the forests is precisely the same 
duty. To make them safe not only from destructive logging, 
.but first of all, to make them safe from their arch-enemy — fire. 
Once that is done, once that great step is fully taken by co- 
operation between the states and the individual land owners — 
the nation already has its rangers in the national forests to man 
the fire lines — once that essential step is taken, the next step is 
right methods of forest management. I hold the conviction that 
foresters have kept this matter of forest management, this matter 
of practical sylviculture which is what your forest management 
really is, a little too guarded from the public mind. For though 
he be a layman, as soon as a man conceives the basic idea of what 
sylviculture means, then if he be reasonable he can no longer 
oppose its application or fail to appreciate its obvious benefits. 

To me, one of the most inspiring phases of forestry is the 
way in which the forester acquaints himself with the complex 
and many-sided life of that city of trees, which is what the forest 
really is. The way in which he looks upon the trees, a good deal 
as masters of men must look upon the people whose energies they 
direct. The way in which he studies the fighting qualities of the 
trees, which is what the sylvicultural characteristics really are, 
and so designs his forest methods, so fixes diameter limits of 
cutting, so provides for protection of yoimg growth, so reduces 
lumbering to a careful, culling process, that the whole struggle 



26o AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

for existence in the forest is directed and guided to useful and 
productive ends. 

I trust I am not a fanatic on the subject of Forest Aboreta. 
Perhaps I realize no less clearly than you do, that forest conserva- 
tion in America depends chiefly upon reproduction from self- 
sown seed, following careful and conservative cuttings. But I 
also realize that before our National Forest problem is adequately 
solved, before we have put to use, and to the best use, every acre 
of land in America — -and we shall not stop our efforts until then — 
that we must undertake and carry out a national task in forest 
planting, which is vaster than the same task which any other 
nation has ever faced. 

In regard to tree planting, the United States naturally falls 
into three regions — the Eastern, the Central and the Western. 
The Eastern region is that one which lies east of the great prairie 
states. In it is a vast aggregate of denuded lands suitable only 
for forest growth on which as the result of repeated fires following 
logging, natural reproduction has not and probably will not take 
place. Cut-over and burned-over lands in urgent need of forest 
planting in the Atlantic region, and in the northern portion of 
the northern states, alone aggregate over three and one-half 
million acres. 

Then there is the great area of abandoned farm lands, mainly 
in New England and in the southern mountains; and then there 
are the wood lots rendered unproductive by missue. on which 
planting is essential to bring back the forest crop. 

The Central region comprises the prairie country. Tree 
planting is urgently needed there to protect crops from wind, 
to grow timber for ordinary farm purposes in a mainly treeles? 
country. In the far west the planting problem is mainly federal 
and on it a good beginning has been made. 

To sum up, without going too deeply into the dry realms of 
figures and statistics, we have planted in the United States just 
about one acre in every ten thousand acres thus neglecting our 
duty to ourselves and those who follow us, to plant forest trees. 

There is the task. Now what is needed for its accomplishment? 
As I see it, these are the main things: A much more wide and more 
definite knowledge on the part of the landholding citizens of the 
returns and profits which follows tothose who plant forest trees. 
Mention tree planting to the average man, and what is his response? 



FOREST ARBORETA 261 

"Plant trees," he says — "Why I can't wait that long for my 
returns! Tree planting is all very well for states and govern; 
ments but I am merely a man with a little span of life ahead of 
me. When I invest I must at least live long enough to harvest 
the crop." 

You see that such men are apt to think not in terms of white 
pine, which, as you are aware, will yield box boards in something 
less than 30 years, or in terms of the quick-growing hardwoods 
which yield fence posts in eight or ten years and firwood in maybe 
ten more, and lumber in perhaps 30 or 40 years. Most men are 
apt to think of the results of tree planting in terms of long lived, 
slow growing oaks, which take perhaps a century to grow 1 2 inches 
through. To make the fact plain to such men, not only about 
money returns from tree planting but about how soon these returns 
can be had, is an urgent task before all foresters. 

Now the next task. That is to get tree planting done so well 
that disappointment will not be the crop instead of posts or lumber 
or firewood. Successful tree planting is a wholly practicable thing. 
The Germans have demonstrated that fact for well over two 
centuries; and of course being foresters, you are well aware of 
the fact that today one-third of the reproduction in German 
forests is from planted trees. 

But we do not need to go to Germany. Go to Baltimore, 
North Carolina, to the estate of George W. Vanderbilt. You 
will see forest plantations there, growing on steep hills which 20 
years ago were bare and red and gullied by erosion and which 
today are already yielding useful products. If you do not care 
to go so far, why then travel in your own state here at home, 
and see the admirable results already obtained by planting good 
forest stock from the splendid state nurseries. 

Successful tree planting is a practical thing; so is successful 
farming; but there are farmers who fail. Now what is needed 
in order to insure as low a precentage of failure as possible among 
ttee planters? My impression is that object lessons are needed 
more than anywhere else. One can not learn how to be a forester 
from books alone. I will affirm with equal vigor that one can not 
learn how to be a banker from books; and possibly we will agree 
that men can not learn how to do good tree-planting wholly from 
books. They need to see the thing in operation. Of course the 
obvious answer is, as I have just stated, that successful planta- 



262 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

tions are to be seen in New York state and elsewhere in America. 

But, can you conjure up a life-sized picture of an up-state 
farmer, a thrifty, cautious farmer, travelling east and west and north 
and south, and spending largely of his means to see plantations 
which contain the trees he wants or the trees which he should 
or might or could consider setting out on his worn-out lands, or 
in his woodlot, or elsewhere where trees are needed on his farm? 

You might say: "Why are forest arboreta needed? There 
are a great many arboreta which contain practically every kind 
of useful tree. Let the prospective tree planter inspect those. 

There arc such arboreta at Harvard, and elsewhere. Deep 
and undying credit and honor is due to Dr. Sargent and the other 
eminent gentlemen who established them. They serve a most 
valuable purpose to landscape architects, to foresters, to land 
owners and to all classes of men who wish to study the habit 
and behavior of individual trees, but they are not planted in 
forest conditions. 

I have made some study of arboreta around and about the 
world. I think I may say I have seen with some degree of thorough- 
ness nearly all the great tree arboreta of the world, both in America 
and foreign lands. I do not need to recount to you who are foresters 
the wonderful living museum of trees in the Arnold abroetum 
nor do I need to describe the great arboretum in Kew Gardens, 
near London, where many foresters have worked, including 
possibly some of yourselves; nor do I need to describe the great 
arboreta in semi-tropical countries, as in Ceylon on the Island 
of Java, or which are in the making in several other foreign lands. 

I am thankful as an American citizen for the Arnold arboretum 
and for all such wonderful and useful evidences of the great ability 
and devotion of scientific men. In promoting, as we have done, 
the establishment of forest arboretum at Letchworth Park I feel 
we are simply carrying the arboretum idea to a further progressive 
development. For I am convinced we should have here in America, 
not only tree arboreta, but a forest arboretum — not only one, 
but many. 

My old friend, William Pry or Letchworth, a man of character 
and of great service to mankind, spent his leisure moments through- 
out a long and busy life in beautifying and developing his estate 
upon the banks of the Genesee river near Portage, about 60 miles 
from Buffalo. In the twilight of his life, Mr. Letchworth felt more 



FOREST ARBORETA 263 

and more the need for forest conservation. And through his wide 
vision and his great generosity, he left Letchworth Park to the 
people of New York as a public park; and he left a very definite 
request that it should be used, so far as practicable, for purposes 
of useful and educational aflforestation, and he also left the means 
for its accomplishment. 

I shall always remember my talks with Mr. Letchworth on 
this subject. And it was with a vigor inspired both by my friend- 
ship for him and by my contempt of the great needs of such an 
object lesson in tree planting as the custodians. The American 
Scenic and Historic Preservation society, are now establishing 
at Letchworth Park, that I have devoted all the time I could 
to the development both of the forest arboretum idea and of the 
work itself upon the ground. 

Our purpose is to develop the forest arboretum at Letchworth 
Park deliberately — forest arboreta do not spring up like mushrooms 
over night- -and in doing so establish a great object lesson for 
this region, illustrating the results of forest planting. We wish 
to see established at Letchworth Park — and a small but satis- 
factory beginning has already been made — blocks of planted 
forests seldom left less than an acre in extent, and each containing 
a useful tree or a useful combination of trees which will grow in 
that vicinity. We want foresters, farmers, landscape gardeners 
and tree planters, present or prospective, to go to Letchworth 
park, to walk among these planted blocks of forests, to make a 
right selection for their uses; and then to go home and plant 
forest trees themselves. 

At the inception of the movement the principle upon which 
the Letchworth arboretum was to be established and certain 
plans for carrying out the principle were adopted by the Custodian 
society. This principle and these' plans are in part as follows: 

"The principle upon which the Letchworth arboretum be 
established is that it shall consist of a permanent collection of 
the various species of the world's timber trees likely to thrive 
in this northern climate, planted scientifically to test their value 
and illustrate their processes of development, thus supplying not 
only knowledge for knowledge's sake, but also knowledge for 
practical use. 

In carrying out that principle we will have a collection of the 
valuable timber trees of the world and the Letchworth arboretum 



264 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

will become the first of its kind, and its contribution to the cause 
of forest conservation in the United vStates will be of great economic 
and scientific value. 

After the arboretum has been established, planted singly 
and in groups will be every inij)ortant tree species with which 
experiment under local conditions of soil and climate will justify, 
and visitors will thus have ample opportunity to study the value 
of trees of many kinds for ornamental planting, but the object 
lessons of enormous economic significance which will lie spread 
before their eyes will be blocks of planted forest in each of which 
has been set out one or more kinds of trees of commercial importance 

By this course Letchworth Park will aid materially in laying 
an exact scientific basis for the successful extension of practical 
forestry in the United States. Every practical step will be taken, 
not only to insure results of the highest scientific value from 
forest work at Letchworth Park, but also to develop its usefulness 
as an object lesson to all park visitors." 

I wish with all my heart that this object lesson were in its 
full fruition. But I do not need to say to foresters that forest 
trees grow slowly not fast. So possibly after five years, certainly 
in ten, the Letchworth Forest arboretum will have some useful 
forest lessons to teach; for by that time the little trees will be 
up in forest formation. 

In th^ meantime we are making experiments with diiTerent 
species; and we are doing some things which will, and which 
will not, and which perhaps, may work! All men must do such 
things who would find out new and useful facts for the uses of 
other men. 

I am hopeful that the Letchworth forest arboretum will 
be only a beginning. I wish to see such forest arboreta estab- 
lished in other regions of the United States; one for example, in 
the southeast, in the region of the southern pines; others in the 
Rocky mountains; others on the Pacific coast; and above all 
in the far southwest where trees are needed more than anywhere 
else in all America. 

This then, is the central idea in the forest arboretum at 
Letchworth Park — to help so far as it can tree planters and there- 
fore foresters to bring back trees successfully upon land where 
trees only can be profitably grown. 

Just a w(jr(l in closing this whole matter of forestry. 1 believe 



NEW AMERICAN LYTHRA 265 

that there are in America no more useful citizens than foresters. 
I think there are no higher types of American citizenship than 
exempHfied by great foresters. I see for the work, unless my 
vision is all wrong, a great and growing and a most productive 
future. Upon your zeal, upon your training, and upon your ex- 
perience and that of other foresters, depends more than anything 
else the future of the forests of America. From the far-flung 
national forests, set among the great mountain ranges of the 
west, to the wood-lots and the timber tracts right here at home, 
lies your work. I hope that the future of the forests of America 
will be safe in the hands of American foresters. 



SOME NEW AMERICAN LYTHRA. 



BY J. A. NIKUWLAND. 

Lythrum cordifolium nov. sp. 

Planta glabra gracilis cum ramulis tenuibus permultis et 
foliis parvis ovatis crassiusculis omnibus magnitudinis aequalis 
circa 6-8 mm. longis et 2.5-4 mm. latis strictissime oppositis, 
apice acutis vel obtusiusculis, basi latissime cordatis vel rotundatis 
sessilibus, marginibus subaspere strigulosis; floribus perpaucis 
ad ramulorum apices oppositis, axillaribus subsessilibus, cum 
duobus bracteis linearibus sub hypanthio striato, 5 mm. longo. 
Calix breviter denticulatus vel fere edentatus, et sum appendicibus 
inter sepala longis recurvatis subulatis. Florum aliae partes 
ignotac. 

Plant very slender glabrous with long slender branches, and 
numerous verv small ovate cordate thickish leaves, about uniform 
in size and shape throughout, about 6-8 m^m. long, 2.5-4 mm. 
wide strictly opposite, acute or obtusish at the apex and broadly 
cordate to rounded sessile at the base. Margins roughish strigulose. 
Flowers few aggregated near the ends of the slender branches 
axillary, opposite, subsessile with two small linear bracts below 
the hypanthium, which is ridged and about 5 mm. long. Calyx 
teeth very short, almost obliterated; intersepalar appendages 
or processes long, recurved, subulate. Other flower parts unknown 
as the specimen was in bud from which the description was made. 

The specimen is rather young; the flowers not yet fully 



266 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

developed. The vegetable characters are, however, so striking 
as to warrant segregation on these marks alone. The type is in 
the herbarium of the United vStates Department of Agriculture, 
collected by S. B. Buckley somewhere in N. Carolina, Georgia, 
or Florida. " Distrib. by the Shaw School of Botany." No more 
details are given on the label. 

By vegetative characters alone the plant deserves to be 
distinct from any other Lythra to which it may be referred. The 
leaves are as strictly opposite and decussate as in L. linear e Linn., 
and yet as evident from their description not at all like those 
of typical L. alatum Linn. The slender separate twigs have the 
long scarcely branched appearance of the plant called by some 
L. flagellare, but the cordate broad leaves distinguish it from this. 
The calyx and hypanthium are of a totally different kind. The 
mode of branching is decidedly divaricate opposite, and more 
leafy. The hypanthium differs too in being ridged or even creased. 

The plant differs from L. lineare Linn, in the shape of the 
leaves which are broader and shorter, the branches are tetragonal 
or even winged, but the habit about the same. 

From L. gracile Bentham, a Mexican plant, its nearest ally 
in appearance of habit and branching it differs by having broader 
oval leaves shorter than the internodes. Though the branches 
are long and gracilient the flowers have a different calyx, rather 
more like L. alatum with long reflexed appendages than calyx 
segments or teeth. These in L. gracile Bentham are subequal. 
The hypanthium, deeply ridged in L. cprdifolium, is only slightly 
striate or terete in L. gracile. The latter, moreover, is suffruticose. 

Lythrum dacotanum nov. sp. 

Planta glabra caule et ramis subteretibus aliquantulum 
alatis, foliis lanceolatis, sessilibus vel basi rotundatis vel sub- 
cordatis, acutis vel acuminatis, marginibus scabris, 2.5-4.5 cm. 
longis subtus pallescentibus facie superiore viridibus: fqliis in- 
florescentiae permultis divaricatis vel reflexis, tenuioribus sibi 
propinque aggregatis, 1.5 cm. longis vel longioribus, flores axillares 
excedentibus: ramis paucis virgatis, elongatis. Flores magni 
circa i cm. longi, staminibus 6, longe exsertis, stylo incluso vel 
baud exserto etiam fructu facto; antheris suborbicularibus 
subnigris; ovario circa 2 mm. longo; stylo et stigmate circa 3 
mm. et calicc circa 6 mm. longo, subsessili, cum duabus bracteis 



NEW AMERICAN LYTHRA 267 

parvulis ad basim; petalis obovatis circa 5 mm. longis 3.5 mm. 
latis. Calyx triangulo-dentatus appendicibus longis, subulatis, 
reflexis, calicis dentes 3-plo excedentibus. 

Planes glabrous with roundish stems which are slightly 
winged; leaves 2.5-4.5 cm. long, lanceolate acute or acuminate, 
sessile rounded or subcordate at the base, scabrous margined, 
rather thin, pale below and dark green on the surface. Leaves of 
the inflorescence very numerous large widely spreading or reflexed, 
closely aggregated 1.5 cm. or more long exceeding the axillary 
flowers. Branches several long wand-like. Flowers rather large 
about I cm. in length or slightly more. Stamens 6 long exserted, 
style included or barely exserted even in. fruit. Ovary about 2 
mm. long: style and stigma nearly 3 mm. long, calyx nearly 
6 mm. long, hypanthium subsessile with two minute bracts 
near the base. Petals obovate nearly 5 cm. long, 3.5 broad, calyx 
teeth, broad triangular, processes long subulaiie spreading or 
reflexed about three times as long as the calyx teeth. 

Type No. 240979 of the U. S. National Museum from South 
Dakota, collected near Sioux Falls in August 1892 by J. J. Thornber. 
Another specimen is numbered 516395, otherwise alike; both 
from the herbarium of Thomas A. Williams. So difi'erent does the 
plant appear from its nearest ally L. alatum Linn, in habit as to 
seem at first sight more like L. Viilneraria Linn, with which, 
however, it has no nearer relationship though intermediate perhaps. 

Lythrum parvulum nov. sp. 

Planta simplex vel minus ramosa circa 3 dm. alta vel minor 
e radice crasso plus minusve erecto ligneo, rhizomata lignosa 
emittens, caulibus pluribus 4-angulatis cum alis decurrentibus 
e basi foliorum stricte sessilium; foliis pallescentibus utraque 
facie, vel glaucis 5x9 mm. usque 7x18 mm. latis et longis ovalibus 
vel oblongo-linearibus, abrupte acutis vel obtusiusculis, basi stricte 
sessilibus, cordatis vel rotundatis vel infimis aliquando subcuneatis 
et obovatis, et in superioribus caulibus praecipue perparvas 
stipulas in fine alarum habentibus, foliis in inflorescentia linearibus 
minoribus, margine striguloso, plerumque basi cordatis vel rotun- 
datis. Flores circa i cm. lati petalis obovatis colore earuni L. 
alati, mucronatis calice circa 6 mm. longi cujus dentes breves 
obtusi membranosi, cum appendicibus brevibus, divaricatis, 
triangulatis, hypanthio cyHndrico sub dcntibus calicis angustato: 



268 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURAIJST 

staminibus cxscrtis inaequalibus; Stylo circa 7 mm. cxserto: 
ovario subcylindrico circa 4 mm. longo. 

Plant not much branched about 3 dm. high or smaller from 
a rather thick more or le.ss upright woody root sending from the 
base of the stem rather thick woody rootstocks. Stems several 
to many and with the branches 4-angled and wings running 
down from each side of the insertion of the strictly sessile leaves. 
Foliage and especially the stems very pale. Leaves somewhat 
glaucous oval to oblong .linear or linear abruptly acute or ob- 
tusish, base strictly sessile cordate to roimded, some of those on 
the lower part of the plant at times somewhat cuneate and obovate, 
and even higher on the stem with noticeable cuspidate stipular 
terminations of the wings of the stem at the leaf insertion. Leaves, 
thick about 5x9 mm. to 7x18 mm., the floral ones smaller mostly 
alternate and with cordate or rounded base and rough margins, 
the midrib of all very pale. Flowers about i cm. wide; petals 
obovate, of the same color as those of L. alatinn mucronate tipped; 
calyx about 6 mm. long its teeth obtuse somewhat membranous; 
appendages short triangular somewhat spreading calyx tube 
cylindrical apparently narrowed below the teeth: stamens ex- 
serted unequal. Style with hemispherical stigma exserted about 
7 mm. Ovary subcylindric extending about 2-3 the height of the 
hypanthium. Flowers short-stalked with two minute oval pointed 
bractlets at the base of the hypanthium. 

As type may be selected No. 442510 of the U. vS. National 
Herbarium, i. e. S. M. Tracey's 8071 from Abilene, Texas, 
collected May 24, 1902. The plant is labeled L. ovalifolium but 
it differs from this with which it was long confounded by winged 
stem and cordate leaves absent in typical specimens of Gray's 
plant. No. 265839 of the U. vS. National Herbarium collected at 
Ulysses, Kansas, by C. H. Thompson (his no. 34) may be referred 
here. The plant is marked L. alatnm which it in no way resembles. 
No. 10 of G. C. Nealy collected June, 1892, at Corpus Christi, 
Texas, is another good example, 1)ut a rather small form scarcely 
branched at all except the upright branches from the creeping 
or prostrate stems or rhizomes. 

Lythrum flagellare Shuttleworth ms.' also Koehne, Engler's 

I The name L. flagellare Shuttleworth, at least in as far as it is different 
from L. ovalifolinm Kngelm., was cither never published or is a notuen nudum. 
When first used in print as above noted by Koehne it was used as a synonym 



NEW AMERICAN LYTHRA 269 

Bot. Jahrb. I., p. 321, (i88i) as a synonym of L.ovalifolium Engelni. 

Planta perennis erecta vel ascendens caulibus pertenuibus 
a rhizomate repente tenui, lignoso, assurgens 1-3 dm. alta, foliis 
crassis, rigidis, glaucis, ovatis ovalibus vel obovatis, distincte 
sed hreviter petiolatis, cauli subtereti sine alls, simplici vel sub- 
simplici (aliquando minus ramoso) ; foliis cum margine striguloso, 
basi rotundatis vel subcordatis, omnibus fere aequali magnitudine, 
divaricatis vel erectiusculis 5-13 mm. longis 3-6 mm. latis. Flores 
calice subcylindrico vel cylindrico-campanulato, subsessili minute 
ad basim bibracteato, pedunculo fructifero i mm. longo, dentibus 
calicis apice rotundatis mucronatis; appendicibus erectis vel 
divaricatis, lanceolatis, subulatis, dentes calicis duplo excedentibus : 
Flores quoque pauci axillares tantum 2-10, binis oppositis, in 
unoquoque cauli vel ramo elongate; petalis purpureis vel pallidis 
oblongis; staminibus subaequalibus exserta usque 2 mm., et in 
aliis plantis cum stylo aequemodo exserto et staminibus inclusis. 
Petioli, calix, et nodi purpurei sunt. 

Plant, erect or ascending, perennial very slender 1-3 dm. 
high from slender woody repent rootstocks or runners. Stem 
subterete usually simple or but little branched purplish with 
scarcely any trace of wings or angles and only a minutely raised 
white line descending from both sides of the leaf insertions. 
Leaves thick rigid, roughish margined, ovate, oval, or sometimes 
obovate distinctly though short-petioled, rounded or subcordate 
at the base and obtuse at the apex, all on the same shoot nearly 
equal in size, spreading or slightly erect. 5-13 mm. long and 3-6 
mm. wide. Calyx subcylindric gradually widened upward nearly 
sessile with two linear membranous bracts at the base, pedicel 
about I mm. long in fruit, bibracteolate at the middle. Calyx 
segments rounded mucronate appendages, lanceolate subulate 
twice as long. Petals pale purplish, oblong two-thirds as long as 

to the plant of Engelmann. The plant to which Shuttleworth applied 
the name in MS. is, however, quite a different plant from L. ovalifolium. 
Owing to this peculiar condition of things there may arise doubt as to the 
use of the name L. flagellare for Suttleworth's plant, when its first use was 
that of a synonym for L. ovafoUlium. We prefer to keep vShuttleworth's 
inedited name at the same time establish the identity of the plants. 

Should nomenclatorial quibblefs consider L. flagellare inapplicable we 
suggest as a second choice L. tenue for the plant here for the first time 
described, as far as we know. 



270 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

the calyx tube and rather narrow. Leaves glaucous, the petioles 
calyx and nodes of the stem purple glaucescent. Flowers few solitary 
in opposite axils in 1-5 pairs only. The stems then produce 
several flowerless nodes and branches above, the branches again 
producing few opposite solitary on their upper ends. Stamens 
subequal exserted about 2 mm. in short-styled plants, the styles 
equally exserted in plants with included stamens. 

Plant readily distinguished from L. ovalifolmm by its habit 
and woody stems, L. ovalifolium is an herb with the habit of L. 
alatum. Its leaves are different in shape the lower obovate or even 
suborbicular and all thin and membranous, the stems winged. 
L. flagellar e somewhat shrubby at least below blooms with only 
a few flowers on the stems which soon elongate and branch. L. 
ovalijolium though at first simple later branches diffusely and 
blooms successively and indefinitely becoming about 3 dm. high. 
The calyx is shorter and comparatively wider. The shape and 
texture of the leaves distinguishes it at a glance from L. parvulnm, 
though the habit of the two is more nearly similar. 

Good examples of L. flagcllare in the U. S. Herbarium are 
numbers 442240, S. M. Tacy's 7594 labelled L. flagellar e Shuttlew. 
Brandentown, .Fla., July 20, 1901. Also two other specimens 
from Florida collected in 1890 by J. H. Simpson in the Herbarium 
of the U. S. Dept. of Agriculture; also A. P. Garber's No. 21, 
labelled L. Hyssopifolia L. Sarasota June, 1878 (No. ^■\9TJ5 ^ilso 
in the same herbarium). 

These two have been hitherto confounded under L. ovalijolium' 
Engelm, a very difTerent plant from different region. Lindheimer's 
plant No. 609 "Fl Texana exsiccata" is typical L. ovalifolium 
as described by Gray as /,. alatum var. ovalifolium in " Plantae 
Lindheimerianae." Another such typical specimen is A. A. Heller's 
collected in Texas, Kerrville; 1885 U. S. Herbarium No. 214035. 
No. 502167 U. S. Herbarium collected by Ijndheimer in 1809 
at Commanche Spring, New Rraunfels, Tex. These two were 
carefully examined and compared with the original descriptions 
of publicaton and found to differ totally in material respects 
from L. parvulum as also from L. flagellar e. 

Department of Botany, 
Univ. of Notre Dame, Ind. 

2 Engelmann in A. Gray, Boston Jr. Nat. Hist. VI., p. 187, (1850). 

3 p. 187. Walpers Ann., 2, p. 539. 



MIGRATION OF OUR BIRDS IN SPRIN(; 27 1 

MIGRATION OF OUR BIRDS IN THE SPRING 

OF 1913. 



BY BROTHER ALPHONSUS, C. S. C. 

It has been stated by some writers that the Bluebird is not 
our earliest spring migrant. My observations for nine years show 
that in this locality this species is usually the first to arrive in 
spring, my record for the present year being the earliest I have 
ever made for the species. 

The dates of arrival for the Robin, Song vSparrow, Meadow- 
lark, Killdeer, Bronzed Grackle are a week later than the usual 
time for these species to arrive. Cold weather and snow were 
the cause of the delay of these species. 

The Golden-crowned Kinglet, Phoebe, Cowbird, Kingfisher, 
Field Sparrow, Mourning Dove and Redwinged Blackbird arrived 
on dates that are usual ones for these species to appear. Warm 
weather, following soon after the arrival of the Robin, was the 
i^ason that made these birds come a week or more earlier than 
they would have done if it was cold and stormy. 

In April the weather continued warm for the season and the 
dates for nearly all the species that arrived in this month were 
regular. This year several species that usually arrive in May 
appeared in April. Such were the Baltimore Oriole, Yellow Warbler 
and Redstart. 

In May the following species showed exactly the same dates 
as in 191 2: Kingbird, 3; Crested Ffycatcher, 6; Chestnuted-sided 
Warbler, 5. In the dates of the following for 19 12, there was 
but one day's difference from 1913: Chinmey Swift, i; Orchard 
Oriole, 4; Black-throated Green Warbler, 3. The following 
showed eight days or more between the dates of the two years: 
Scarlet Tanager, Cedarbird, White-crowned Sparrow, Red-eyed 
Vireo, Red-breasted Nuthatch, Magnolia, Black-poll and Black 
burnian Warblers, Wood Pewee. The difference in days for the 
same years for the following is indicated by the number after the 
name of the species: Nashville Warbler, 3 ; Bay-breasted Warbler, 
3; Canadian Warbler, 4. The Tennessee and Sycamore 
Warblers were not observed this spring. 

Two species whose dates of migration are found in June are 



272 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

the Purple Martin and Yellow-throated Vireo. The explanation 
I should offer for the lateness of the Yellowthroat is that this 
species is locally distributed and its appearance in some places 
is only occasional. But you may ask, how does that account 
for its absence as a migrant when most other species are readily 
found? I should answer that the species is not abundant any- 
where near our locality and that the individuals which migrated 
in our vicinity went directly along their route to their summer 
homes. 

As to the Purple Martin, I am sure that my date, June i, is 
not correct for the species, for formerly the first Martins appeared 
here late in April. No suitable nesting places are any longer 
available for the birds at Notre Dame, which have all left the 
locality and now nest in the neighboring city of South Bend. 
But the dates given for these two species are interesting as showing 
when they were first seen by a daily observer of bird-life within 
a restricted territory. 

The writer made his largest record of migrating birds this 
spring, and had he been more fortunate in his observation of the 
warbler family, the number would probably have exceeded a 
hundred migrants. 

February. 
15 Northern Shrike 24 Brown Creeper 

19 Bluebird 

March. 



9 Robin 


19 


Golden-crowned Kinglet 


1 1 Song Sparrow 


19 


Phoebe 


12 Meadowlark 


20 


Cowbird 


12 Killdeer 


22 


Kingfisher 


12 Bronzed Crackle 


22 


Field Sparrow 


15 Herring Gull 


23 


Mourning Dove 


15 Canada Goose 


25 
April 


Red-winged Blackbird 


I Flicker 


6 


Towliee 


I Chickadee 


8 


Loggerhead Shrike 


2 Vesper Sparrow 


10 


Golden-crowned Kinglet de 


3 Sapsucker 




parted 


5 Fox Sparrow 


1 1 


Barn Swallow 


6 Tree Sparrow departe 


d 12 


Brown Thrasher 



MIGRATION OF OUR BIRDS IN SPRING 



273 



15 Chipping Sparrow 

16 Ruby-crowned Kinglet 
16 Chicken Hawk 

18 Pine Warbler 

18 Myrtle Warbler 

19 Fox Sparrow departed 

19 Hermit Thrush 

20 Redstart 

21 White-throated Sparrow 

22 Tennessee Warbler 
22 Yellow Palm Warbler 
22 House Wren 



22 Brown Creeper departed 

23 Goldfinch 

23 Red-breasted Nuthatch 

23 Swamp Sparrow 

24 Sapsucker departed 
24 Spotted Sandpiper 
26 Warbling Vireo 

28 Short-billed Marsh Wren 

28 Sparrow Hawk 

29 Baltimore Oriole 

30 Yellow Warbler 
30 vSnowbird departed 



May. 



I Whip-poor-will 

1 Screech Owl 

2 Chimney Swift 

2 Black-throated Green War- 

bler 

3 Catbird 
3 Kingbird 

3 Orchard Oriole 

3 Ruby-crowned Knight de- 

parted 

4 Cardinal 

5 Bobolink 

5 Chestnut-sided Warbler 
5 Water Thrush 

5 Rose-breasted Grosbeak 

6 Prairie Warbler 

6 Blue Gray Gnatcatcher 
6 Nashville Warbler 

6 Crested Flycatcher 

7 Yellow Rail 

7 White-crowned Sparrow 

9 Black and White Warbler 

9 Alder Flycatcher 

9 Red-eyed Vireo 
10 Tree Swallow 
10 Blue-headed Vireo 



1 1 Blackhurmian Warbler 

12 Least Flycatcher 

13 Scarlet Tanager 

14 Wood Pewee 

15 Myrtle Warbler departed 

16 Cape May Warbler 

16 Red-breasted Nuthatch 
16 Bay-breasted Warbler 
16 White-crowned Sparrow de- 
parted 
16 Magnolia Warbler 
16 Nighthawk 
16 Yellow-billed Cuckoo 

16 Cedarbird 

17 Black poll Warbler 

17 Yellow Palm Warbler de- 
parted 

17 Red-breasted Nuthatch de- 
parted 

21 White-throated Sparrow de- 
parted 

2 1 Black-billed Cuckoo 

23 Canadian Warbler. 

23 Kentucky Warbler 

23 Bay-breasted Warbler de- 
parted 



274 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

24 Black and White Warbler 28 Hummingbird 

departed 2S Carolina Wren 

24 Black-throated Green War- 29 Water Thrush departed 

bier departed 29 Black-poll Warbler departed 

25 Magnolia Warblre departed 29 Redstart departed 

25 Chestnut-sided Warbler de- 30 Blue-headed Vireo departed 

parted 30 Least Flycatcher departed 

25 Canadian Warbler departed 30 Hermit Thrush departed 

27 Yellow-breasted Chat 30 Maryland Yellowthroat 

27 Yellow-bellied Flycatcher 

June. 

I Purple Martin 18 Yellow-throated Vireo 

7 Bob white 

Total number of migrants seen, 92. 



NOTES ON OUR LOCAL PLANTS.— VI. 



BY J. A. NIEUWLAND. 



ORDER 24. CARYOPHYLLINEAE. 

Bartling, Ord. Nat. p. 295 (1830) Bart, and Wend., II., 
p. 137 (1824-5.) 

Ccntrospcrmae Engler in Engler and Prantl, Pflanzanfam. 
Nachtr. p. 346 (1897), Engler, Fuhrer Bot. Gart. Breslau, p. 36 
(1836), Chenopodiales Britton, Manual, p. 367 (1901). Caryophyl- 
leae Lond. Hort. Britt. Cat. p. 501 (1830) (?). 

Family 53. SALSOLACEAE Linnaeus,. Classes 
Plantar. (1738). 

Holeraceae Linnaeus, Phil. Bot. p. 2i2) (i750> also (1755). 
Oleraceae Zinn, Cat. Hort Gott., p. 25 (1757) in part. Chen- 
opodeae Vent. Tabl. \\, p. 253 1799), Salsolaceae Moq. in DC. 
Prod. XIII, 2, p. 41 (1849), Chenopodiaceae Less, in Linnaea IX, 
p. 196 (1834), Cheiropodiaceae Daubeny, Lect. Rom. Husbandry, 

P- 314 (1857)- 

BOTRYS Dioscorides III; 130, Pliny Nat. Hist. XXVII :8, 
31, also Bauhin, Pinax, p. 138 (1623), Chenopodimn Tabernaemon- 



NOTES ON OUR LOCAL PLANTS 275 

tanus ex C. Bauhin Pinax, p. 119 (1623) Chenopodium Tour., 
Els. p. 406 (1694^ I. R. H. p. 506 (1700), Blitum and Atriplex 
sps. of the older authors, Chenopodium Linnaeus Syst. (1735), 
Gen. p. 67 (1737). p. 103 (1754), Vuharia Bubani Fl. Pyr. I, 
174 (1897), Vulvaria Dalchamps, Hist. p. 543 (1587), Botrydium 
Spach, Hist. 1. c. p. 295, and Chenopodium Spach 1. c. p. 300. 
Not Botrydium Wallroth (1815). 

Botrys aromatica (Spach). 

Botrydium aromaticum Spach, 1. c. Chenopodium Botrys Linn. 
Sp. PI., p. 219 (1753), Vulvaria Botrys (Linn.) Bubani 1. c. p. 177. 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke), Lake Co. (Hill), Clarke, 
Ind. (Umbach), Nos. 11332, Notre Dame, Ind., 11336, Sagunay, 
Laporte Co. 

Botrys ambrosioides (C. Bauhin). 

Chenopodium ambrosioides *{C Bauhin) Linn., Sp. PL, p. 214. 

Botrys ambrosioides mexiocana C. Bauhin, Pinax, p. 138, 
(1623), Ambrina ambrosioides, Spach, Hist. Nat. Veg., V. p. 
297 (1836). Vulvaria ambrosioides Bubani, 1. c. p. 178. 

Botrys anthelmintica (Linn.). 

Chenopodium anthelminticum Linn., Sp. PI., p. 220 (1753), 
Chenopodium ambrosioides var. anthelminticum A. Gray, Man. 
Ed. 5, p. 408 (1867), Ambrina anthelmintica Spach, 1. c. p. 298. 

Millers, Ind. 

Botrys glauca (Linn.) 

Chenopodium glaucum Linn., vSp. PL, p. 220 (1753), Blitum 
glaucum Koch, Syn. Fl. Germ., p. 608 (1837). 

Millers (Umbach). 

Botrys hybrida (Linn.). 

Chenopodium hybridum Linn., Sp. PL, p. 219 (1753). 

Lake Maxinkuckee, (H. W. Clarke), Lake Co. (Deam), Nos. 
1 1713, 10335, 10418 Notre Dame, Ind. 

Botry leptophylla (Moq.). 

Chenopodium leptophyllum (Moq.) Nutt., in DC. Prod. XIIL 
2, p. 71 (1849), Chenopodium album var. leptophyllum Moq. 1. d. 

Nos. 9706 Dune Park, Ind., 10237 Mineral Springs, Porter 
Co. I have found the pUnt as far east as Hudson Lake, Laporte 
Co. It is spreading wherever there is sandy soil not far from 
Lake Michigan. Its presence at Hudson Lake is accounted for 
doubtless because of the sandy soil of this rather large inlake. 

Botrys bosciana (Moq.) 



276 AMERICAN MIDLANR NATURALIST 

Chenopodium boscianum- Moq., Itnum. Chen. p. 21 (1840). 

No. 1 1528 Notre Dame, Ind. 

Botrys alba (Linn.). 

Chenopodium album Linn., Sp. PL, p. 219 (1753). 

Lake Co. (Deam), Laporte Co. (Deam), Nos. 1986 Notre 
Dame, Ind. (Powers), 10419 Notre Dame, Ind., 11351 Hudson 
Lake. 

Botrys Berlandieri (Moq.) 

Chenopodium Berlandieri Moq. 1. c. p. 23. 

No. 11350 Hudson Lake, Ind. The leaves of this specimen 
are nearly all decussate. 

BLITUM Hippocrates, Affect., 526, Theophrastus, Hist. 
PI., 1:9, Dioscprides, 11:143, Pliny, XX:93," Galen, II:i, etc. 

Blitum Tragus, Camerarius, Dodonaeus, Matthioli, Lobelius, 
Caesalpinus, Gerarde, Anguillara, Tabernaemontanus, Brunfels, 
ere. Blitum Tour., Els., P. 407 (1694), I. R. H., p. 507 (1700), 
Polysporon Linnaeus, Syst. (1735), Gen., p. 6 (1754), Gen., p. 
20 (1737), Chenopodio-Morus Boerhaave, Ind. Alt. PI. p. 91 (1727), 
Morocarpus Ruppius, Fl. Jen., p. 271 (1727), Polysporon Lobelius 
Hist., p. 128 also Anguillara. 

Blitum capitatum Linn., Sp. PI., p. 4, (1753). 

Chenopodium capitatum Aschers., Fl. Brand., p. 572 (1864), 
Morocarpus major Ruppius, 1. c. 

Nos. 1 1 248, 11253 Notre Dame, Ind. 

^ri^/PLEA' Hippocrates, Theophrastus, VII :i, PHny XX:20, 
Columella III:ii, X:377, Dioscorides 11:145. ■ 

Atriplex Tragus, Dodonaeus, Lobelius, Caesalpinus, Fuchs, 
Castor Durante, Anguillara, Matthioli, Ruellius, Marcellus Ver- 
gilius, Gesner, V. Cordus, Lonicer, Camerarius, Thalius, etc., 
Atriplex Tour., Els., p. 405 (1694), I. R. H., p. 505 (1700), Linn., 
vSyst.. (1735). <^'^en., p. 317 (i737)> Gen., p. 472 (1754). 

Atriplex hastata Linn., Sp. PI., p. 1053 (1753). 
' Atriplex patula Linn., Sp. PI., p. 1053, 1. c. Atriplex littoralis 
Linn., 1. c. p. 1054, Atriplex patulum var. hastatum A. Gray, Man., 
Ed. 5, p. 405 (1867). 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke), Clarke, Ind. (Umbach), 
Hudson Lake, Laporte Co. 

CYCLOLOMA Moq., Enum. Chen., p. 17 (1840). 

' Daubeny thinks that the liliton of Dioscorides is Amaroutlius Blitum 
JLect., p. .^15, Fee, Panckouck, Ruliani to the contrary. 



. NOTES ON OUR LOCAI< PLANTS 277 

Cycloloma atriplicifolia (Sprengel) Coulter, Mem. Torr. CI. 
V, p. 143 (1894). 

Kochia atriplicifolia Sprengel, Nachtr. Fl. Hal. 2, p. 35 (1801) 
Cycloloma platyphyllum Moq., 1. c. 

Lake Co. (Deam), Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke), La- 
porte Co. (Deam), Dune Park (Umbach), Lake Maxinkuckee 
(H. W. Clarke), Laporte Co. (Deam), Dune Park (Umbach), 
Nos. 9184 Millers, also 9183 from the same place with perfectly 
green flowers, 9696 Dune Park. I have found it in Laporte, Porter 
and Berrien Cos. 

CORISPERMUM Jussieu, Act., p. 244 (17 12). 

Corispermum Linn., Syst. (1735); Gen., p. i (1737), Dillenius 
Gen., p. 160 (1719), Corispermum Linn., Gen. p. 5 (1754), Rha- 
grostis Buxbaum, Cent., Ill, p. 30 (1729). 

Corispermum hyssopifolium Jussieu, 1. c. also Linnaeus and 
Dillenius. 1. c. 

Lake Co. (Deam) (Hill), Porter Co. (Cowles), Millers (Umbach), 
South Haven (L. H. Bailey), Nos. 9540, 1925b, Millers. Found 
also in Berrien, Laporte, Lake and Porter Cos. 

Corispermum hyssopifolium var. nitidum Kit., I have found 
at Millers, Ind., (No. 1925 U. N. D. Herb.) 

SALSOLA Caesalpinus [Herb. Tornab., 205:571 (1563)] De 
Plantis, p. 170 (1583). 

Kali C. Bauhin, Pinax, p. 289 (1623), also Dodonaeus, Lo- 
belius, Dalechamps, Camerarius, Matthioli, etc. Perhaps an older 
name than Salsola both of barbarous origin and form, being the 
name of a chemical and therefore objectional. Anthylloides Thalius 
Sylv. Here, p. 16 (1588), Alcali Gesner Hort. Germ. (1561), 
[?(Tragus Dioscorides IV:5i, Pliny XXI:i3, 116)? See Bubani 
Fl. Pyr. I, p. 162-164.] I'^ali Tour. Els. p. 213 (1694), L R. H. 
p. 237 (1700), Salsola Linn, Syst. (1735), Gen. p. 67 (1737), p. 

104 (1754) 

Salsola pestifer A. Nelson, Rocky Mt. Bot., P. 169, (1909). 

Lake Co. (Deam), Whiting, Ind., (Moffatt), Laporte Co. 
(Deam). I have found it in Berrien, Laporte, Lake and St. Joseph 
Cos. On sandy fields west of South Bend it is very abundant and 
a great niusance to farmers. I have seen large plants over a foot 
in diameter after being uprooted blown about the streets of the 
city by the prevailing west winds of this region. This occurs almost 
annually of late years especially in winter and early spring when 



278 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

the plants are most easily loosened from the soil. The seed is 
thus scattered broadcast. 

Family 54. AMARANTHOIDEAE Vent., Tabl. 11, 
p. 264, (1799)- 

Amarantaceae, Jussieu, Ann. Mus. Paris, II, p. 131 (1803). 

GALLIARIA Bubani. Fl. Pyr., I, p. 184 (1897). 

Amaranthus Linn, Syst., (1735), Gen., p. 286 (1737), p. 427 
(1754), Amaranthus Tour., Els., p. 201 (1694), I. R. H., p. 234 
(1700), not Amarantus Pliny XXI :8, 23, and of the ancients which 
is Celosia Linn. 

Galliaria retroflexa (Linn.) 

Amaranthus retroflexiis Linn. vSp. PL, p. 991 (1753), CialUaria 
scabra Bubani 1. c. p. 187. 

Millers (Umbach), Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke), No. 
11709 Studebaker's Woods S. of South Bend, Ind. Found in all 
of the counties within the region. 

Galliaria spinosa (Linn.) 

Amaranthus spinosus Linn. 1. c. 

Millers (Umbach), found also at South Bend, Ind. 

Galliaria hybrida (Linn.). 

Amaranthus hydhidus Linn. 1. c. p. 990. 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke), Millers (Umbach). 
Found also in Laportc, Berrien, and St. Joseph Cos. 

Galliaria blitoides (S. Watson). 

Amaranthus blitoides vS. Watson, Proc. Am. Acad. XII, p. 
273 (1877). 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke), South Haven, Van Buren 
Co. (L. H. Bailey), found also in Berrien, Porter, Laporte, vSt. 
Joseph Cos. 

Galliaria graecizans (Linn.). 

Amaranthus graecizans Linn., 1. c. p. 990. Amaranthus albus 
Linn. Sp. PI., p. 1404 (1763), Galliaria albida Bubani 1. c. p. 185. 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke), Lake Co. (Deam), Nos. 
10423, Hudson Lake, 11496, 117 10, S. of South Bend. 

AMARANTHUS Pliny XXI :8. 

Amaranthus Dodonaeus Hist. PI. p. 125 (1557), Kd. C. Clusius 
also Castor Durante, Caesalpinus, Gesner, Lobelius, Tabernae- 
montanus, etc. Not Amarantliiis Linnaeus, Celosia Linnaeus, Gen. 
p. 34 (1737), p. 96 (1754), Psittacus Heister. 



NOTES ON OUR LOCAL PLANTS 279 

Amaranthus purpureus Dodonaeus, 1. c. (1557). 

Amaranthus cristatiis Camerarius Kpit. 792, also Noronha 
(1790). Qelosia cristata Linn., Sp. PI., p. 205 (1753). 

I have seen it as an escape from gardens in the west end 
of South Bend where it is extensively cultivated by foreigners. 

ACNIDA Mitchell, ex Linn., Act. Ups., "1741" (1746) 
Mitchell, Act. Ac. Leop. Carol., VIII and App. "1741" (1748). 
p. 28 also (1769) Acnida Linn., Gen., p. 453 (1754), Linn., Am. Acad. 
Ill, p. 18 (1756). For a discussion of the priority see Kuntze, 
O., Rev. Gen. I, p. 519 (1891). 

Acnida tamariscina (Nutt.) Wood, Bot. and Flor., p. 289, 
(1873). Amaranthus iamarascina Nutt., Trans. Am. Phil? Soc. 
II, 5, 165 (1833-37) Clarke, Ind. (Umbach), Lake Co. (Deam). 

Acnida tuberculata Moq., DC, Prod., XIII, 2, p. 278, (1849). 
Nos. 673, 1 1484, Notre Dame, Ind. 

Family 55. PHYTOLACCEAE R. Brown, Tuskey, 

Congo, p. 453 (181 8), also Bartling Ord. Nat., 

p. 299 (1830). 

Phytolaccaceae Lindley, Nat. Syst., Ed. 2, p. 210 (1836). 

PHYTOLACCA Tour., Els., p. 248 (1694), I- R- H., p. 299 
(1700). 

Phytolacca Dillenius, Hort. Elth., p. 218 (1732), Linn., Syst., 
(1735)- Gen., p. 136 (1737). Hort. Cliff., p. 177 (1737), Gen., p. 
200 (1754). 

Phytolacca americana Tour., Els., 1. c. (1694). 

Phytolacca vulgaris Dillen., 1. c. Phytolacca decandra Linn., 
Sp. PI., p. 63 (1753), Phytolacca americana Linn., Sp. PI., 1. c. p. 441. 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke) (Deam), Laporte Co. 
(Deam), I have found the plant in all the counties. 

Family 56. CORRIGIOLACEAE Reichenb., Moessl. 
Hand., I. 1. p. 51, (1827). 

Paronychieae Bartling, Ord. Nat., p. 300 (1830), also Lond. 
Hort. Brit. p. 517 (1830), Paronychiaceae Daubeny, Lect. Rom. 
Husbandry, p. 308 (1857). 

ANYCHIA Michx., Fl. Bor. Am., I, p. 112 (1803). 

Anychia canadensis (Linn.) B. S. P., Prel. Cat. N. Y., (1888). 

Guerezia canadensis Linn., Sp. PL, p. 90 (1753), Queria cana- 
densis Britton, III, Fl. N. Am., II, p. 40 (1897), Queria capillaceq 



28o AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

Nutt., Gen., I. p. 159 (1818), Anychia capillacea DC, Prod., Ill, 
p. 369 (1828), Anychia dichoioma Mich., 1. c, p. 113. 

Lake Maxinkuckce (H. W. Clarke), No. Notre Dame, Ind., 
11493, II 257, S. of South Bend, Ind. 

SCLERANTHUS Linn., Syst., (1735) [Nomen Tantum] Gen., 
P- 131 (1737). Hort. CliflF., p. 166 (1737)- 

Knawel Dodonaeus, Dillcnius, Boerhaave, Ray, Ruppius, 
(Nomen barbarum) Scleranthus Linn., Gen., p. 190 (1754). Knavelia 
Heister, Syst., p. 11, (1748) Knautia Fabricius, Heist., Fl. Helm., 
p. 358 (1759)? Knavel Adans., Fam., II., p. 506 (1763). 

Scleranthus annuus Linn., Sp. PI., p. 406 (1753). 

Knavel annuum Scopoli, Fl. Carn. Ed., II, 1. p. 298 (1772). 

Nos. 9315 SW. of vSouth Bend, Ind., near Lost Lake, 11735 
Warwick State boundary, 91 16, 9103, 2007, 6063, N. of Notre 
Dame, Ind., at Webster's station. Has become a weed at the 
last place. 

Family 56. NYCTAGINEAE Vent., Tabl. II, p. 271 (1799). 

Nyctaginaceae Lindley, Nat. Syst., Ed. 2, p. 213 (1S36). 

ALLIONIA Loefling, Linn., Syst. Ed., 10 (1759). 

Oxybaphus L'Her., Willd., vSp. PL, I, p. 185 (1797). 

Alliona nyctaginea Michx., Fl, Bor. Am., I, p. 100 (1803). 

Oxybaphus nyctagineus Sweet, Hort. Brit., p. 429 (1830). 

No. 9350 N. of Notre Dame, Ind., on the M. C. R. R. Very 
common along railroads especially the Lake Shore R. R. west 
of South Bend. 

ADMIRABILIS Clusius, Pannon., p. 395 (1583). 

Jalap Tour., Els. p. 105 (1694), Jalapa Tour., I. R. R., p. 
129 (1700), Mirabilis (Riv.) Linn., Syst., (1735), Gen., p. 49 (1737), 
p. 82 (1754), Nyctage Royen, Lugd., p. 417 (1740). 

Admirabilis peruana Clusius 1. c. also Hist. Rar. PL (1601). 

Mirabilia peruviana Gerard, Herb., (1597). Mirabilis peru- 
viana Ray, Hist., p. 398 (1668) Mirabile peruvianum Morison, Hist, 
III, p. 598. Miribilis Jalapa Linn., Sp. PL, p. 177 (1753). 

Plants were found near old dump piles south of the city of 
vSouth Bend. That it may escape seems possible from the fact 
that the plant sows itself readily and regularly at Notre Dame in 
gardens where it was watched for the last five years. 



NOTES ON OUR LOCAL PLANTS 28 I 

Family 57. AIZOACEAE Br., Aschers., Fl. Brand., p. 
60, (1864). 

MOLLUGO Linn., Gen., p. 336 (1737), Hort. Cliff., p. 28 

(1737). P- 39 (1754)- 

MoUugo verticillata Linn., Sp. PL, p. 89, (1753). 

Lake Maxinkuckec (H. W. Clarke), Clarke, Ind., (Umbach), 
Lake Co. (Hill), Laporte Co., (Deam), No. 1975 Notre Dame, 
Ind., (Powers). I have found it in every county in the region. 

Family 58. PORTULACEAE Jussieu, Gen., p. 312 (1789) 

Portulaccaceac Reichenb., Consp., p. 161 (1828). 
TALINUM Adans., Fam. PI. H, p. 245 (1763). 
Talinum teretifolium Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept., p. 365, (18 18). 
Millers, Tolleston, Pine, Gibsons, Lake Co. (Higdon and 
Raddin). Lake Co. (Hill). 

CLAYTON I A Gronovius, Linn., Gen. PL, p. 339 (1737). 
Claytonia Gronovius, Fl. Virg. p. (1739), Linn., Gen., p. 

97 (1754)- 

Claytonia virginica Linn., Sp. PL, p. 204 (1753). 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke), Mineral Springs (Deam), 
Laporte Co. (Deam) Nos. 2016 Notre Dame (Powers), 341 1, 2492, 
Notre Dame, 402 Websters. I have found it in all the counties. 

PORTULACCA Plin', XX:2o. 

Andrachne Theophrastus, Caus. PL, I:io, 4, Hist., 1:8, 15, 4, 
Dioscorides 11:150, Portulacca Brunfels, Gerarde, Matthioli, 
Lobelius, Castor Durante, Tabernaemontanus, Turner, Cordus, 
Lonicer, Anguillara, Camerarius, Dodonaeus, Gesner, Marcellus 
Vergilius, Caesalpinus, Tragus, Fuchs, etc.. Portulacca Tour., 
Els., p. 203 (1694), L R. H., p. 236 (1700), Linn., Syst., (1735), 
Gen., p. 122 (1737), p. 204 (1754). 

Portulacca sylvestris Fuchs Hist. Stirp., p. 113 (1542), p. 42, 
(1546), p. 63 (1549) also Portulacca sylvestris Tragus, Matthioli, 
Anguillara, Dodonaeus, Camerarius, etc., Portulacca oleracea var. 
B. Linn., Sp. PL, p. 445 (1753), Portulacca arvensis Tabernaemon- 
Anguillara, Dodonaeus, Camerarius, etc., Portulacca oleracea vai. 
[i Linn., Sp. PL, p. 445 (1753), Portulacca arvensis Tabernaemon- 
tanus Portulacca minor Gesner, also Camerarius, Hort. Med. 
p. 131 (1588). 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke). I have found the plant 
in all the counties of the region. 



282 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

Portulacca grandiflora Hooker, Bot. Mag., PI. 2885, (1829). 
I have found it as an escape from gardens at Notre Dame, Ind. 

Family 59. ALSINEAE Bartling, Ord. Nat. p. 304 (1830). 

Alsinoideac A. Br., Aschers., Fl. Brand., I, p. 60 (1864). 
Alsineaceae Bubani, Fl. Pyr., Ill, p. 22 (1901). 

ALSJNE Dioscorides, IV 75, Pliny, XXV :ii. 

Alsine Matthioli, Anguillara, Lacuna, Lonicer, Lobellius, 
Castor Durante, Fuchs, Dodonaeus, Tabernaemontanus, Gerarde, 
Thalius, Camerarius, Gesner, etc., etc., Alsine Tour., Els., p. 208, 
1694, I. R. H., p. 242 (1700) Alsine Linn., Syst., (1735), Gen., 
p. 133 (1337), [Alsine and Stellaria Gen., p. 132 and 193 (1754)]. 

Alsine media Fuchs Hist. Stirp., p. lob (1546). 

Alsine media Dodonaeus, Hist. PI., Ed. C. Clusius, p. 40 (1557), 
Camerarius Hort. Med. p. 11 (1588), C. Bauhin Pinax, p. 250 
(1623), Tour., Els., p. 205 (1694), I. R. H., p. 242 (1700), Alsine 
minor Dodonaeus Pempt., p. 29 (1583), also Thalius, Sylv. Here, 
p. II (1588), Hippia minor Dodonaeus Tr. Pr. Stirp. Hist., p. 

150 (1553)- 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke) 2057 Notre Dame (Powers). 
The plant is found throughout the whole region. It blooms the 
whole year round, a few sunny days in the middle of winter being 
sufficient to bring out the flowers. 

Alsine graminea Linn., and Hesselgren, Pan Suecus in Am. 
Acad. I, p. 248 (1751). 

Stellaria graminea Linn., Sp. PL, p. 412 (1753), Alsine graminea 
Britton, Mem. Torr. CI. V, p. 150 (1894). 

Lake Co. (Deam), Michigan City, Laporte Co., C. D. Mell. 

Alsine longifolia (Muhl.) Britton, Mem. Torr. CI., V, p. 
150 (1894). 

Stellaria longifolia Muhl., Willd., Enum. Hort. Berol. pp. 
479 (1809). 

Clarke, Ind., (Umbach. Nos. 36, 896 3433, Notre Dame, 
Ind. The latter found by Powers, 578 Terre Coupee (St. Joseph 
Co.), 1 1073 Benton Harbor, (Berrien Co.). 

Alsine longipes (Goldie) Coville, Cotn. Nat. Nerb. IV, p. 
70 (1894). 

Stellaria longipes Goldie, Edinb. Phil. Jr. VI, p. 327 (1822). 

St. Joseph Co. (Rothert), No. 2058, Notre Dame, (Powers). 

CERASriUM Dillenius, Cat. PI. Giss., p. 41, etc. (1718). 



SOME COMMON BIRDS 283 

Cerastmm Linn., (1735), Gen., p. 134 (1737), p. 199 (1754), 
Hort Cliff., p. 147 (1737), Myosotis Tour., Els., p. 210 (1694), 
I. R. H., p. 244 (1700), not Myosotis of the ancients. 

Cerastium viscosum Linn., and Hesselgren, Pan Suecus, Am. 
Acad., n, p. 248 (1752), also Linn., Sp. PL, p. 437 (1753). 

Benton Harbor, Mich. 

Cerastium vulgatum Linn., Sp. PI., p. 627 (1762). 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke), Laporte Co. (Deam). 
(To be continued.) 



SOME COMMON BIRDS. 



BY VICTOR CARPKNTER. 



Red- Winged Blackbird. 

Agelaius phoenicens 

Blackbird Family. 

Syn. Swamp blackbird. 

Length, g.50 inches. 

Color. Male, velvet black, greenish tint; shoulders of crimson. 
Female, brownish above ; beneath white streaked with dirty brown. 

Song. Varied and hard to describe; common note, "con- 
curr-ee"; mingling of gutteral creaking utterances. 

Nest. Generally in low bushes; well made from reeds and 
lined with grasses and sedges. 

Eggs. Light blue blotched or scrawled with black or dark 
purple; very varying. 

Habitat. U. S. from coast to coast. 

Specific habitat. Marshes and low ground. 

Migration. March 15 to last of October. 

Brown Thrasher. 
Harporhyncus rufus 
Thrasher Family. 
Syn. Brown thrush. 
Length. 11.40 inches. 

Color. Upper parts reddish brown; under parts white and 
spotted with brown; eyes yellow. 

Song. Clear and well defined; can be heard over a third 
of a mile; very beautiful. 



584 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

Nest. Placed on ground or a little above it; generally in hedges. 
Eggs. Bluish white; thickly speckled with minute specks of 
reddish or cinnamon brown. 

Habitat. The central states; 

Sepcific habitat. Brush or hedge patches. 

Migration. Middle of April till October. 

Bluu Jay. 
Cyanocitta cristata. 

Crow Family. 

Syn. Jay bird. 

Length. 11.50 inches. 

Color. Above, light purplish blue; wings and tail feathers 
bright blue; tail banded with black, tipped with white; light 
purplish blue on throat; a crescent shaped blotch of black on 
breast and half around neck. Female, much duller. 

Song. No real song; good mimic of songs and notes of other 
birds. Bell-like note; many harsh notes; a loud haw^k-note. 

Nest. Rude, about twenty feet from ground; composed of 
twigs, etc., lined with roots. 

Eggs. Five in number; light olive green, marked with spots 
of brown. 

Habitat. Eastern N. America to Missouri valley. 

vSpecific habitat. Oakgroves in settled places. 

Migration. No regular migration. 

Food. Tent caterpillars, other worms and insects in summer; 
in winter acorns and beech mast. 

Barn Swallow. 

Chelidon erythrogaster. 

Length. 7 inches. 

Color. Upper parts and sides of breast steel blue; throat 
chestnut; under parts paler; tail marked with white. 

vSong. Poor efforts, but composed of happy twittering. 

Nest. Placed on a beam in an out building; made of mud 
and grasses lines with feathers. 

Eggs. Six; white, with many spots. 

Habitat. Central and eastern states. 

Migration. April 15 to vSeptember 15. 

Food. Insects taken on the wing; little if any vegetable food. 



some common birds 285 

Blue Bird. 

Sialia sialis. 
Thrush Family. 
Length. 7 inches. 

Color. Upper parts bright blue ; under parts cinnamon brown. 
Song. Low earnest warble, soft and agreeable; song ceases 
before departure in fall. 

Nest. Made in hollow tree or nesting box, of fine grasses, etc. 
Eggs. Five in number. Bluish white color. 
Habitat. Eastern \]. S. west to Rockies. 
Migration. First of March to last of October. 

Catbird. 
Galeoscoptes carolinensis 

Thrasher Family. 

Length. 8.50 inches. 

Color. Slate; cap and tail black. 

Song. Quaint attractive melody; good mimic. 

Nest. In low bushes or briars in retired spots; composed of 
leaves, dry bark, fine roots and stems, lined with fine gras.ses. 

Hsbitat. U. S. west to Rockies, north to Canada, south to 
Panama. 

Specific Habitat. Low growth, as briars, vines, etc. 

Migration. Last of April to October. 

Cedar Waxing. 
Am pel is cedrorum. 

Chatterer Family. 

Length. 7.25 inches. 

vSyn. Cedar bird. 

Color. Grayish brown; belly yellowish; end of tail yellow; 
secondaries sometimes red; black stripe through face. 

Song. Few notes. 

Nest. In low bush or tree three to twenty feet high; large 
and bulky but strong; coarse framework lined with leaves and 
soft root fibres. 

Eggs. Five or six; color, light slate to stone, tinged with 
olive; blotched with dark purplish brown; length about 75. inch. 

Habitat. All U. S. to Canada. ■ 

Food. Cedar berries, cherries, wild berries, insects, canker 
worms. 



286 american midland naturalist 

Cardinal. 

Cardinalis virginianus. 

Finch Family. 

Syn. Cardinal bird; redbird. 

Length. 8 inches. 

Color. About base of bill black; rest of plumage bright red; 
bill red. 

Song. A clear whistle. 

Nest. Four feet from ground in thick bushes; usually near 
running water ; loose, composed of dry leaves, twigs, grape vines, etc. 

Eggs. Three or four; oblong oval; white, very thickly marked 
with ashy brown; vary greatly in size. 

Habitat. Southern states; rare farther north than Central 
Indiana. 

Crow. 
Corvus americanus. 

Crow Family. 

Length. 19.30 inches. 

Color. Jet black; glossy. 

Nest. In tall trees; formed of very coarse sticks, bark, etc.; 
no lining. 

Eggs. Vary greatly in color; common, light green scattered 
with blothches of dark brown, purplish cast; 1.50 inches long. 

Habitat. U. S. from Atlantic to Pacific. 

Food. Grasshoppers, beetles, cut worms, etc.; corn to a 
small extent. 

Mourning Dovk. 
Zonaidnra macroura. ■ 

Pigeon Family. 

Syn. Carolina dove. 

Length. 12 inches. 

Color. Upper parts olive brown; breast with a pinkish tinge; 
belly buff; tail tipped with white. 

vSong. None. A sad note only. 

Nest. Platform shaped; very rude; of twigs, etc. on lower 
branch of a tree. 

Eggs. Two, white; nearly equal at both ends, about 1.25 
inches long. 

Pages 255-286 published May/5, 1914- 



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VOL. III. JULY, 1914. NO. 10. 

AMERICAN jKLlJj'LAri D 

NATURALIST 



Devoted to Natural History, Primarily 



that of the Prairie States y;,— ^ ^ 



Published by the University of Notre Dame, 

Notre Dame, Indiana N^4 

J. A. NIEUWLAND, C. S. C, Ph. D., Sc. D., Editor 




CONTENTS 

Notes on Seedlings (With 7 Plates) Richard Vogt 287 

Notes on Our Local Plants — VIL J. A. Nieuwland 289 

Some Common Birds. — II Victor Carpenter 298 

Our Birds in the Autumn of 1913 Brother Alphonsus,C. S. C. 305 

A New Variety of Sambucus J- A. Nieuwland 310 



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t For Schools and Teachers 

I or Botany 



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I Balsam methods. Filamentary forms of Algae 
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•t ' , . . ''^■ 

I The University j 

I Notre Dame, Indiana | 

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PLA TE I V. VOGT on SEEDLINGS. 




FLA TE V. VOGT on SEEDLINGS. 




PLATE VI. VOGT on SEEDLINGS. 




PLATE Vll. VOGT on SEEDLINGS. 



The American Midland Naturalist 

PUBLISHED BI-MONTHLY BY THE UNIVERSITY 
OF NOTRE DAME, NOTRE DAME, INDIANA. 



VOL. III. JULY, 1914. NO. 10. 

NOTES ON SEEDLINGS. 

(With 7 Plates.) 

BY RICHARD VOGT. 

I. — Cardamine Douglassii. 

The following is a chronological table of the nomenclature 
of this species. 

CARDAMINE (Tourn.) L. Sp. PI. 456, 1753. 

Cardamine Douglassii Britt. Trans. N. Y. Acad. vSci. 9:8, 




Arabis rhomboidea, var. purpurea. Torr. Am. Journ. Sci. 
6:44, 1882. 

Cardamine purpurea. Cham. & Schlecht. Linneaea i, 1824. 

Arabis Douglassii Torr. T. & G. Fl. N. A. 1:83, 1838 as a 
synonym. 

During the past spring the young plants were closely watched 
with the view of determining which part of the seedling formed the 
well-know^n tuber of the mature plant. The development of the 
seedling takes place as follows. 

The cotyledons are hypogeal and remain for some time en- 
veloped in the seed coat. The hypocotyl is short and of a conical 
shape terminating below in the primary root (Plate IV). The 
epicotyl in very young seedlings is short, erect and of small 
diameter. It gives rise at first to a single cordate long petioled 
primary leaf and later to form one to four secondary leaves arising 
in close proximity to the first one. When the second leaf appears 
the epicotyl begins to increase in diameter and secondary roots are 
given off, usually from the axils of the cotyledons but occasion- 
ally from other points on the epicotyl (Plates IV. and V). 
The epicotyl itself continues to increase markedly in thickness 
until it becomes a globose tuber and at the same time it inclines 



288 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURAUST 

from its original upright position towards a horizontal one (Plates 
VI. to VIII). The primary root soon decays leaving a scar at 
the base of the hypocotyl. The cotyledons also drop off and 
about the beginning of June, the leaves wither, there remaining 
only the hypocotyl and the tuberous epicotyl with its secondary 
roots. At the beginning of the second season a slender rootstock 
is produced from the apex of the tuberous epicotyl, and later a 
second tuber, with its cluster of leaves is formed at the tip of 
this rootstock. One specimen was found which had produced such 
a tuber the first season (Plate VIII.); this, however, was 
only separated from the original tuber by a short rhizome. 
These facts seem to show clearly enough that the tuberous growth 
is produced from the epicotyl and not from the hypocotyl in part 
at least as is usually the case. 

II. — Syndesmon Thauctroides. 

The following is a chronological table of the nomenclature 
of this species. 

SYNDESMON. Hoffmg. Flora, 15: Part 2 Intell. Bl. 6:36 
1832. 

Syndesmon thauctroides (Linn.) Hoffmg. Flora 15: Part 
2 Intell. Bl. 6, 36, 1832. 

Anemone thalictroides Linn. Sp. PI. 562, 1753. 

Thalictrum anemonoides Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. i, 322, 1803, 
also DC. Prod, i, 15. 

Anemonella thalictroides Spach. Hist. Veg. 7:260. 

Thalictrum caule unifloro Clayton Fl. Virg. p. 43. 

Ranunculus thalictri foliis grumosa radici. Bannister Cat. 
Stirp. Virg. 

Ranunculus Nemorasiis Aquilegiae foliis, Virginiana, As- 
phodeli radice. Pluk. Phyt. Tab. VI., 6. 

The development of the seedlings was closely observed in 
order to discover the origin of the tuberous roots found in the 
adult plant. The cotyledons are epigeal and noticeably veined. 
Their petioles are channelled on the inner face and the cotyledons 
themselves are divaricate. The epicotyl is small and usually gives 
rise to but one leaf the first year. The hypocotyl is rather long 
and bears at its lower end the primary root, which, however, soon 
disappears. A number of persistent secondary roots are also 
produced near the base of the hypocotyl (Plate IX, Fig. i). The 



NOTES ON OUR LOCAL PLANTS _ 289 

hypocotyl itself soon begins to swell out, causing the epidermis 
to crack and finally to peel off (Plate IX, Figs. 2, 3). Thus en- 
larged, the hypocotyl serves as a place for food storage. The 
second year two or three leaves are sent up from the epicotyl, and 
from the base of each petiole these arises usually a secondary root. 
These become enlarged until they resemble the swollen hypocotyl 
in appearance and serve like it for food storage. (Plate X). 
Commonly each leaf that arises thereafter produces such a root 
and the result in old plants is a considerable cluster of such tuberous 
roots. This shows then that the first tuber arises from the hypo- 
cotyl and the others from secondary roots originating from the 
base of the leaf petiole or just below it. 

De-^artment of Botany, 
University of Notre Dame. 



NOTES ON OUR LOCAL PLANTS.— VIL 



BY J. A NIEUWLAND. 



Cerastium longipedunculatum Muhl., Cat., p. 46 (1813). 

Cerastium nutans Raf., Prec. Decouv., p. 36 (18 14). 

Nos. 1 1 146, 9149, 9132, South of South Bend, Ind., 822 
North Liberty, St. Joseph Co., No. 2040. Notre Dame (Powers). 

Cerastium arvense Linn., Sp. PI., p. 438 (1753). 

Nos. 2546, 11031, 11241, 1 1085, Notre Dame, Ind., 2443, 
2039, W. of Notre Dame, (Powers), 9240, 9202, N. of Notre Dame 
at Webster's Station. 

ARENARIA Chabraeus, Sciagraphia, (1666), also 2nd Ed., 
P- 550, (1677). 

Arenaria Guettard, Stamp., 2, p. 281 (1747), Ruppius, Fl. 
Jen., (1718), p. 89 (1726), Arenaria Linn., Syst. (1735), Gen., p. 
133 (1737), p. 193 (1754), Euthalia Ruprecht, Fl. Cauc, p. 220 

(1869). 

Arenaria serpyllifolia Linn., Sp. PI. p. 423 (1753). 

Arenaria multicaulis Linn, and Hesselgren, Pan Suecus, Am. 
Acad., p. 248 (1751). Probably. Spergula multicaulis Dillenius, 
Giss., p. 58 (17 1 8), Euthalia serpyllifolia Ruprecht, 1. c, Arenaria 
hreviflora Gilib., Enum. PI. Ltih., 249, II, 155 (1781), Alsine 



290 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

minima Dodonaeus, Pempt, 30 (1583), Lobelius, Dalechamps, etc. 

Hammond and Clarke, Ind. (Higdon and Raddin), Lake 
Maxinkuckee, (H. W. Clarke), Michigan City, (C. D. Mell), 
Clarke, Ind. (Umbach). I have found it in all the counties. 

Arenaria stricta Michx., Fl. Bor. Am., I, p. 274 (1803). 

Lake Co., (Hill), vSt. Joseph Co. (Rothert), Colehour, Millers 
and Edgemoor (Higdon and Raddin), Pine, Lake Co., (Babcock) 
(Umbach), Lake Co. (Deam), Nos 3435, 1964, Notre Dame 
(Powers), 30, 2659, 3451, Notre Dame, 2649 Millers, Ind. 

MOEHRINGIA Linn., Gen. p. 167, (1742), p. 170 (i754)- 

Moehringia lateriflora (Linn.) Fenzl., Verbr. Alsin., p. 18 (1833) 

Arenaria lateriflora Linn., Sp. PI., p. 423 (1753). 

Lake Co. (Hill), No. 457, Notre Dame, Ind. 

TISSA Adans., Fam. PI., II., p. 507 (1763). 

Buda Adans., 1. c, Lepigonum (Fries) Wahlberg, Fl. Gothob., 
p. 45 (1820) Spergularia Presl, Pr. Fl. Cech., p. 94 (1819), Persoon, 
Syn., p. 50g (1805), as a subgenus, Corion Mitchell, Act. Nat. 
Cur., 208 (1748) also (1769), not Corion of the ancients or the 
older authors. 

Tissa rubra (Linn.) Britton, Bull. Torr. CI., XVI, p. 127 (1889). 

Arenaria rubra Linn., vSp. PL, p. 423 (1753), Buda rubra Dum., 
Fl. Belg., p. no (1827), Spergularia rubra Presl., 1. c. p. 93. 

The only place I have found this plant is on the road to 
Lost Lake, St. Joseph Co. 

Family 60. CARYOPHYLLEAE B. Jussieu, Hort. 

Trianon (1759), Jussieu, Gen., LXVII, and 299 (1789). 
Caryophyllaceae Reichenb., Consp., p. 206 (1828). 
GITHAGO Tragus, Hist. (1552), also Adanson, II, p. 255 

(1763). 

Agrostemma Linn., Syst., (1735). Gen., p. 135 (1737), p. 
198 (1754), Pseudomelanthium Matthioli, Lacuna, Lonicer, Lo- 
belius, Castor Durante, Thalius, Gerarde, Anthemon Dodonaeus, 
Hist., ed. C. Clusius, (1557), Nigellastrum Dodonaeus, Pempt., 
2:1 :i7 (1583), Lychnis in part of numerous pre-Linnaean and many 
post-Linnaean authors. 

Githago segetum Link, Diss. Bot. Suerin., p. 62 (1795). 

Agrostemma Githago Linn., Sp. PL, p. 435 (1753). Agrostemma 
agrestis Linn., and Hesselgren, Pan Suec, Amoen. Acad. p. 248 



NOTES ON OUR LOCAL PLANTS 29 1 

(1751), Lychnis Githago Scop., Fl. Carn., Ed. 2, p. 310 (1772), 
Githago segetalis St. Lager, Ann. Soc. Bot. Lyon., VII, p. 119 
(1889), Lychnis rustica Herm. Barbarus, Cor., p. 50 (1530), Lychnis 
agrestis Marcellus Vergilius, Diosc, p. 416 (1529), Lychnis segetum 
C. Bauhin, Pinax, p. 204 (1623), Lychnis arvensis Tabernaemontanus 
etc., etc. Lychnis agria Dioscorides. 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke), Nos. 3481, 2026, Notre 
Dame, Ind. (Powers), 9303 Notre Dame, 11 194 Webster's Station. 
Found in all the counties. 

SILENE Lobelius, Obs., p. 242 (1576). 

Viscago Dillenius, Hort. Eltham., p. 309 (1732), also Haller, 
Camerarius, etc., Muscipula Ruppius, Fl. Jen., p. 1000 (1726), 
Silene Linn., Syst., (1735), Gen., p. 132 (1737), p. 193 (1754), 
Oncerum Dulac, Fl. Pyr., p. 255 (1867), Corone Hoffmg., ex Steud. 
Nom., ed. II, p. 422 (1840). 

Silene virginica Linn., Sp. PL, p. 419 (1753). 

Whiting, Ind., (Higdon and Raddin). 

Silene latifolia (Miller) Britten and Rendle, List Br. Seed- 
plant sp. 5 (1907). 

Cucuhahis latif alius Mill. Gard. Diet., ed. 8, No. 2, (1768), 
Fl. Deutsch. Ed. 9, p. 64 (1869), Silene inflata J. E. Smith, Fl. 
Brit., II, p. 292 (1809). 

Pine, Ind., (Umbach), Nos. 2022 Notre Dame, (Powers), 
50 Granger, Ind., St. Joseph Farm near Granger, Ind., 9102 
Mishawaka, St. Joseph Co., Ind. 

Silene conica Linn., Sp. PI., p. 418 (1753). 

Stephens ville, Berrien Co. Mich. No. 2713. As far as I am 
able to find this is the third time that the plant has been reported 
in the United States. (See Am. Mid. Nat., II, p. 264 (191 2). 

Silene antirrhina Linn., Sp. PL, p. 419 (1753). 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke), Millers (Umbach), Nos. 
588, 587>^ Notre Dame, Ind., 75 Granger, Ind. Seen also in 
Porter, Laporte, and Berrien Cos. 

Silene armeria Linn., Sp. PL, p. 601 (1762). 

Found spontaneous in several places; in St. Joseph Co. together 
with Hibiscus Trionum and probably introduced with grass seed. 

EVACTOMA Raf., Aut. Bot., p. L, Cent. II, p. 23 (1815-40). 

Evactoma stellata var. scabrella Nwd., Am. Mid. Nat., Ill, 
I P- 57 (1913)- 



292 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke) (Miss Beardsley) (Deam), 
Lake Co. (Hill) (Deam) Probably? Nos. 3491 Notre Dame 
(Powers), 2136, 10338, Notre Dame, 9699 Dune Park, Ind. 

LYCHNIS Dioscorides III:ii4, 115. 

Coronaria Linn., Syst. (1735) and Lychnis of the same, also 
Coronaria and Lychnis Linn., Hort CliflF., p. 174 (1737), Royen 
Lugd., p. 449 (1740), Lychnis Gesner, Lobelius, Tabernaemontanus, 
Gararde, Castor Durante, Camerarius, Clusius, Matthioli, Dodo- 
naeus, Breynius, Lacuna, etc. Lychnis Tour., Els. p. 280 (1694) 
I. R. H., p. 337 (1700), Lucernula Theodorus. 

Lychnis coronaria Marcellus Vergilius, Com. Diosc, p. 416 
(1529) also Herm. Barbarus, Cor., p. 50 (1530), Ruellius, Diosc, 
p. 275 (1546), Ruellius Nat. Stirp., p. 550 (1543) and of nearly 
all the pre-Linnaean authors. It is one of the earliest and commonly 
used binary names. Though the type of the ancient genus 'Lychnis 
it was excluded by Linnaeus from his Lychnis. 

Agrostemma coronaria Linn., Sp. PI., p. 436 (1753), Lychnis 
Coronaria Desr. in Lam., Encycl. Ill, p. 643 (1789), Coronaria 
tomentosa A. Br. Fl. XXVI, p. 368 (1843). As the name is a literal 
translation of the Lychnis stephanomatike Dioscorides Avxvlg 
CTEfpavidfiaTixri the second part of the name is incorrectly written 
with a capital letter, as if it were an old reduced pre-Linnaean 
genus. 

No. 9331 Notre Dame, Ind. 

SAPONARIA Tragus, ex Brunfels, Herb. Viv. Ic, II, p. 
193 (1530). 

Saponaria Lacuna, Gesner, Dodonaeus, Lobelius, Caesalpinus, 
Tabernaemontanus, Camerarius, Gerarde, etc. Struthion Fuchs, 
Lonicer, Thalius, Cusa, Lychnis Sp. Tour., Spergula Sp. Dillenius. 

Saponaria vulgaris Camerarius, Hort. Med., p. 153 (1588). 

Saponaria major Cusa, Dalechamps, J. Bauhin. Saponaria 
Gypsophyton Linn., and Hesselgr. Pap Suecus, Am. Acad., !II. 
p. 247 (175 1 ), Saponaria officinalis Linn., Sp. PI., p. 408 (1753). 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke), Laporte Co. (Deam), 
No. 10467 Bertrand, Mich., I have found it in every county in 
the region. 

VACCARIA Dodonaeus, Pempt, 1:4:20, (1583). 

Vaccaria Gesner, Hort. Ger., Cusa, Tabernaemontanus, 



NOTES ON OUR LOCAL PLANTS 293 

GlasHim Anguillara, Thamecnemuni V. Cordus, Hist. Vaccaria 
Medicus, Phil. Bot., I, p. 96 (1781). 

Vaccaria vulgaris Host, Fl. Aust. I, p. 518 (1827). 

Saponaria Vaccaria Linn., Sp. PI., p. 409 (1753). 

Whiting, Ind., Lake Co., (Hill), Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. 
Clarke). Nos. 2735, 11285, along the Grand Trunk R. R., Olivers, 
west of South Bend. 

DIOSANTHOS Theophrastus, Hist., VI :i, 6. 

Diosanthos St. Lager, Ann. Soc. Bot. Lyon., VII, p. 87 (1880) 
Bubani, Fl. Pyr., Ill, p. 89 (1901), Caryophyllus C. Bauhin, 
Matthioli, Camerarius, Castor Durante, Lobelius, Gerarde, Cusa, 
Lobelius, Clusius, Tabernaemontanus, etc., Armerius Clusius 
Pannon., Hist., Armeria Gerarde, Lobelius, Thyrsis Renealm, 
Caryophyllea Tragus, Matthioli, Castor Durante, Cusa, Cart- 
ofilum Cuba, Hort. Sanitatis, (1491), Dianthus Linn., Syst., (1735), 
Gen., p. 130 (1737), p. 191 (1754), Caryophyllus Tour., Els., p. 
279 (1694), I. R. H., p. 174 (1700), Betonica Fuchs, Cantabrica 
Turner, Tunica Lonicer, Ludwig-Boehmer, Dillenius, etc., Superha 
Tragus, Lonicer, Thalius, Camerarius, etc. Cyclinanthus Dulac, 
Fl. Batav, 12, 921, Fl. Pyr., p. 290, (1867). 

Diosanthos barbatum St. Lager, 1. c, Bubani, Fl. Pyr., Ill, 
p. 93, (1901). 

Dianthus barbatus Linn., Sp. PI. p. 409 (1753). 

Cyclinanthus barbatus DuldC, 1. c. 

Found escaped in a number of places around Notre Dame 
and persisting and sowing its seeds. 

Diosanthos armerium St. Lager, 1. c, 

Dianthus Armeria Linn., Sp. PI., p. 410 (1753), Cyclinanthus 
maculatus Dulac, 1. c, p. 261. 

No. 501 Notre Dame, Ind. 

Diosanthos Theophrasti Anguillara, Semp., (1561). 

Dianthus plumarius Linn., Sp. PL, p. 411 (1753), Caryophyllus 
minor Dodonaeus, Superba recentiorum Lobelius, Vetonica sylvestris 
Gesner, Hist. 

This plant though not perhaps strictly an escape persists a 
long time and spreads considerably. I have found it quite 
abundantly along the interurban railway to St. Joseph, Mich, at 
Roselawn. 



294 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

ORDER 25. RANALES. 

Engler in Eng. and Prantl, Pflnzfm. Nachtr. p. 347 (1897). 

Family 61. CERATOPHYLLEAE DC. Prod., Ill, 
p. 73 (1828). 

Ceratophyllaceae A. Gray, Ann. Lye. N. Y., IV, p. 41 (1857) 
DICHOTOPHYLLUM Dillenius, Nov. Gen., p. 91 (17 19) 
Ceratophyllum Linn., Syst. (1735), Gen. p. 290 (1737), p 
428 (1754). Dichotophylhmi Moench, Methodus Plant. Hort. Bot 
Marb., p. 345 (1794), Hydroccratophyllum Vaillant, Act. Ae. R 
So. Par., p. 16 (1719). Ceratophyllon Vaillant, Bot. Par., p. 22 
(1723), p. 32-33 (1727), Hydroceratophyllum Bot. Par., p. 105 
(1727), also Hydroceratum Vaillant, 1. c. [This author seems to 
have changed his names for this plant rather often and once 
at least with good reason; for his H ydrocerato phyllum is impossible 
as a name being composed of six syllables. He even made the 
first binary name under the genus as Hydroceratum laevius Bot. 
Par., 1. c. (1727). This is the Ceratophyllum suhmersum Linn., 

Sp. PI., p. 1409 (1763)]- 

Dichotophyllum demersum (Linn.) Moench, Meth., p. 345 

(1794)- 

Ceratophyllum demersum Linn., Sp. PI. p. 992 (1753). Cera- 
tophyllum aquaticiim Linn., and Hesselgr., Pan Suec, Am. Acad., 
II, p. 259 (1751)- 

Lake Co. (Higdon and Raddin), Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. 
Clarke). Found also in Laporte, Porter, St. Joseph, Berrien, and 
Van Buren Cos. 

Family 62. HYDROPELTIDEAE Dum., Comm. Bot., p. 
64 (1823). 

Cabombeae Bartling Ord. Nat., p. 86 (1830), Cabombaceae A. 
Gray, Ann. Lye. N. Y., IV, p. 46 (1836), Hydropeltideae Dum., 
Anal. Gen., PI., p. 53 (1829). 

BRASENIA Schreber, Gen. PI., p. 372 (1779)- 

Hydropeltis Michx., Fl. Bor. Am., p. 323 (1803). 

Brasenia Schreberi Gmelin, Syst. Veg., I, p. 853 (1796). 

Hydropeltis purpurea Michx., Fl. Bor. Am., I, p. 324 (1803), 
Brasenia peltata Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept., p. 389 (1814), Brasenia 



NOTES ON OUR LOCAL PLANTS 295 

purpurea Casp., in Eng. and Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenf., Ill, 2, p. 
6 (1890), Brasenia Nymphaeoides. 

Marshall Co. (Blatchley), Laporte Co. (Barnes), Pine Station 
Lake Co. (Bastin, Umbach). Hudson Lake, Laporte Co., Bankson 
Lake Berrien Co. 

Family 63 . N YMPHAEEAE Salisbury, Koenig and Sims, 
Ann. Bot., I, p. 70 (1806). 

Nymphaeaceae DC, Prop. Med., Ed. 2, p. 119 (1816), also 
Dum. Comm. Bot., p. 64 (1823). 

NYMPHONA Marcellus Vergilius, Comm. Diosc., p. 440, 

(1529)- 

Nuphar* Sibth. and Smith, Fl. Graec. Prod., I, p. 391 (1806), 
Nymphosanthos Rich., Anal. Fr., p. 68 (181 1) ex Endlich. Gen., 
Nymphozanthus Rich., Ann. Mus. Par., XVTI, p. 230 (181 7), 
Nenuphar Matthioli, Camerarius, Hayne ex Endlicher, Gen. 
This name was applied rather promiscuously to both the White 
and the Yellow Water Lilies both by authors before and after 
these authors. The name Blephara Dioscorides was not the name 
of the plant but of its flower. 

Nymphona advena (Soland.) 

Nymphaea advena Soland., Ait. Hort. Kew., H, p. 226 (1789), 
Nuphar advena R. Br., Ait. Hort. Kew., ed. 2, IH, p. 295 (181 1). 

Lake Co. (Deam), Laporte Co. (Barnes), Lost Lake, Marshall 
Co. (Paul Batsch), Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke), Nos. 9324 
Notre Dame, Ind., 11269 Rum Village south of South Bend. 

NYMPHAEA Dioscondes, 111:148. Theophrastus, IX 113, 
Pliny XXV 7. 

Nymphaea of all the pre-Linnaean and post-Linnaean authors 
except Boerhaave, Ludwig, Salisbury. Nenuphar Brunfels, Cas- 



* The type of the genus Nymphaea of both Dioscorides who applied 
the name first, as well therefore of Linnaeus who may be presumed to 
use the name after him for an aggregate, was in the same sense typically 
Nymphaea alba. Linnaeus himself designated no types, but he himself 
tells us that should anyone see fit to break up his genera the name should 
be left to the official one or type of the name. (Linn., Phil. Bot., p. 197 
(1751, (1755) Dioscorides mentions the yellow water lily only as 'Nvfi^aia 
irepa a second one, the common or white flowered one therefore being 
the typical one. This was the common opinion of all the older phytographers 
and prevailed until a few years ago, Boerhavae, Ludwig, Salisbury of the 
few exceptions to the contrary. 



296 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

talta Salisbury, Konig and Sims, Ann. Bot., II, p. 71 (1805), also 
Parad. Londin., p. 14, 68 (1895), Leuconymphaea Ludw., Def. 
Gen., p. 69 (1737), Leuconymphaea Boerhaave, Ind. Alt. PI., p. 
281 (1727) (1720), Nymphaea Tour., His., p. 227 (1694), I. R. H., 
p. 260 (1700), Nymphaea Linn, Syst., (1735), Gen. p. 149 (1737), 
p. 227 (1754). 

Nymphaea odorata Dryand. in Ait., Hort. Kew., II, p. 227 

(1789). 

Castalia odorata (Dryand.) Woodv. and Wood. Ree's Cyc. 
VI, I, (1806). Castalia pudica Salisb. in Konig and vSims Ann. 
Bot., 11, p. 72 (1805). Leuconymphaea odorata (Dryand.) MacM., 
Met., Minn. p. 228 (1892). 

Laporte Co. (Barnes), Berry Lake, Ind. (Higdon and Raddin), 
No. II 268 South of South Bend, Ind. 

Nymphaea tuberosa Paine, Cat. PI. Oneida Co., N. Y. p. 
132 (1865). 

Castalia tuberosa (Paine) Greene, Bull. Torr. Club, XV, 
p. 84 (1888). Leuconymphaea reniformis (DC.) MacM. 1. c. 
Nymphaea maculata Raf. Med. Bot., p. 45 (1830). (?) 

St. Joseph Co. (Rothert), Lake Co. (Higdon and Raddin), 
Nos. 3808 Notre Dame, 9654 Chain Lakes. 

Family 64. NELUMBONEAE Bart. Ord. Nat., p. 89 
(1830), DC, Syst., p. 43, Prod., p. 113 (1824). 

Nelumbonaceae Lindley, Nat. Syst. Ed. 2, p. 13 (1836). 

NELUMBO Tour., L R. H., p. 261 (1700). 

Nelumbo Adans., Fam., II, p. 76 (1763), Nelumhium Jussieu, 
Gen., p. 68 (1789), Cyamus Smith, Exot. Bot., I, p. 59 (1804-5). 
Tamara Rheede, Hort. Ind. Mai., JI, p. 61, t. 31 (1679) Roxb., 
Steud. Nom., II, II, p. 661 (1841). 

Nelumbo lutea (Willd.) Pers., Syn. PI., I, p. 92 (1805). 

Nelumbium luteum Willd., Sp. PL, II, p. 1259 (1799)- 

Wolf Lake, Lake Co., Ind. (Babcock), Clarke, Ind. (Umbach), 
Kalamazoo Co. Mich. (State Cat.) 

Family 65. MAGNOLIACEAE J. St. Hillaire, Exp. 
Fam., II, p. 74 (1805). 

TULIPIFERA P. Hermann, Lugd., p. 612 (1686). 
Tulipifera Ray, Hist., p. 1798 (1688), Plunkenett, Phyt., 



NOTES ON OUR LOCAL PLANTS 297 

t. 117, 5 (1691), Catesby, Car., 48, (1731-43), Boerhaave, Index 
Alt., II, p. 262 (1723) (1727). Magnolia Linn., Syst. (1735), Gen., 
p. 162 (1737), Liriodendron Linn., Hort. Cliff., p. 223 (1737), 
Gen. 254 (1742), p. 239 (1754). Liriodendntm Moench, Meth, 
p. 222 (1794), Gron. Fl. Virg. p. 60 (1739), Linn., Corol. 9 (1737), 
Tulipifera Miller, Gard. Diet. VI, (1752), I, (1737). 

Tulipifera Liriodendron P. Miller, Gard. Diet., (1768). 

Liriodendron Tulipifera Linn., Sp. PI., p. 535 (1753). 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke), Whiting, Ind. (Hill), 
Laporte Co. (Deam). I have found the tree in Berrien, Van Buren, 
St. Joseph, Laporte, Porter, and Marshall Cos. 

KOBUS Kaempfer, Amoen. Exot., p. 845 (1712). 

Kobus Salisbury, Parad. Lond., t. 87 (1807), Magnolia 
Dillenius Catesby, Car., 2, p. 61 (1732-43), also 2nd ed. p. 61, t. 
61, (1750), Hort. Eltham,. p. 207 (1732), Linn., Syst. (1735) 
Gen. p. 162 (1737), p. 140 (1754). Sp. PL, p. 535 (1753), not. 
Magnolia Plumier, Nov. PL Am. Gen., p. 37, t. 7, (1703) = Talauma 
Jussieu, Gen., p. 281 (1789). Yulania Spach, Hist. Nat. Veg., 
VII, p. 462, inclusive to his Magnolia (p. 468) and Tiilipastrum 
(p. 481) (1839). Tulipifera P. Miller, Gard. Diet., I ed. (1737). 

Kobus acuminata (Linn.) 

Magnolia acuminata Linn., Sp. PL, p. 756 (1763). 

Magnolia virginiana var. acuminata LSnn., Sp. PL, p. 536 

(1753)- 

I have seen this tree growing in several places in the neighbor- 
ing city of South Bend. The plant though undoubtedly cultivated 
in these places is hardy and produces flower and abundant fruit 
every year. The limits of its northern distribution ranged further 
early in the century than now. [Kohus (Magnolia) iripetala 
stands the climate of N. Indiana and has bloomed some seasons at 
Notre Dame.] 

Family 66. ANONACEAE Anal. Fruit., p. 87 (1808'). 

ASIMINA Adanson, Fam., II, p. 365 (1763). 

Asimina triloba (Linn.) Dunal, Mon. Anon. p. 83 (1717). 

Anona triloba Linn. Sp. PL, p. 537 (1753). 

Laporte Co. (Deam), Porter Co. (Deam), Lake Maxinkuckee 
(H. W. Clarke). Nos. 2172, 2147 Notre Dame, Ind. 511, 9516, 
Rum Village, south of South Bend, Ind. 

(To be continued.) 



298 



AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 



SOME COMMON BIRES.— II. 



BY VICTOR CARPENTER 



Ruby-Throated Hummingbird. 

Trochilus cohibris. 

Hummingbird family. 

Length, 3.25 inches. 

Color. Male, green above; ruby throat; sides greenish; 
tail brownish violet. Female, no red on throat. 

Song. None; no note except a sharp cry when disturbed. 

Nest. One and ' one-fourth inches in width; one inch deep; 
made of line vegetable fibers and lichens. 

Eggs. Pure dull white color; about one half inch long. 

Habitat. Eastern North America. 

Specific habitat. Gardens and flower beds. 

Food. Mainly insects; some nectar. 

Migration. May 25 to September 25. 

Kingbird. 
Tyrannus caroUnensis. 

Flycatcher family. 

Syn. Beebird; bee martin. 

Length. 8.50 inches. 

Color. Above dark bluish gray; top and sides of head dark 
blue-black; crest on head whitish; lower parts white tinged on 
throat with ash; wings dark brown edged with paler. 

Song. None. Only a sharp twittering. 

Food. Almost exclusively insects taken on the wing. 

Nest. In upper branch of isolated tree; large, broad and 
strong although made of coarse rude materials; fine lining. 

Eggs. Five; vary in size; white spotted with purplish brown. 

Habitat. Eastern U. vS. to Rockies. 

Specific habitat. Orchards and groves near habitations. 

Migration. May i to September i. 

Kingfisher. 
Ceryle alcyon. 
Kingfisher family. 
Length. 12 inches. 



SOME COMMON BIRDS 299 

Color. Head with long crest; above ashy metallic blue; 
beneath pure white; band across breast; tail marked with white. 
Song. None; loud harsh cry only. 
Food. Nearly all fish. 

Nest. In deep holes in banks near water. 
Eggs. Six; laid on bare sand; clear crystal white, nearly round. 
Habitat. All United States. 
Specific habitat. Banks of streams. 
Migration. March 20 to October 20. 

Meadow Lark. 
Shirnella magna. 

Oriole family. 

Syn. Field lark. 

Length. 10.5 inches. 

Color. Dark brown above; wings and tail dark brown stripes; 
beneath yellow; sides reddish brown; female smaller and duller. 

Song. Beautifully sweet; no variety; some call notes while 
not unpleasant mar the song. 

Food. The larger per cent insects. 

Nest. Always on ground hidden in tall grass. 

Eggs. Vary in size and markings; white with brown spots; 
shape oval; nearly equal at both ends. 

Habitat. Eastern United States. 

Specific Habitat. Old fields and meadows; never woods. 

Purple Martin. 
Progne sub is. 

Swallow family. 

I,ength. 7.5 inches. 

Color. General steel blue shiny; tail dull black; under 
wings white. 

Song. None. Not unpleasant twitters. 

Nest. Formally in hollow trees ; now in nesting boxes or towers ; 
loose; fine dry leaves, straw, etc.; lined with feathers. 

Eggs. Uniform creamy white. 

Food. Very harmful insects. 

Habitat. All United States. 

Specific habitat. Near habitations. 

Migration. May i to August 25. 



300 american midland naturalist 

Robin. 

Merula migratorius. 

Thrush family. 

Length. 9.75 inches. 

Color. Above greenish gray; head black; throat streaked 
black and white; under parts chestnut brown; wings and tail 
dark brown. 

Song. Familiar to everyone; simple yet pleasing. 

Food. Insects and berries. 

Nest. Generally in orchards; apple trees favorite nesting 
place; about ten feet from gound; large, formed of straw, leaves, 
etc. and mud; lined with root fibers. 

Eggs. Five, rarely six; greenish blue. 

Habitat. All North America. 

Specific habitat. Orchards, lawns. 

Migration. March 10 to November 25. 

Sparrow, Song. 
Melospiza melodia. 

Finch family. 

Length. 6.5 inches. 

Color. Upper, brown, dark brown and gray; crown brown 
with stripe of gray ; under parts white ; sides streaked with brown. 

Song. Noted; conspicuous; varied; constant. 

Food. Destructive insects, canker worm, etc. 

Nest. Generally on ground; sometimes two or three feet in 
bushes; well made; stout; lined with basket of grasses. 

Eggs. Five; clay white; uniformly spotted with blotches of 
rust brown. 

Habitat. Eastern United States to western plains. 

Specific habitat. Cultivated places ; edges of woods ; meadows; 
low grounds. 

Migration. March 10 to November 10. 

Sparrow, Field. 
^Spizella pusilla. 
Finch family. | 

Length. 5.50 inches. 

Color. Crown rufous red ; back similar, slightly ashy ; beneath 
white with yellow tinge; tail feathers edged with white. 
Song. Cheery; little variety; .sometimes low. 



SOME COMMON BIRDS 



301 



Food. Insects; noxious weed seeds. 

Nest. On ground in vines; on high ground; loosely made 
of grasses, sedges, etc.; lines with rootlets. 

Eggs. Five; white clay marked with brown; vary greatly 
in size. 

Habitat. United States west to Missouri. 

vSpecific habitat. Uncultivated fields; roadsides. 

Migration. March 30 to November i. 

Nuthatch, White-Breasted. 
Sitia carolinensis. 
Titmouse family. 
Length. 6 inches. 

Color. Above ashy blue; head and neck black; beneath 
white; under tail brown. 

Song. None; sharp twitter only. 

Food. Insects obtained from beneath the bark of trees. 

Nest. In cavities in old trees. 

Eggs. White with rose tint; marked with reddish brown. 

Habitat. United States west to Missouri. 

Specific habitat. Open woods. 

Migration. April, May and June (nesting season). 

Oriole, Baltimore. 
Icterus galbula. 

Oriole family. 

Syn. Golden Robin, Hang-nest. 

Length. 9:50 inches. 

Color. Head and upper parts back; tail black; under parts 
orange; female less brilliant, black replaced with brownish yellow, 
yellow on throat; young dull orange beneath, above olive, tail 
of orange cast. 

Song. Of endless variety; each individual varies. 

Food. Insects mostly; canker worms and tent caterpillars. 

Nest. Pendant; of very strong materials; high out of 
reach. 

Eggs. Five in number; white, roseate; marked with spots, 
blotches and waves of purplish brown. 

Habitat. U. S. from Atlantic to Missouri. 

Specific habitat. Near habitations. 

Migration. May i to September 10, 



302 american midland naturalist 

Oriole, Orchard. 
Icterus spurius. 

Oriole family. 

Length. 9 inches. 

Color. Head, wings and back black; under parts chestnut; 
female olive above; greenish yellow beneath; two white bands 
on wings. 

Song. Hurried and energetic; rapid, harmonious, sweet; 
not so full and rich as the Baltimore's, although very agreeable. 

Food. Almost exclusively insects; no accusations of fruit 
eating; general favorite. 

Nest. Like Baltimore oriole's; not so deep. 

Eggs. Pale bluish white, blotched with pale purple and brown. 

Habitat. U. S. from Atlantic to Missouri. 

Specific habitat. Generally orchards near dwellings. 

Migration. May 5 to August 15. 

* Bronzed Crackle. 

Ouiscalus aeneus. 

Oriole family. 

Syn. Crow blackbird. 

Length. 12.5 inches. 

Color. General glossy black ; violet; purple head; steel blue, 
and green hues. 

Song. None; harsh grating note. 

Food. Mainly insects. 

Nest. Situation varies, sometimes in low bushes, more often 
in evergreen trees. 

Eggs. Four in number; great variations in ground color, 
vary from light green to deep brown; dashed with dark brown; 
over an inch long. 

Habitat. Eastern U. S. 

Specific habitat. Near dwellings; often in cities. 

Migration. March 10 to October 20. 

Sparrow, Chipping. 
Spizella socialis. 
Finch family. 
Length. 5.75 inches. 

Color. Back and sides of neck and head ashy ; crown criestnut ; 
forehead black; under parts whitish tinged with ashy. 



SOME COMMON BIRDS 303 

Song. None. Monotonous chirp only. 
Food. Mostly animal food. 

Nest. In trees or bushes; of rude branches; lined with hair. 
Eggs. Five; vary in size; blue green, lightly spotted with 
purple and dark brown. 

Habitat. Eastern North America. 
Specific habitat. Near habitations. 
Migration. April 15 to October i. 

ViREO, YEIvLOW-ThROATED. 

Vireo family. 

Length. 5.75 inches. 

Color. Head and neck above, bright olive green; lower back 
ashy; wings and tail brown; under parts of yellow and white. 

Song. Varied; sweet; deliberate. 

Food. Mainly insects; some berries. 

Nest. Pendant; about ten feet from ground; well made. 

Eggs. White, marked with blotches of dark brown. 

Habitat. Eastern U. S. 

Specific habitat. Thick woods. 

Migration. May 10 to September 25. 

Woodpecker, Red-Headed. 
Melanerpes erythrocephalus. 

Woodpecker family. 

Length. 9.75 inches. 

Color. Head and neck red; little black on upper breast; 
back and tail black; under parts and band on wing white. 

Song. None. Harsh, disagreeable notes only. 

Food. Nearly all insects. 

Nest. In tree or posts. 

Eggs. Six in number; pure white. 

Habitat. U. S. to Rockies. 

Specific habitat. Open woods and groves. 

Migration April i to October 15. 
Thrush, Wood. 
T Urdus mustelinus. 

Thrush family. 

Length. 8 inches. 

Color. Above, cinnamon brown; top of head redder; under 
parts clear white, sometimes buff on breast; thickly marked with 
spots of black. 



304 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

Song. Very beautiful; of great sweetness and power. 

Food. Insects, berries, acorns, etc. 

Nest. Placed six or eight feet from gound in tree; made of 
firm decayed leaves, strengthened with twigs; lined with fine 
roots and grasses. 

Eggs. Four; deep blue, sometimes with yellow tint. 

Habitat. U. S. east of Missouri plains. 

vSpecific habitat. Thick woods; roadsides. 

Atigration. April 20 to October 20. 

Warbler, Yellow. 
Dendroica aestiva. 

Warbler family. 

Syn. Summer yellow bird; wild canary. 

Length. 5.25 inches. 

Color. Upper parts bright yellow; under parts streaked with 
brown; female duller; young, olive yellow. 

Song. Pleasing though simple. 

Food. Insects. 

Nest. In bushes or briars three or four feet from ground; 
neat, skillful, strong; made of stems, bark, etc.; lined with grasses, 
feathers and hair. 

Eggs. Five; light green, spotted with brown and lilac. 

Habitat. Entire Ignited States. 

Specific habitat. Roadside hedges and bushes. 

Migration. May i to August i. 

Wren, House. 
Troglodytes aedon. 

Wren family. 

Syn. Wood wren. / 

Length. 5 inches. 

Color. Above reddish brown darker on head, barred with 
dusky; below pale white, tinged with brown on breast. 

Song. Loud, clear and bubbling. 

Food. Entirely insects. 

Nest. In nestling boxes; lined with fur and feathers. 

Eggs. Seven or nine; white, thickly covered with reddish 
brown. 

Habitat. Atlantic to Missouri. 

Specific Habitat. Gardens and orchards. 

Migrations. April 20 to September 20. 



OUR BIRDS IN AUTUMN 305 

OUR BIRDS IN THE AUTUMN OF 1913. 



BY BROTHER ALPHONSUS, C. S. C. 

The autumn of 1913 shows a larger number of species as 
well as more records for many of them than any previous autumn. 
Seventy-five species were found during the month of vSeptember 
alone, which was ten less than the entire number seen during 
the season. 

In September the Bluebird shows 6 records, with one long 
interval of 1 5 days ; in October there are 1 2 records, with the longest 
interval 8 days. As in most other seasons of the year, so in autumn 
the Bluebird can not be said to be a very common species. 

The Meadowlark was recorded 6 times in September, having 
as the longest interval 7 days; in October there were 21 obser- 
vations, with no interval longer than 2 days; in November there 
was one record, on the 4th — -5 days after the last record in October, 

The Cowbird was recorded 11 times in September, with the 
longest interval between the 8th and i8th — 9 days; in October 
5 records were made, with an interval of 4 days and no obser- 
vations after the 15th. Between the last record in September 
and the first in October there were 13 days. 

The Kingfisher was found on 4 days in vSeptember, the longest 
interval being 6 days; in October it was observed once, on the 
19th — 21 days after the last record in September; in November 
the only observation was on the 13th or 22 days after the record 
in October. 

The House Wren was observed 4 times in September, with 
a long interval of 15 days between the 12th and 27th; in October 
the species was seen twice, with an interval of 9 days. These 
long intervals were probably due to the fact that it is very difficult 
to find this wren in autumn. 

In September the Swift was seen 15 times, with 3 days as 
the longest interval, no record having been made for autumn 
after the 23rd., which is unusual for this species, whose time 
of migration is ordinarily early in October. 

Like the vSwift, the Yellow-billed Cuckoo usually departs 
the first week in October, but this year the species was recorded 
last on the 23rd of September. There were 1 1 observations for 
the month, with no interval longer than 3 days. 



3o6 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

The Brown Thrasher had i8 records in September, with the 
greatest interval, 5 days; in October it was observed on 4 days, 
one interval being 3 days and the other 2 days. The 22 records 
for the two months were considerably larger than those of any 
former autumn. 

The Hermit Thrush shows 10 records for September with 
two intervals of 8 days and another of i day. Between the last 
record in September and the first in October there were 4 days. 
There were q observations in October, with several short intervals 
and a long one of 12 days— between the 17th and the 30th. 

The five species that had the greatest number of records 
during autumn were: Red-headed Woodpecker, White-breasted 
Nuthatch, Blue Jay, Crow and Song Sparrow. The number of 
records for each species was as follows: Song Sparrow, 58; Crow, 
60; Blue Jay, 74; White-breasted Nuthatch, 76; Red-headed 
Woodpecker, 84. The most remarkable of these records were 
those of the Red-headed Woodpecker, which was not found only 
on 7 days, and which, although not hitherto a winter Species, 
exceeded the number of records of any other winter species. 

Species not seen in September were: Towhee, Vesper Sparrow, 
Red-winged Blackbird, Orchard Oriole, Alder Flycatcher, Spotted 
Sandpiper, Barn Swallow, Greater Yellowlegs, Purple Martin, 
Chickadee, Bobwhite, Cardinal, Long-billed Marsh Wren, Black- 
poll Warbler. In May the Black-poll W^arbler is fairly common, 
but in autumn the species has not been recorded at all by the 
writer. The Spotted vSnadpiper is seldom seen after the last week 
in August. After Aug. 22 there 'were but three records of the 
Red-winged Blackbird. • 

Species not seen in October: Chimney Swift, Yellow-billed 
Cuckoo, Cardinal, Bobwhite, Purple Finch. Probably the rarest 
species that is found in this locality is the Purple Finch, which I 
have not seen since April 9, 191 1, and never in autumn. The 
Bobwhite is very seldom found in any season of the year. The 
Cardinal was observed only twice this year, once in spring and 
summer. 

Species not seen in November: Blubeird, Bronzed Grackle, 
Fox Sparrow, Northern Shrike. It is difficult to find Fox vSparrows 
at any time during their stay in spring or fall, and consequently 
this species may be easily overlooked. The Bronzed Grackle, 
strange to say, was absent in November and reappeared in 



OUR BIRDS IN AUTUMN 



307 



December. The Bluebird often makes its last visit to us in October. 
Like other northern species, the Shrike is a wanderer, which may 
choose other feeding grounds than ours. 

Species seen for the first time were: Lark vSparrow, Savanna 
Sparrow, Montana Juhco, Virginia Rail, Connecticut Warbler. 
The Montana Junco was feeding with some common Snowbirds 
and was easily distinguished from them. 



Crow, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, II, 15, 16, 

17, 19, 22, 24, 25, 27 to 30. 
Blue Jay, i to 8, 10 to 30. 
Robin, I to 13, 15 to 20, 22, 23, 

25 to 30. 
Bluebird, 3, 4, 5, 8 24, 28. 
Song Sparrow, i to 7, 11, 12, 

14 to 30. 
Meadowlark, 10, 13, 21, 23, 25, 

27. 
Bronzed Crackle, i to 13, 15, 17 

to 24, 26 to 30. 
Killdeer, 15, 16, 19, 21, 23, 24, 

27, 28, 30. 
Field Sparrow, i, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 

II, 12, 13, 20, 29. 
Mourning Dove, i to 7, 9, 11, 

13, 15, 17, 19, 24, 25, 27, 29,30 
Cowbird, 2, 3 to 6, 8, 18, 20, 

22, 23. 
Kingfisher, 14, 15, 21, 22, 23, 26. 



September. 

White-breasted Nuthatch, i to 

12, 14, 16, 17, 19, 21, 22, 
23, 27, 30. 

Cedarbird, 2, 3, 5, 6 to 10. 
Yellow-billed Cuckoo, i, 2, 3, 5, 

9, II, 14, 15, 19, 20, 23. 
Red-headed Woodpecker, i to 30 
Brown Thrasher, 1 to 6, 12, 13, 

15, 17, 18, 19, 22 to 27 
Chipping Sparrow, i, 3 to 9, 11, 

13, 14, 15, 19, 20, 23, 28, 29 
Goldfinch, i to 20, 23, 24, 25, 

28, 29. 30. 
Flicker, i to 11, 13, 14, 15, 17, 

18, 23 to 27, 30. 
Red-eyed Vireo, i, 2. 
Phoebe, 4, 12, 24, 25. 
Downy Woodpecker, i, 5, 8, 

10, 12, 13, 14, 16, 22, 24, 26, 27 
Lesser Yellowlegs, 2, 20, 21, 23. 
Hairy Woodpecker, 17. 
Hell Diver, 16, 17, 18, 23. 



House Wren, i, 3, 6, 12, 27 

Chimney Swift, i to 13, 16,20,23 Swamp Sparrow, i, 4 

Warbling Vireo, i to 4, 6 to 9, Screech Owl, 5, 25. 

II, 13, 14. Wood Pewee ,1 to 7, 9 to 12, 14, 

Baltimore Oriole, i, 3. 16, 17, 18, 19, 22, 23, 24, 27 

Indigo Bird, 3. Hummingbird, i, 5, 19 

Kingbird, i, 2, 4, 5. Red-shouldered Hawk, 23. 

Catbird, i to 6, 8, 15, 17, 18, Sparrow Hawk, 15, 18. 

19, 22, 23, 24. Least Flycatcher, 4, 9, 13, 21, 

Crested Flycatcher, 3, 11. 24, 25. 



3o8 



AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 



Ovenbird, 25. 

Redstart, i, 6, 9 to 12, 15, 17, 

23, 24, 25, 2J 

Black and White Warbler, 12, 17, 
Black and White Warbler,. 12, 

17, 22, 23, 26 
Black-throated Green Warbler, 

2, 6, 9 to 13, 16, 19, 21 to 

27, 29. 30 
Bay-breasted Warbler, 9, 13, 14, 

24 
Hermit Thrush, i, 10, 11, 20 

to 24, 26, 27 
Nighthawk, i, 2, 3, 6, 7 
Black-throated Blue Warbler, 2, 

26 
Snowbird, 4, 5, 13, 14, 20, 21, 

22, 27, 29 
Magnolia Warbler, 4, 5, 6, 9, 

II, 12, 13, 16, 18, 19, 22, 23, 

24, 26, 27, 29 
Nashville Warbler, 5, 6, 9. 
Tennessee Warbler, 5, 13, 16, 22 
Blue Gray Gnatcatcher, 5, 25 



Black-billed Cuckoo, 6, 13. 
Chestnut-sided Warbler, 22 
Maryland Yellowthroat, 8, 12 
Connecticut Warbler, 9, 20, 27, 

29 
Prairie Warbler, 11, 19 
Water Thrush, 12, 14, 18, 26 
Ruby-crowned Kinglet, 20. 26 
Pine Warbler, 11 to 14, 19, 22, 

23, 24, 26, 27 
Brown Creeper, 13, 14, 21, 22, 28 
White-throated Sparrow, 15, 16, 

17, 18, 20, 26, 27, 29, 30 
Red-breasted Nuthatch, 19 
Sapsucker, 19, 20, 22, 23, 28, 29 
Sycamore Warbler, 22 
Lark Sparrow, 24, 25, 27 
Myrtle Warbler, 27, 28, 29, 30 
Yellow Palm Warbler, 27. 
Virginia Rail, 26. 
Golden-crowned Kinglet, 27, 28, 

29 
Savanna Sparrow, 27 
Wood Thrush, 29 



1 



Blue-headed Vireo, 6 

Total number of species seen in September, 75. 

October. 



Crow, I, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 12, 13 
to 16, 18, 19, 20, 22 to 31. 

Blue Jay, i, 3. 4. 6, 7, 8 to 20, 
22, 24, 25, 27 to 31 

Robin, 3, 4, 6, 8, 22, 24, 26\ 

29. 31 
Song Sparrow, i to 16, 18, 19, 

21, 23 to 26, 28 to 31 
Meadowlark, i, 3, 4. 6, 7, 8, 9, 

II to 16, 18, 19, 22 to 26, 29 
Bronzed Grackle, i, 3, 4, 6 to 

16, 19, 24. 



8, II, 14, 



Killdeer, 2, 3, 4, 6, 

18, 21, 22 to 30 
Towhee, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 10, 13 

to 19, 21 to 27 
Field Sparrow, i to 4, 6 to 19, 

21 to 24, 26 
Red- winged Blackbird, 8, 19 
Mourning Dove, 4, 8. 
Cowbird, 7, 8, 9, 14, 15 
Kingfisher, 19. 
White-breasted Nshatch, 3 to 

10, 12 to 16, 18, 19, 20, 22 to3i 



OUR BIRDS IN AUTUMN 309 

House* Wren, 3 to 13 Sapsucker, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10 

Red-headed Woodpecker, i to Myrtle Warbler, i to 4, 6 to 19, 

4, 6 to 19, 21 to 31 21 to 24, 29, 30. 

Brown Thrasher, i, 3, 7, 8 Yellow Palm Warbler, r, 4, 5, 

Chipping Sparrow, 16. 8, 13 

Goldfinch, i, 3, 4, 6 to 10, 12 Golden-crowned Kinglet, i to 4, 

to 17, 19, 24, 26, 28, 29, 31. 6, 8 to 19, 21 to 24, 26, 27, 

Flicker, 4, 6, 7 to 10. 28, 30 

Phoebe, 4 to 8, 10, 12. Fox Sparrow, 4, 8, 11, 13, 15, 

Downy Woodpecker, i, 6 to 9, 21, 31 

13 to 16, 18, 19, 22 to 25, Pine Warbler, i, 11, 13, 15 

29, 30 ,31 White-crowned Sparrow, 4, 7, 

Chickadee, 6 to 9, 11, 12, 15, 8, 14, 15 

16, 19, 21, 22, 24, 25, 27 to 31 Ruby-crowned Kinglet, 4, 16, 
Hairy Woodpecker, 6. 17, 18 

Hell Diver, 24, 31. Lark Sparrow, 4, 7, 9, 10, 15 

Screech Owl, i Indigo Bird, 4 

Black-throated Green Warbler, Black-throated Blue Warbler, 8 

2, 7, 8, 10. Connecticut Warbler, 10, 11 

Hermit Thrush, 3, 6, 9, 13, 16, Savanna Sparrow, 14 

17, 30 Montana Junco, 15, 16 
Snowbird, i to 4, 6 to 10, 12 to3i Red-shouldered Hawk, 19 
Magnolia Warbler, 1, 6 Canada Geese, 20 

Brown Creeper, 16, 18, 20, 24, Tree Sparrow, 21, 22, 23, 27, 

25, 28 to 31. 29, 30, 31 

White-throated Sparrow, i, 3, Bluebird, i, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 12, 13, 

4, 6 to 10, 12 to 16, 18, 19, 15, 16, 25, 30 

21 to 26 

Total number of species seen in October, 50, 

November. 

Crow, I, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, II, 12, 13, Towhee, i 

14, 18, 19, 22 to 26, 29 Red-headed Woodpecker, i, 2, 

Blue Jay, 2, 4, 5, 6, 9, 11, 12, 4 to 7, 9, 11 to 14, 16 to 23, 

14 to 19, 22 to 26, 30 25 to 30 

Robin, 4 Goldfinch, 4, 5, 6, 11 

Song Sparrow, i, 3, 4, 5, 16 Downy Woodpecker, 4, 6, 12, 

Meadowlark, 4 13, 14, 19, 22, 29 

White-breasted Nuthatch, i to Snowbird, i to 9, 11 to 16, 18, 

9, II to 14, 16 to 19, 23 to 30 21, 24, 25, 26 



3IO AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

Chickadee, i, 2, 4 to 7, 12, 13, Hell Diver, 9, 10, 1 1 

14, 16 to 19, 21, 22, 23, 25 Tree vSparrow, 4, 7, 11 to 14, 
to 29 16, 21, 25 

Brown Creeper, i, 3, 4, 5, 6, Myrtle Warbler, 5 
8 to 14, 16 to 19, 21, 22, 23, Hairy Woodpecker, 5 
25 to 29 Kingfisher, 13 

Golden-crowned Kinglet, i, 3, Red-winged Blackbird, 14 
4, 5 Screech Owl, 27, 30 

Total number species seen in November, 21. 
Total number of species seen in autumn, 85. 
Total number of warblers seen in autumn, 18. 
Total number of sparrows seen in autumn, 9. 



A NEW VARIETY OF SAMBUCUS. 

BY J. A. NIEUWLAND. 

Sambuais puhens var. xanthocarpa Nwd. 

Sambucus racemosa var. xanthocarpa. 

Planta in omnibus partibus major quam in specie praecipue 
quoad fructum, inflorescentiam fructiferam, et foliis; baccis 
citrini coloris, 5-6.5 mm. latis et aequa longitudine, globosis, 
subdepressis; seminibus ovoideis 2.5-3 mm. longis et 2 mm. 
latis, facie interiore subcanaliculatis et transverse irregulariter 
striatis. 

This plant was found in a rich miost and low woods at Summit 
Farm No. 4, several miles west of South Bend, Ind., June 25, 1914, 
Type No. 15000 N. D. U. Herbarium. White fruited specimens 
have been noted in the older manuals but the yellow-colored 
fruit is the least of the characters of this plant. Following 
are the differences: the ovoid fruit is only 4.5-5 mm. long and 
3.5-4.5 mm. broad in the red-berried type of our region, the seeds 
less than two and one-half times as wide, though as long, and 
ridged rather than flat or channelled, i. e. triangular in cross 
section. The stigma remains are separated in the new plant with 
depressed calyx, whereas subapiculate in the other. The fruiting 
panicle is about three times as large and the leaves also larger 
in the new variety. Only two or three panicles are found on a 
branch, and in the species as many as six or even more. 



PLA T^ VIII. VOGT on SEEDLINGS. 




PLATE IX. VOGT on SEEDLINGS. 




PLATE X. VOGT on SEEDLINGS. 



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THE 
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Devoted to Natural History-; Pmadtily -»• / 

that of the Prairie St^t^^^^^ y,^*V 



Published by the University of Notre Dame, 
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CONTENTS 

Field-Notes of Western Botany. — I. Edward L. Greene 311 

Notes on Our Local Plants. — VIII. /. .1. Xieuwland 317 



Migration of Our Birds in the Autumn of 1913. 

Brother Alphonsns 327 



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VOL. III. AUGUST, 1914. NO. II. 

FIELD-NOTES OF WESTERN BOTANY.— I. 

By Edw^^rd L. Greene. 

During my now almost twenty years of residence eastward, 
in the valley of the Potomac River, very often, in the course 
of the spring season, I have taken respite from arduous work in 
library, herbarium, and at the writing table, for a few weeks, and 
delighted and refreshed myself by rambles in several parts of 
the Middle West, and sometimes on ground where more than 
fifty years since the keen pleasure of arduous and careful botanizing 
began to be enjoyed. 

The field itself, some few small parts of which have furnished 
the substance of these Notes, is of ver}^ great extent, surpassing 
the combined area of the Eastern and Middle States, several 
times told; and no skilled botanist could spend three days of 
field work in any small section of it without noting interesting 
facts in plenty which are told in none of those manuals, each of 
which idly, and even audaciously, pretends to contain all that 
is worth knowing about the botany of that vast stretch of territory, 
the Prairie vStates. 

J^fyosttnts miniimis, Linn. 

This plant, though written of in the books as if occuring 
almost anywhere between Ontario, Florida, and from Virginia 
westward to the Mississippi and even far beyond it, is in reality 
very seldom met with anywhere; so seldom that I dare venture 
the guess that more than one in ten of the botanists of our land 
has ever seen it alive. I know no record of its having been met 
with in all New England, New York, New Jersey, and Pennsyl- 
vania, and the single station for it in Ontario seems very isolated. 
During some forty seasons of much botanizing in regions lying 



312 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

eastward of the Mississippi, T have met with the plant but twice; 
first pear Nashville, Tennessee, in 1863, last in the prairie region 
of south-central Illinois, in 1908. In this last instance I was im- 
pressed by the copious abundance of the plant and the fact of its 
occurrence there only as a weed in land long under cultivation. 
The individuals could have numbered hundreds of thousands, 
and they were growing amid more scattering and rather small 
plants of shepherd's purse, more or less chickweed, this dwarfed 
as it usually is when exposed in the open field to the full glare of 
sunlight all day, and there were masses here and there of Poa 
Chapmaniana, also almost everywhere a small annual or biennial 
Ranuncuhis of the alliance of R. abortivus, yet very distinct from that 
and even from the western R. micranthus, but for which I have not 
yet invented a name or written a diagnosis. 

The tract of land where myosurus and '•all these its associates 
grew so thriftily was a fallow field. Indian corn had been grown 
there the second season before, then it had lain fallow for a year; 
and the date of my study there was in the very early part of the 
month of May; so that this crop of weeds, botanically so very 
interesting, had held possession of that field, remaining undisturbed 
there, all through the late summer and the autun)n of the year 
1907, the whole of 1908, and through almost the whole spring 
season of 1909. 

I have long entertained a suspicion that this Myosurus 
minimus of the United States is not native here, and have been 
ready to believe that it came into our flora in the first place as a 
chance introduction from Kurope. 

American botanists of the se\'enteenth and eighteenth cen- 
turies — and they were a numerous as well as a goodly com.pan\ 
knew nothing of any myosurus as occurring here. None of the 
Bartrams, Marshalls, Collinses, well travelled as most them 
were, especially southward where it was destined first to be met 
with, ever came upon it. Other men, and later, like Michaux, 
Pursh, and Nuttall, who travelled still more widely, and further 
southward and southwestward, and each with keener eyes, as 
having every one, in his own mind, the purpose of writing a general 
Flora of the country, knew nothing of the existence of the genus 
in America. This was the status of the case as late as the year 
1S18, or near the end of the second decade of the nineteenth century. 
At al)out this time Dr. vShort, of Ilopkinsville, Kentucky, sent to 



FIELD NOTES OF WESTERN BOTANY 313 

Rafinesque some specimens of Myosurus gathered by himself 
at the place named. An account of the plant, as presumably 
indigenous to Kentucky, was published by Rafinesque in 18 19 
(Sillim. Am. Journ. i. 379). Several years afterwards, Dr. Leaven- 
worth found the plant near Augusta, Georgia, so that Elliott was 
enabled to admit it to his Flora — now long since become the great 
classic of southern botany — as an American plant (EH. Sk. i. 582). 
I think its second appearance by name and description in one of 
our Floras was with Eaton & Wright, who reports it as exclusively 
Southern. This was in 1840, yet so rare was the plant even at 
the South, that Chapman in the last issue of his Flora, which 
was in 1897, mentions the two localities for it as Augusta . 
Georgia, and Nashville, Tennessee; and Dr. Small, in even the 
latest issue of his Flora, adds nothing definite about its distribution 
there. 

It is not needful to trace here step by step the history of its 
appearing as an element in the floras of somewhat more northerly 
sections of the country; but there are two interesting facts to be 
taken note of respecting its distribution in this country which 
should be considered. One of thenj is this, that Myosurus mini- 
nriis as from Georgia, Tennessee, and Kentucky, does not spread 
northward at all, except for a little distance, and its advance this 
way is very slow. I think it was not heard of as being within 
the borders of so southerly a State as Virginia until the year 1893, 
when Mr. Coville collected small specimens of the species at 
Norfolk, on the first of April. On this it is remarked in Britton 
and Brown that it seems there like an introduced plant; and such 
beyond doubt it is; for if it had been native in any of that part 
of Virginia, some one or more of the ardent explorers of Virginian 
botany of one hundred and even two hundred years ago most 
probably would have found and recorded it. Its introduction 
at Norfolk, then, may be believed to have taken place quite 
recently. 

Again, quite well southward, even not so far from where Dr. 
Short almost a hundred years since gathered it in Kentucky, is 
my Illinois station for the plant, where also it grows only on cul- 
tivated ground. The locality is in Marion County, a mile or more 
from the town of Odin, going westward along the railway, and 
where having observed it in so surprising an abimdance, yet in a 



314 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

fallow and weedy field, I at once began searching for it in all 
manner of wild lands, but with no success. 

Circumstances like these seem to indicate that Myosurus 
minimus is in America as adventive, and even here and there 
naturalized, from Europe. But there are other facts relating to 
its distribution here that may not seem so easily reconcilable to 
that view. One such fact is that of its much more frequent 
occurrence and apparentl}' up and down the whole length of the 
country in the States that lies on the western banks of the Missis- 
sippi River. It is credited to the Dakotas, Nebraska, and Kansas, 
and in western Missouri Mr. B. F. Bush has found it in many 
places. It is mentioned as being "locally common" there. The 
expression is that of Mackenzie and Bush, in the Flora of Jackson 
County, and will be understood as saying that in each of its 
scattered localities there is plenty of it. But Mr. Bush also obtains 
it, or what he calls by that name, in Arkansas, Oklahoma, and 
even Texas. It has also been obtained, but very scantily, on the 
Rocky Moutnain plains, in Colorado, and in Wyoming. As regards 
Colorado, however, we are to-day wholly without evidence that 
the species ever was naturally other than foreign to that flora. 
According to Mr. P.ydberg it was never fotmd there but once, 
and that long, ago, at Denver, by Miss Eastwood. There might 
have been another citation of it for that same locality if the 
author of the Colorado Flora had consulted my own rich her- 
barium of Colorado plants; for I now find therein a good specimen 
of Myosurus minimus collected by myself at Denver in 1870. 
Even the label was written by me forty years since, and it reads 
Denver, whereby I am assured that I must have found the plant 
within the limits of the straggling town of perhaps 7000 people, 
which was all there was of it at that date, and before the advent 
of the first railway, and while there was yet no State of Colorado, 
but only the Territory of that name. Miss Eastwood's sojourn in 
Denver must have been some ten years or more subsequent to 
mine, and we have proof of the plants' survival there in her day, 
but since then no more seems to have been heard of it as in Colo- 
rado at all; and what in 1870, and even in 1880, were the wild 
untilled plains and sand hills where wild plants grew, and where 
myosurus chanced to be, is now a part of the very heart of the 
great city, and the little adventive may have become extinct. 

I reasonably account for its early occurrence, and at that 



FIELD NOTES OF WESTERN BOTANY 315 

sole point within Colorado, by a retrospect of Denver's early- 
history. In the course of much immigration by wagon train across 
the plains to the Colorado mining districts, at the crossing of the 
Platte, only a two-days journey from the mines, all immigration 
came to a halt; and man and beast rested there for some days, 
and were refreshed before proceeding. In the midst of this riverside 
resting place enterprising tradesmen spread their tents or built 
their sheds or shops of merchandise ; and these were the beginnings 
of Denver. Many a weed and small herb from the East and the 
South must have reached its introduction into Colorado by that 
tide of immigration; some of them probably unable to maintain 
other than a transient foothold, and apparently myosurus was 
among these. 

Whether or not this conjecture about the transiency of 
myosurus at Denver shall prove to be the truth, certain it seems 
that the plant has gained its best development, as well as its 
strongest foothold in America in the northern parts of Missouri, 
and in south-central Illinois, tracts of great extent, and in nearly 
the same latitude. The most perfect-specimens of the species 
which exist in the U. S. Herbarium or in my own were distributed 
from near Allenton, Missouri, by Mr. Letterman. None from 
Europe equal them in the size and fertility of the individual plant; 
but when we come to speak of the material brought from far away 
Texas, we object that the largest and best specimens distributed 
by the zealous and efficient Mr. Bush of Missouri, are not M. 
minimus at all, but represent a species indigenous there, and which 
seems to be awaiting a name and an indication of its very good 
characters. 

To those who have any fair knowledge of North American 
botany as a whole, it is well known that on both sides of the 
Mexican boundary beyond Texas, and also up the coast through 
California, and even to British Columbia, there exist not a few 
native species of this genus whose validity no one doubts or can 
doubt who has seen them; but also M. minimus itself is found 
here and there on that side of the continent, and without doubt 
introduced; it is therefore to be apprehended that mysurus, 
both in the original European type, and in the form of one or 
more of western indigenous species, may make its way into our 
regions eastward, from, the Pacific slope, if indeed it may not 
have done so already. 



3l6 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

By way of incentive to future observation on this genus as 
in the United States eastward let us here take note of two im- 
portant matters, and first, that of the great scarcity of it to the 
eastward of the Mississippi River. We have already seen that 
it has long been known to occur here and there in the South, and to 
the northward of the Ohio River only in southern Illinois. All the 
rest of Illinois, the whole of Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, Wisconsin, 
Minnesota, and Iowa, show no record of myosurus. Then con- 
tinuing eastward, Pennsylvania, New York, the whole of New 
Kngland, and even down to New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland and 
West Virginia form an empire of territory destitute of Myosurus, 
as far as knowledge goes. Nor has it been found in either of the 
Carolinas. Its advent into any one of those states, aggregating as 
they do far the greater part of the Altantic slope within the U. S. 
is to be watched for in the future. The second matter to be taken 
under careful observation is wherther, in a given locality, the 
plant may the more probably have come in from the West or from 
the South. 

The most isolated of known American stations for Myosurus 
mimimus is that at Belleville, near the northwestern shore of 
Lake Ontario in eastern Canada, where it was disco\ered and 
collected as long ago as 1878, by Mr. John Macoun. It is at a 
much greater distance from the familiar Southern Midland 
myosurus territory than Denver is, and is in nothing like direct 
communication with any part of the Ignited vStates where the 
species, or the genus is known. It is beyond all doubt in my 
mind that this East Canadian plant is an importation from some 
part of British Columbia or Alberta, where the species is known 
to occur. This interesting station, however, about which I think 
nothing more has been heard these last thirty-five or forty years, 
deserves to be revisited and the plants investigated in the light 
of what has been herein suggested. 

Hepatica acuHloba, DC. 

On a considerable number of fresh plants of this, which 
some years since Mr. William R. Maxon kindly procured for me 
from northern New York, and which were coming into flower 
v/hen they reached me at Washintgon, I observed that nearly 
all the plants showed almost completely unisexual flowers; some 
exhibiting many stamens but with barely two or three pistils, 



FIELD NOTEvS OF WESTERN BOTANY 317 

others the fullest complement of pistils but only a stamen or 
two, or in some I think not one. I must here state, in passing, 
that having a desire to study these New York plants another 
season, I went out to Rock Creek Park, sought there in the deep 
woods, a cool moist northward slope, such as this species likes, 
and planted them with all care, and at a place to which I believed 
I should easily find my way at any time; but I have sought it 
since in vain. The species is entirely foreign to the flora of this 
region. Supposing that colony w^hich I planted, the locality of 
which I seem to have lost, survives, the possible future discoverer 
of it will stand admonished not to take the species to be indigenous 
there. 

In the middle of May of this year 191 4, in western Wisconsin, 
I had an opportunity of seeing and collecting this species in fruit. 
The achenes had reached their full size and were very nearly 
mature; and now I noticed, while selecting good fruiting spec- 
imens, that such as had no fruit bore among their leaves a full 
complement of mere naked peduncles, which, however, had in 
no degree withered, but were still alive and fresh despite their 
infertility and their nudity, by which latter term I mean that 
not only what we have been taught to call the flower had fallen, 
but even also the so-called involucral leaves. I seemed to have 
before me evidence not only perfect dioecism in this hepatica, but 
also that what we have been taught to regard as the involucre 
in these plants, is really a calyx, and that the supposed sepals 
are a corolla. The consideration of such a fact as this, and one 
so strongly suggestive of a possible revolution in our philosophy 
of the hepatica flower, irust lead to its further observation. The 
living but sterile peduncles seemed to end as abruptly as if there 
had been a joint where the "involucre" had broken away. The 
precise locality at which these observations were made is on a 
steep rocky but densely wooded slope above the Wisconsin River, 
at Woodman, Wisconsin. 



3l8 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

NOTES ON OUR LOCAL PLANTvS.— VIII. 



BY J. A. NIEUWLAND. 



Family 67. RANUNCULACEAE L. Gerard, Fl. Gallopr., 

p. 378 (1761). 

RANUNCULUS Pliny XXV: 13. 

Batrachion Dioscorides and of the Greeks generally, Ranunculus 
Dodonaeus, Thalius, Camerarius, Tabernaemontanus, Gerarde, 
Cordus, • Lobelius, Casalpinus, Casper Bauhin, Matthioli, Lacuna, 
Gesner, Clusius, etc., etc. Ranunculus Tour., Els., p. 240 (1694), 
p. 285 (1700), inclusive of Anemononthaea, Ramtnculus Linn., 
Syst., (1735)- Gen., p. 165 (1737). P- 259 (i753)- Hecatonia Spach, 
Hist. Nat, Veg., VII, p. 198 (1839), also Loureiro, Fl. Cochin, 
China, I, p. 302 (1790). 

The type of this genus is Rannnctdus sceleratus Linn. The 
descriptions of the Greeks, Pliny, and of the pre-Linnaeans 
generally point to this plant without a shadow of doubt. Dr. 
Britton in the last edition of the Illustrated Flora cites R. Auricomus 
Linn., as type of the genus. The very name Ranunculus or Batra- 
chion (a little frog) the Greek literal translation, would have 
suggested a plant inhabitant of marshes where frogs live. 
" BaTpd;^<oi^ Dioscoridi lib. 2. cap. 106 o\ he Ge?.LVOV dypiov & 
Latinis ranunculus: procul dubio quod limitibus, opacisque margi- 
nibus ranarum more laetetur aut quia inter ejus frutices ranae 
frequenter inveniantur." C. Bauhin, Phytopinax, p. 319 (1596). 

Ranunculus aquaticus M. Vergihus, Diosc, p. 509 (1529) 

Ranunculus aquaticus Fuchs, Hist., t. 88 (1545) also (1549), 
Ranunculus palustris V. Cordus, Hist., (1561), Ranunculus palus- 
tris Dodonaeus Trium Prior. St. Hist., p. 406 (1554), Ranunculus 
sylvestris Dod., Pempt., p. 426, 111:2:2, i (1583), etc. Ranunculus 
sceleratus Linn., vSp. PI., p. 551 (1753). Hecatonia palustris Lour., 
1. c. p. 303, also Spach, 1. c. Ranunculus Scelerata Linn, and Hes- 
selgr., Pan Suec. Am. Acad., II, p. 250 (1751). 

Michigan City, Laporte Co. (C. D. Mell), Nos. 9147 St. 
Joseph, Mich. 9255 Benton Harbor, Mich. 

Ranunculus abortivus Linn., Sp. PL, p. 551 (i753)- 

Nos. 6069 Benton Harbor, Mich. (Tidestrom), St. Joseph Co. 
(Rothert), 11 104 Notre Dame. 



NOTES ON OUR LOCAL PLANTS 319 

Ranunculus Purshii Richards. Frank. Jr., p. 741 (1823). 

Ranunculus limosus Nutt., T. and G., Fl. N. Am., I, p. 20 
(1838), Ranunculus multifidus var. repens S. Wats., Bot. Kings 
Exp., p. 8. (1871). 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke). 

Ranunculus delphinifolius Torr., Eaton's Man., Ed. II, 
p. 395 (1818). 

Ranunculus multifidus Pursh, Fl. Am. Spet., p. 736 (1814), 
Ranunculus lacustris Beck and Tracy, N. Y. Med. and Phys. Jr., 
II, p. 112 (1823). 

Pine, Lake Co. ,Ind. (H. H. Babcock), Hammond, Ind. (Hill), 
Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke). 

Ranunculus caricetorum Greene, Pitt., V. p. 194 (1903). 

Nos. 560 Chain Lakes, St. Joseph Co., 900, iiio2y, Notre 
Dame, Ind. 2485, 3677, Notre Dame (Powers), ii463>^, Websters 
north of Notre Dame, 6214 Benton Harbor, Mich. (Tidestrom). 
Found also abundantly in Laporte, Porter, Van Buren, Cass, and 
Elkhart Cos. 

Ranunculus septentrionalis Poir. in Lam. Encyc, VI, p. 125 
1804. 

Nos. 2487, 2528, 2529, 1 1 160, Notre Dame, 1919, North of 
Notre Dame near the Michigan State Boundary. 

Ranunculus pensylvanicus Linn, f., vSuppl. p. 272 (1781). 

Laporte Co. (Barnes), Clarke, (Umbach), Nos. 947S, 9092 
Notre Dame, 11349 Husdon Lake, Laporte Co. 

Ranunculus recurvatus Poir. in Lam. Encyc, VI, p. 125 (1804). 

St. Joseph Co. (Rothert), Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke), 
Nos. 6206 Notre Dame (Tidestrom), 3305 Benton Harbor (Tide- 
strom), 1 1277 Notre Dame. Found also in Porter, Laporte, Van 
Buren, Cass, Berrien, Elkhart and Lake Cos. 

Ranunculus repens J. Bauhin, Hist. Font. Boll., IV, p. 207 
(1598). 

Ranunculus repens Linn., and Hessesgr. Pan Suec, Am. Acad. 
II, p. (1751), also Sp. PL, p. 4554 (1753), Ranunculus vinealis 
Tabernaemontanus. 

St. Joseph Co. (Rothert), Nos. 2485 Notre Dame, 11098 
Benton Harbor. The latter is a rather larger well nourished 
specimen growing on the springy side of a hill in rich soil. The 
plant often completely invades lawns in cities. 



320 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

Ranunculus acer Linn., Sp. PL, p. 554 (1753), cor. Host.* 

Ranunculus acris Linn. L c, also Pan Suec, Amoen, Acad., 1. c. 

Michigan City (C. D. Mell), South Haven, Van Buren Co., 
Mich. (L. H. Bailey), Nos. 3662 Olivers, SW. of South Bend 
98 Granger St. Joseph Co. Ind. qSV^, Mishawaka, Ind., 866 Galien 
Berrien Co., Mich. 

Ranunculus fascicularis Muhl., Cat., p. 54 (1813). 

Lake Co. (Hill), Nos. 17432^^ Notre Dame (Powers), 11135 
SE of Notre Dame, 9527 N. of Notre Dame. Rather frequent 
in sandy places and along reoadsids in this country. 

Ranunculus bulbosus Lobelius, Obs., p. 380 (1576), also 
Ic p. 666 (1581). 

Ranunculus bulbosus Linn., Sp. PL, p. 554 (1753) also Pan 
Suecus 1. c. Fl. Lap. p. 229 (1737), also Matthioli Kreuterbuch, 
ed Camerarius p. 199b (1586), Thalius Fl. Here, p. 96 (1588), 
also Gerarde etc. Ranunculus rapaceus Caesalpinus ace. to Bubani, 
"Caesalp. Herbr. Tornab." Ranunculus exiguus Tragus, Ranun- 
culus tuberosus Dod., Pempt., 111:4:4. 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke), Nos. 2633, 9024 Millers, 
Lake Co., Ind. 

BATRACHIUM S. F. Gray, Nat. Arr. Br. PL, H, 720 (1821). 
Trichophyllos Columna, Ekphrasis, (16 16), also ex Morison, PL 
Ox., t. 29 (1715), not Trichophyllon Theophrastus= (Ulva or Moss 
sp.) Ranunculoides Vaillant, Act. p. 49 (17 19), also Fl. Par. p. 
105 (1723) also reduced to subgenus (1727). Ranunculus species 
of Tour, and Linnaeus. Polyanthemum Dodonaeus Pempt., 4:5:7 
(1583), not Polyanthemum Pliny XXVII :i 2 = Double flowered 
Ranunculi = Polyanthemum Dodonaeus, 1. c, 3:4:1. 

Batrachium trichophyllus F. Schultz, Ar. Fl, Fr., I, p. 107 
(1848). 

Ranunculus trichophyllus Chaix in Vill. Hist. PL Dauph., I, 
P- 335 (1786), Ranunculus aquatilis var. trichophyllus A, Gray, 
Man., Ed. 5, p. 40, (1867). 

Laporte Co. (Barnes), St. Joseph Co. (Rotbert), Lake Maxin- 
kuckee (H. W. Clarke). 



* So far has the idea of priority subsessed the minds of some of our 
modern botanists in this country that it would appear a breach of priority 
to correct the grammatical blunders of Linnaeus and so though Ranunculus 
is masculine for all its other adjectives as binary captions it will remain 
feminine to accommodate Linnaeus' mistake in writing acris here for acer. 



NOTES ON OUR LOCAL PLANTS 32 1 

Batrachium circinatum (vSibth.) Rchb. Spach, Hist. Veg. 
VII, p. 201 (1839). 

Ranunculus circinatus Sibth., Smith, Fl. Britt. I, p. 596 (1800), 
Ranunculus aquatilis var. divaricatus A. Gray, Man. ed. II, p. 7 
(1856). 

Sheffield, Ind. (Higdon and Raddin), Pine Lake, Laporte Co., 
Nos. 2050, 3678, 1 1 182, Notre Dame, Ind. 

HEPATIC A Tragus in Brunfels Herb. Viv. Ic, II, p. 192 

(i530- 

Hepatica Brunfels, Herb. Viv. Ic, I, p. 190 (1532), Hepatica 
Dodonaeus Trium Stirp. Hist., p. 68 (1553), Dillenius, Nov. Gen., 
p. 108 (17 1 9), Gesner, Parkinson, Thalius, etc. 

Trinitas Haller, Enum. Stirp. Helvet., I, 320 (1742), also Mat- 
thioli, Anguillara, Cordus, etc. Ranunculus sp. Tour. Els., p. 239 
(1694), I- R- I^-' P- 286 (1700), Hepatica Linnaeus, Syst. (1735), 
Gen., p. 162 (1737), p. 235 (1742), Hort. Cliff., p. 223 (1737), 
Anemone sp. Gen., p. 241 (1754), Sp. PL, p. 538 (1753). 

Hepatica nobilis Camerarius, MatthioH, Kreuterb. 292 (1586). 

Hepatica trifolia Lobelius, Obs., p. 496, 597 (1574). as Hepati- 
cmn trifolium Lob. 1. c. also Hepatica nobilis 1. c. Hepatica nobilis 
Volckamer, Fll Norimb., p. 208 (1700), also Schreb., Fl. Lip. 
P- 39 (1771)) Hepatica nobilis sive trifolia Parkinson, Par. p. 225 
(1629) Hepatica trifolia Morison, Oxon., p. 433 (1715). Hepatica 
trifolia Clusius Pannon., p. 745 (1583). Anemone Hepatica Linn., 
Sp. PI., p. 538 (1753), Hepatica verna Linn., and Hesselgr., Pan 
Suec, Am. Acad., p. 250 (1751), Hepatica triloba Chaix, Vill. 
Hist. PI. Dauph., I, p. 336 (1886). 

St. Joseph Co. (Rothert), Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke), 
Lake Co. (Hill), Laporte Co. (Deam), No. 490 Notre Dame. 
Found in woods and copses on shady hillsides in all the counties. 

Heptica acuta (Pursh) Britton, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., VI, 
p. 234 (1891). 

Hepatica acuta (Pursh) Britton, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., VI, 

Hepatica triloba var. acuta Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept., p. 391 (18 14), 
Hepatica acutiloba DC, Prod., I, 22 (1824). 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke), Lake Co. (Hill), Laporte 
Co. (Deam), Nos. 512, 1837, 2764, Rum Village south of South 
Bend. Not as common as the preceding but found also in Laporte, 
Berrien, Van Buren Cos. 

NEMOROSA Ruppius, Fl. Jenensis, p. 128 (1726) (1718). 



322 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

Nemorosa Haller in Riip., Fl. Jen., p. i6o (1745), Anemonoides 
(Hott) Dillen, Gen., p. 107 (1719), Vaillant, A. G. (17 19), Heister, 
Syst. PI. p. 7, (1748), Anemonoides Fabr., Enum. PI. Hort. Helm., 
II., II, p.. 121 (1763), Anemonanthaea (DC.) S.F.Gray, Nat. Arr. 
Br. PI., II, p. 724 (1821), Anemanthus Fourr., Ann. Soc. Linn. 
Lyon., n. s. XVI, p. 323 (1868). 

Nemorosa quinquefolia (Linn.) 

Anemone quinquefolia Linn., Sp. PI. p. 541 (1753). Aneman- 
thaea quinquefolia (lann.) Nwd., Am. Mid. Nat., Ill, p. 174 (1914). 

Laporte Co. (Deam), Mineral Springs (Deam), Lake Co. 
(Deam) (Hill), Lake Maxinkuckee (IT. W. Clarke) No. 3638 
Notre Dame (Powers), 2544, 9523, Notre Dame, 11032 lapaz 
Junction, Marshall Co. Found also in Berrien, Van Buren, Klkhart, 
Cass Cos. 

Nemorosa canadensis (Linn.). 

Anemone canadensis Linn., Syst., Ee. 12, III App. p. 231 
(1768), Anemone pennsylvanica Linn., Mant II. p. 247 (1771). 

Elkhart Co. (Barnes), St. Joseph Co. (Rothert), Michigan 
City, (C. D. Mell) Nos. 2505, 3645 Notre Dame (Powers), 2514, 
1822, 1847, 9230, 26, 901 Notre Dame and vicinity. 

ANEMONE Theophrastus, Hippocrates, Dioscorides 11:207, 
Pliny XXI 123. 

Anemone Clusius, C. Bauhin, J. Bauhin, Dodonaeus, Lobelius, 
Caesalpinus, Tabernaemontnaus, Camerarius, Gerarde, etc., etc. 
Anemone Tour. Els., p. 238 (1496), I. R. H., p. 275 (1700), Anemone 
Linn., Syst. (1735), Gen. p. 163 (1737), p. 241 (1754). 

Anemone virginiana Linn., Sp. PI., p. 540 (1753). 

vSt. Joseph Co., (Rothert), Elkhart Co. (Barnes), Lake Co. 
(Hill), Nos. 3641 Notre Dame, Ind., Bertrand, Mich., Berrien Co. 
(B. Gregory), 18, 1871, 9402, 2132, 11354, 9231, Notre Dame and 
vicinity, 9743 Dune Park, Lake Co. Found also in Elkhart, Cass, 
Van Buren, Berrien, Laporte, Porter, Lake Cos. 

Anemone cylindrica A. Gray, Ann. Lye. N. Y., Ill, p. 221 
(1836). 

Laporte Co. (Deam), Elkhart, (Barnes), Lake, (Hill, Deam), 
Lake Maxinkuckee (Deam, Miss Beardsley), Nos. 9703 Dune 
P3,rk, 19842/^2, Mineral Springs. 

CLEMATIS Dioscorides IV:i82, Pliny XXIV:io. 

Clematis Matthioli, Chabraeus, Clusius, Cordus, Castor 
Durante, Thalius, Lacuna, Lobelius, Fesner, Camerarius, Dodo- 



NOTES ON OUR LOCAL PLANTS 323 

naeus, etc. Clematis Ruellius, Diosc, p. 307 (1547), Marcellus 
Vergilius, Diosc. p. 463, (1529), Clematitis C. Bauhin, also Tour. 
Els. p. 243 (1694), I. R. H., p. 293 (1700), Clematitis Linn., Syst. 
(1735)- Atragene Theophrastus, Hist., V:io { = Clematis Vitalba 
Linn.) not Atragene Linn, and of modern authors, Vitalba Dodo- 
naeus, Guillandini, Caesalpinus, Atragene Anguillara, Clusius, 
Viorna Lobelius, Gerarde, not Viorna of modern authors, 
( = Clematis Viorna Linn.) Clematis T^nn., Gen., p. 163 (1737), 
p. 242 (1754)- 

Clematis virginiana Linn., Amoen. Acad., IV, p. 275 (1759). 

Pine, Ind. (Dodge), Nos. 3715, 1971, Notre Dame, Ind. 
Found in all the counties of the region. 

Family 68. THALICTRACEAE Greene, Leaflets Bot. Obs. 
and Grit., II, p. 49 (1910). 

SYNDESMON Hoffmg., Flora, XV, pt. 2, Intell. Bl. 4, -p. 
34 (1832). 

Anemonella Spach. Hist. Nat. Veg., VII, p. 239 (1839). 

Syndesmon thalictroides (Linn.) Hoffmg., 1. c. 

Anemonella thalictroides Spach, 1. c, p. 240, Anemone thalic- 
troides Linn., Sp. PL, p. (1753), Thalictrum anemonoides Michx., 
Fl. Bor. Am., I, p. 322 (1803). 

Lake Co. (Hill), St. Joseph Co. (Rothert), Laporte Co. (Deam), 
Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke). Nos 614 N. of Notre Dame, 
3631, 3632, Notre Dame. Found in every county in the range. 

LEUCOCOMA (Greene) Nieuwland, Am. Mid. Nat., Ill, p. 

253 (1914)- 

Subgenus Leucocoma Greene, Leaflets, II, p. 55, 89 (1910) 
in part. 

Leucocoma canadensis (Miller), Nwd., 1. c. p. 254 (1914). 

Thalictrum canadense Miller, Gard. Diet., Ed. 8, (1768). 
Thalictrum 'polygamum Muhl., Cat., p. 54, (1813), Thalictrum 
Cornuti T. and G. Fl. N. Am., I, p. 38, (1838) not Linnaeus, 
Thalictrum corynellum DC, Prod., I, p. 12 (1824). 

Lake Maxinkuckee, (H. W. Clarke), Nos. 2759, ii742>^, 
Mineral Springs. 

The following plants being diocous are more strictly referable 
to Leucocoma than to Thalictrum. proper which has perfect flowers. 
They may well be put in a separates ubgenus and perhaps even 
genus. 



324 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

Leucocoma dasycarpa (Fisch. and Lall.) Nwd. 

Thalicinim dasycarpum Fisch. and Lall., Ind. Sem. Hort. 
Petrop., VIII, p. 72 (1842). 

Nos. 2786, S. of South Bend, Ind. on the Turkey Creek Road, 
in a tamarack bog. (A tall slender specimen more than 8 ft. tall), 
2720, Stephensville, Berrien Co., Mich., 7428, Notre Dame (W. 
Johnson). 1844 Notre Dame. 

Leucocoma dioica (Linn.) Nwd. 

Thalictrum dioicum Linn., Sp. PI., p. 545 (1753). 

Laporte Co. (Deam), Lake Maxinkuckee ; H. W. Clarke), 
Nos. 571, 427, 9519b, 9519a, Notre Dame, 11066 Lapaz Junction, 
Marshall Co. 

ENEMION Rafinesque, Jr. Phys., XCI, p. 70 (1820). 

Enemiiim Steudel, Nom., Ed. II, I, p. 554 (1840). 

As Rafinesque pointed out this American genus is sufficiently 
distinct from the old world genus Olja Adans. { = Isopyrum Linn., 
not Theophrastus and of the pre-Linnaeans). The American plant is 
always devoid of petals. The European and old-world Isopyrum 
Linn, has 5 nectariform or slightly sac-like petals. The old world 
plants are thus intermediate between Enemion Raf . on the one hand 
and Aquilegia on the other. 

Enemion biternatum Raf., 1. c. 

Isopyrum hiternaum (Raf.) T. and G., Fl. N. Am. I, p. 660, 
(1840). 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. .W Clarke), Nos. 453, 816, Rum Village 
S. of South Bend, 2541, 9526, Notre Dame. Found in all the 
counties. 

Family 69. HELLEBORACEAE Loiseleur- 
Delongchamps, Man. PI. Us. (1819). 

Paeoniaceae Bartling, Ord. Nat., p. 251 (1830) in part. 

COPTIS Salisbury, Trans. Linn. Soc, VIII, p. 305 (1803). 

Coptis trifolia (Linn.) Salisb. 1. c. 

Helleborus trifolius Linn., Sp. PI., p. 784 (1762). 

Berry Lake, Ind., Pine, Ind. Lake Co. (Higdon and Raddin), 
Millers, Lake Co. (Umbach), Mineral Springs (Dame), Nos. 938, 
9098, 11667, 2768 Mineral vSprings, 9162 Sagunay, Laporte Co. 

AQUILEGIA Fuchs. Hist. Stirp. p. 39 (1546). 

Aquilegi Marcellus Vergilius Cor. Herm. Barb., 50, 4, 39, 
(1529), Aquileia Tragus in Brunfels, Herb. Viv. Ic, II, p. 183 



NOTES ON OUR LOCAL PLANTS 325 

(1531) form of Aquilegia. Aquilegia Dodon., Hist., p. 124 (1557), 
also Bauhin, Royen, Dalibard, Morison, etc., etc., Tour., Els., 
P- 339 (i694)> I- R- H., p. 428 (1700), Linn., Syst. (1735), Gen. 
p. 160 (1737); p. 236 (1754). Aquilina Lobelius, Obs. p. 440 
(1576) also Castor Durante, Tabernaemontanus, Breynius, Mat- 
thioli. Hist., p. 320 (1554) p. 332, (1557) also Matthioli. II. Diosc. 
p. 409 (1552). 

Aquilegia canadensis (Cornuti) Unn., Sp. PI. p. 534 (1753). 

St. Joseph Co. (Rothert), Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke), 
Lake Co. (Hill)., Porter (Deam), Nos. 2023, 134723^ Notre Dame 
(Powers), 6056 (Tidestrom), 589, 9445, 11083, 12^46^4 Notre 
Dame, 17461^ Lapaz Junction, 10008 Mineral vSprings. 

POPULAGO Tabernaemontanus, Neeuw Kreuterb., p. 118, 
(1590). 

Populago Tours., Els., p. 238 (1694), I- R- H., p. 273 (1700), 
Caltha Linn. vSyst. (1735), Gen. p. 165 (1737), p. 244 (1754), not 
Caltha of the older botanists, ( = Calendula). Populago Moench, 
Meth., p. 300 (1794). 

Populago palustris (Linn.) Moench. 1. c. 

Caltha pulustris Linn., Sp. PL, p. 58S (1753), also Pan Suecus, 
p. 250 (1751)- 

Lake Co. (Deam), Laporte Co. (Deam), Lake Maxinkuckee 
(H. W. Clarke), Nos. 1968, 143661^, 1948K, Notre Dame, Ind. 
(Powers), 5816, Notre Dame, 476, Niles, Berrien Co., Mich., 
458, Edwardsburg, Cass Co., Mich., 829, North Liberty, St. 
Joseph Co., Ind., 2751, Mineral Springs, Porter Co., No. 948 
from the same place has the upper leaves under the inflorescence 
somewhat lobed not unlike those of the red maple, the leaves 
were laciniately toothed the plant very tall and slender owing to 
the fact that it grew in the shade in a tamarack bog. The flowers 
were only about one half as large as in the other plants through- 
out the region and the plant was in full bloom, in June. 

CONSOLTDA Brunfels, Herb. Viv. Ic, I, p. 84c (1532). 

ConsoUda Anguillara, Castor Durante, Tabernaemontanus, 
Gerarde, Lobelius, Camerarius, S. F. Gray, etc.. Delphinium, 
Dodonaeus, Hist., p. 123 (1557), also Clusius, Tour., Els., 338 
(1694), I. R. H. p. 426 (1700), Linn., S. Syst. (1735), Gen. p. 158 
(1737) P- 236 (1754) Delphinium Spach, Hist. Nat. Veg. VII, 
P- 355 (1839). 



326 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURAIJST 

Consolida regalis (Brunfels) S. F. Gray, Ant. Arr. Br. PI. 
II, p. 711 (1821). 

Delphinium Consolida Linn., Sp. PL, p. 530 (1753). 

A specimen of this plant is present in the University her- 
barium collected by Dr. Powers. 

Consolida Ajacis (Linn.). 

Concolida Ajacei Schur., in Verb. Siebenb. Ver. Nattirw. IV, 
p. 67, (^1853). Delphtni-MiH Ajacis Linn., 1. c. 

Lake Co. (Deam), Van Buren Co., (H. S. Pepoon). I have 
found it escaped around Notre Dame but did not collect specimens. 

Macrotrys Raf., Med. Rep. N. Y., V, 352 (1808). 

Macrotys Raf. Jor. Bot. 11, p. 170 ex DC. Prod. I, p. 64 (1824), 
also Syst. p. 383 (1818), Cimicifuga Linn., Syst. Ed. 12, p. 659 
(1747), also Am. Acad. II, p. 354 (1751) in part. 

Macrotrys racemosa Sweet, Hort. Brit. Ip. 9 (1827). 

Cimicifuga racemosa Nutt., Gen., II, p. 15 (18 18). Actaea 
racemosa Linn., vSp. PL, p. 504 (1753). 

The plant has been reported from Pine Station, Ind. (Lake 
Co.) by Brennan. 

CHRISTOPHORIANA Gesner, Hort. Ger. p. 253 (1561). 

Christophoriana Lobelius Adv. p. 304 (1576) also Parkinson, 
Dodonaeus, Clusius, Volckamer, Dillenius, Ruppius, Haller, 
Adanson, Micheli, Manotti, /.inn, Buxbaum, Moench, Heister, 
etc. Tour., Els., p. 248 (1694), I. R. H. p. 299 (1700) Actaea 
Linn., Syst., Gen. p. 151 (1737), p. 222 (1751) not Actaea Pliny, 
XXVII, 7, 26, and of some of the ancients =Saribucus Ebulus 
Linn, (but certainly not our plant.) 

Christophoriana rubra (Ait.) Nwd. 

Actaea rubra (Ait.) Willd., Enum. p. 561 (1809), Actaea spicata 
ver. rubra Ait. Hort. Kew., II, p. 221 (1789). 

No. 9682 Notre Dame, with the ripe fruit. Also nos. 2530, 
2523 Notre Dame. 

Christophoriana alba (Linn.) Nwd. 

Actaea alba (Linn.) Miller Gard. Diet., Ed. 8, no. 2, (1768), 
Actaea spicata var. alba Linn., Sp. PL, p. 504 (1753). 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke), Nos. 2051 Notre Dame 
(Powers), II 725 Notre Dame, 500. 505 St. Joseph River near Notre 
Dame, 2075, 2707, 10292, 11 708 Rum Village south of South 
Bend. Very common. Found also at Mimich, Mich, growing with 
the preceding but more common. Also at Stephensville, St. Joseph, 



MIGRATION OF OUR BIRDS 327 

Galien, Benton Harbor, Edwardsburg, Mich. Mineral Springs, 
Tamarack, Millers, Dune Park, Michigan City, Mishawaka, 
North Liberty, Lakeville, etc. 

HYDRASTIS 'Ellis, Linn., Syst., ed. lo, p. 1088, (1759) May. 

Warnera Miller Gardeners' Diet., (1759) June (1763) Abr. 
Gard. Diet., Warneria Miller, Abr. Gard. Diet., (1763). 

Hydrastis canadensis Ellis, 1. c. 

Warnera canadensis Miller Gard. Diet., (1768). 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Vlarke), Nos. 523, 468, 823, 402, 
60S, 1892, 2553, 2531, 6060, 11041, N. of Notre Dame. Reported 
by Kaczmarek from south of Laporte. Found also in Stude- 
baker's woods, S. of So. Bend, but very scarce. 

(To be continued.) 



MIGRATION OF OUR BIRDS IN THE 
AUTUMN OF 1913. 



BY BROTHER ALPHONSUS, C. S. C. 



The autumn migration of our birds began on August 3, with 
the departure of the Yellow Warbler. The Orchard Oriole was 
last recorded on July 22, but this can not have been appromixately 
the time of the bird's migration; for in 191 2 the last record 
was nearly a month later — on August 20. Another species that 
was observed for the last time on July 15 was the Bobolink, which 
is the latest record I have ever made for this species. The last 
week in August marked the arrival of the first migrants — notably 
warblers — from the north. The total number of migrants ob- 
served this autumn was considerably larger than any previous 
records for the same season. The writer's own diligence and good 
fortune may account for this notable increase. 

In September the arrival of migrants from the north con- 
tinued throughout the month, the total number being 20 species. 
The very early arrival of the Snowbird was unprecedented, for 
last autumn this species was first observed on vSept. 28. The 
Kingbird's date of migration was the latest I have ever recorded — 
no doubt due to the very warm weather in the early part of Sep- 
tember. The Crested Flycatcher migrated 5 days earlier than last 
autumn. The last record for the Chipping Sparrow in 191 2 was 



528 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

on Spet. 6, or 63 days earlier than the date of migration in 1913. 
This year the species was observed almost daily throughout 
September, but there was only one record for October — on the 
14th — with an absence of 17 days. But the most striking occur- 
rence of the autumn migration of 19 13 was the presence of the 
Red-headed Woodpecker throughout the season and into 
winter. 

Nearly every species was recorded later in the autumn of 
191 3 than in that of 191 2. Here are some of last year's dates of 
migration and the difference in days from this year's dates:: 
Brown Thrasher, Sept. 13, 25 days earlier; Catbird, Sept. 18, 

7 days earlier; Wood Pewee, Sept. 18, 10 days earlier; Redstart, 
Sept. 20, 8 days earlier; Indigo Bird, Sept. 22, 13 days earlier; 
Mourning Dove, Sept. 23, 17 days earlier; Sapsucker, Oct. 3, 

8 days earlier; Cowbird, Oct. n, 5 days earlier; Yellow Palm 
Warbler, Oct. 12, 2 days earlier; Hermit Thrush, Oct. 13, 19 days 
earlier; Field Sparrow, Oct. 14, 11 days earlier; White -throated 
Sparrow, Oct. 25, 2 days earlier; Robin, Oct. 27, 9 days earlier; 
Meadowlark, Oct. 15, 21 days earlier; Myrtle Warbler, Oct. 27, 
10 days earlier; Kingfisher, Oct. 27, 18 days earlier; Red- winged 
Blackbird, Nov. i, 16 days earlier; Killdeer, Oct. 21, 4 days 
earlier. 

A few species migrated later in 191 2 than in 1913: Chimney 
Swift, on Sept. 29, 5 days later; Red-breasted Nuthatch, on Oct. 
24, 4 days later; Bluebird, on Nov. 8, 9 days later; Song Sparrow, 
on Dec. 15, 8 days later. 

Migrants seen in 191 3 and not in 191 2 were: Grasshopper 
Sparrow, White-crowned Sparrow, Swamp Sparrow, Savanna 
vSparrow, Lark .Sparrow, Fox Sparrow, Bay-breasted Warbler, 
Black-throated Blue Warbler, Magnolia Warbler, Tennessee 
Warbler, Nashville Warbler, Chestnut-sided Warbler, Prairie 
Warbler, Connecticut Warbler, Sycamore Warbler, Overbird, Long- 
billed Marsh Wren, Blue-headed Vireo, Night-hawk, Water Thrush, 
Brown Creeper, Maryland Yellowthroat, Black-billed Cuckoo, 
Virginia Rail, Lesser Yellowlegs, Blue Gray Gnatcatcher, Wood 
Thrush, Montana Junco; total, 28 species. 

Migrants seen in 191 2 and not in 19 13 were: Loggerhead 
shrike, Orchard Oriole, Wilson Warbler, Herring Gull, Vesper 
Sparrow, Cardinal, Northern Shrike; total, 7 species. 



MIGRATION OF OUR BIRDS 



329 



August. 



3 Yellow Warbler 

5 Grasshopper vSparrow 

14 Alder Flycatcher 

15 Whip-poor-will 

16 Loom 

25 Least Flycatcher arrived 
25 Purple Martin 
28 Long-billed Marsh Wren 
28 0\erbird arrived 



29 Black and White Warbler 
arrived 

29 Redstart arrived 

30 Hermit Thrush arrived 

30 Black-throated Green War- 
bler arrived 

30 Bay breasted Warbler arrived 

31 Barn Swallow 

31 Greater Yellowlegs. 



September. 



2, Black-throated Blue Warbler 20 

arrived 20 

3 Red-eyed Vireo 20 

4 Baltimore Oriole 

4 Magnolia Warbler arrived 20 

4 vSnowbird arrived 23 

5 vSwamp vSparrow 23 
5 Tennessee Warbler arrived 23 

5 Nashville Warbler arrived 24 

6 Kingbird ' 24 

7 Blue-headed Vireo 24 

8 Nighthawk 24 

9 Connecticut Warbler arrived 25 

10 Nashville W^arbler 25 

1 1 Prairie Warbler arrived . 26 
1 1 Cedarbird 26 

1 1 Pine Warbler arrived. 26 

12 Crested Flycatcher 26 

12 Water Thrush arrived 27 

13 Brown Creeper arrived 

13 Maryland Yellowthroat 27 

14 Black-billed Cuckoo 27 

15 Warbling Vireo 27 
15 White-throated vSparrow ar- 28 

rived 28 

19 Sapsucker arrived 28 

19 Sparrow Hawk 30 



Hummingbird 

Red-breasted Nuthatch 

Ruby-crowned Kinglet 
arrived 

Prairie Warbler 

Chestnut-sided Warbler 

Sycamore Warbler 

Tennessee Warbler 

Chimney vSwift 

Yellow-billed Cuckoo 

Lesser Yellowlegs. 

Lark Sparrow arrived 

Catbird 

Bay-breasted Warbler 

Overbird 

Least Flycatcher 

Virginia Rail 

Blue Gray Gnatcatcher 

Golden-crowned Kinglet ar- 
rived. 

Myrtle Warbler arrived. 

Black and White Warbler 

Water Thrush 

Wood Pewee 

Redstart 

Savanna Sparrow arrived 

Wood Thrush 



330 



AMERICA>7 MIDLAND NATURALIST 



October. 



5 Indigo Bird 

6 Chickadee arrived 

6 Hairy Woodpecker arrived 

7 Magnolia Warbler 
9 Brown Thrasher 

9 Black-throated Blue Warbler 
TO Mourning Dove 
T I Flicker 

1 1 Black-throated Green War- 
bler 

1 1 Sapsucker 

12 Connecticut Warliler 

13 Phoebe 

14 House Wren 

14 Yellow Palm Warbler 

15 Savanna Sparrow 



15 Montana Junco arrived 

16 Cowbird 

16 Pine Warbler 

16 White-crowned vSparrow 

16 Lark Sparrow 

17 Chipping Sparrow 
17 Montana Junco 

19 Ruby-crowned Kinglet 

20 Red-shouldered Hawk 

20 Canada Geese 

21 Tree Sparrow 

25 Bronzed Grackle 

27 Field Sparrow 

27 White-throated Sparrow 

31 Bluebird 

31 Killdeer 



November. 



I Hermit Thrush 

1 Fox vSparrow 

2 Towhee 
5 Robin 

5 Meadowlark 

C Golden-crowned Kinglet 



6 Hairy Woodpecker 
6 Myrtle Warbler 
12 Kill Diver 

14 Kingfisher 

15 Red- winged Blackbird 



December. 

1 Meadowlark reappeared 1 1 Bronzed Grackle reappeared 

2 Meadowlark departed 14 Goldfinch 

7 Song Sparrow 16 Brown Creeper 

Total number of migrants seen, 85. 



CRiTlCAIv NOTES 33 1 

CRITICAL NOTES ON NEW AND OLD GENERA 
OF PLANTS.— III. 



BY J. A. NIEUWLAND. 



Chlorophyllum. 

A rather unusual oversight, such in fact as one would scarcely 
expect in modern biological nomenclature is the case of the fungus 
name Cbloropliylhmi. Raiinesque on occasion had published a 
name and afterward quite unaware apparently or forgetful of 
his own previous publication thereof used it a second time for 
an altogether different plant.' In volume 9, p. 172 of the North 
American Flora, ^ Murrill founded a new genus of fungi from 
Guiana on Neurophyllum viride Pat. which he called Chlorophyllum, 
and in the same work, volume 10, p. 64-' there appears another 
Chlorophylum Mass.'' a plant not only in the same family but 
also the type from the same country. It is perfectly evident 
that in a work as well prepared as the North American Flora the 
two can not be expected to merit survival under the same name. 
That of Massey seems to possess priority and another designation 
is demanded for Murrill's Chlorophyllum. Even in mycology 
where the nomenclature has not been as exactly and exhaustively 
systematized by any means as in the case of the ferns and 
phanerogams, exemplified by the Index of Christensen and Kew, 
one could hardly have looked for a mistake like the above men- 
tioned, and in the Flora at that. Such oversights are, however, 
easily made, and without blame to any extent on the part of 
either author or editor, so difficult a matter is the perfect editing 
of a work of the scope and pretensions of this Flora. 

The name Chlorophyllum is a name especially for a chloro- 
phylless plant, nor even a real leafy one is hardly a good one for 
either, nor is the use of a name already used in botany as the 
latin equivalent of the fimctioning photosynthetic "organ" of 
plant food elaboration to be recommended as applicable to 
systematic entity or genus. To replace the antedated name 



' See Am. Mid. Nat. I, p. 238 (1910). 

^ Feb. 3 (1910). 

^ July 28 (1914). 

^ Ma.ssey, Kew. Bull. p. 136 (1898). 



332 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

wc may suggest MnrriUia.^ Following is the synonymy: 
Murrillia Noiii. no v. 

Chlorophyllmn Murrill, N. Am. V\. g, p. 172 (1910) not 
Chlorophyllnm Massey, Kew Bull. p. 136 (1898). 

Chlorophyllum viridc Murrill 1. c. Ncuropliylhuu viride Pat. 
Jour, de Rot. 2, p. 406 (1888). 

Phragmites. 

The name Phragmites Trin.^ is still retained by our manual 
makers, ad that in spite of their rules that do not tolerate the 
retention of a name that had been previously used for another 
plant whether in the judgment of present day nomenclators the 
first named plant deserved valid generic slanding or not. There 
already existed a different or doubtful Phragmites ^Adans., equi- 
alent to Sorghum Linn.(?) more or less modified. The oldest desig- 
nation of a plant included in the genus, by a separate designation, 
is perhaps Trichoon Roth.'' Even if this be inapplicable the other 
available names are either doubtfully used, such as Czcrnya PresP 
or possibly attempts at further segregation from Phragmites 
Trin. itself as perhaps in case of Oxyanthe vSteudel.'' In fact, 
it may not be altogether certain that Trichoon is unobjectionable, 
though it at least seems I0 be prior. If Adanson's name is not 
at least doubtfully applied then why is not the name attributed 
to him? May perhaps the following be suggested as synonym}^? 
Trichoon' Roth, 1. c.(i7p8). 

Phragmites Trin. 1. c. (1820) not Phragmites Adans. 1. c. (1763) 
Ceryna (?) Presl, 1. c. (1818), Oxyanthe Steudel, 1. c. (1855) (:>). 
Trichoon Phragmites (Linn.) nov. comb. 

Arundo Phragmites Linn., Sp. PI., p. 81 (i7,=i3), Phragmites 
communis Trin. 1. c. (1820) Oxyanthe Phragmites (Linn.) (?)?. 

' It may be possible that even the name Murrillia l)e ])rcoccui)ied and 
in such case Murrillomyces alternatively suggested. 

^ Trinius, K. B., Fund. Agrost. p. 134 (1820). 

•' Adanson, M. Fam. des PL, y, p. 34 (1763). 

•» Roth, Rocm., Arch. I, III, p. 37 (1798). 

5 PrcsL, K. B., Gram. Sic. p. 23 (1818). 

'■' StcudcL K.. vSyn. PI. Gram, p. 197 (1855). 

' Should none of the aforementioned names be aiiiibi-ablc and a new 
one demanded, we suggest Miphra^tcs. 

Pp. 287-310 and plates TV X jKiblished July 17, 1914. 



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VOL. III. NOVEMBER, 1914. NO. 12 

amJrTcan midland 
naturalist 



Devoted to Natural History, Primarily 
that of the Prairie States 



-■f^J^Wfi'«i"'"<'^*, 



Published by the University of Notre Dame, 
Notre Dame, Indiana 

J. A. NIEUWLAND, C. S. C, Ph. D., Sc. D., Editor 



CONTENTS 



New Species of Ranunculus Edward L. Greene 2,^,2, 

The Anatomy of Megalodonta Beckii A.V.Hoeck 336 

New Plants from North Dakota. — XII /. Lunell 342 

Notes on Our Local Plants. — IX /. .4. Nieuwland 346 

A New Antennaria B. F. Bush 352 

Notes on Hemerocallis A'. M. Crier 353 

Comparative Migration of Our Birds in Autumn 

Brother Alphonsus, C. S. ( '. 33 _s 



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Plate XI. HoiXK on Anatomy ok Miccai.odonta Hi:ckii. 





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VOL. III. NOVEMBER, 1914. NO. 12. 



NEW SPECIES OF RANUNCULUS. >^5rf^^^ 



By EDWARD L. GREENE). 



Ranunculus cymbalistes, nov. spec. ^"---.^aJ. 

Planta perennis circa 2 dm. alta, carnosula, primo intuitu 
glabra, at sub lente pilis longiusculis tenuibus subappressis undique 
conspersa. Radices partim breves, carnosae et subfusiformes, 
partim multo longiores et tenuiter fibrosae. Folia radicalia longi- 
petiolata, subcordato-reniformia, i>^-2 cm. longa, 2-3 cm. lata, 
leviter 7-crenata, caulina sessilia, 3-partita. Corolla i cm. lata; 
petala 5, ovalia, obtusa. Fructus nondum visus. 

An interesting and strongly characterized member of the 
R. ahortivus alliance, known only as collected in extreme southern 
Indiana, 20 April, 1913, by Air. Charles C. Deam, where it inhabites 
wooded knolls, under Pinus Virginiana and Ouercus alba; the 
special locality two miles west of New Albany. The flowers are 
not as large as those of R. Harveyi, yet much larger than those of 
the rest of its allies of this group. The foliage remarkably simulates 
that of Linaria Cymbalaria. 

Ranunculus delitescens nov. spec. 

Vix 2 dm. altus, tenuis, erectus, parce ramosus. Petioli 
pro parvitate foliorum longi, et una cum caulis parte inferiore, 
pilis albidis tenuissimis rectis adscendentibus conspicue villosi. 
Folia parvula, primordialia circa i ^^ cm. lata, subor- 
bicularia, basi truncata, apice plus minus distincte crenato-dentata, 
perpauca sequentia trilobata vel trisecta; caulina sessilia tripartita, 
segmentis linearibus integris, folia omnia, praecipue basalia, 
undique pilis longis adpressis plus minsve sparsim obsita. Flores 
minuti. Carpellorum capitula parv^ula, subglobosa. 



334 AMKRICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

Species of the Atlantic slope, east of the Alleghenies, v^ery 
distinct in character, yet known to me in only two sheets of 
specimens, both in U. S. Herb., the best one being from rocky 
woods at Guttenberg, New Jersey, 12 May, 1895, by .William 
Van Sickle; the other from Harper's Ferry, West Virginia, 11 
May, 1889, by F. V. Coville. 

Ranunculus Holmii, nov. spec. 

Planta 3 dm. alta ct ultra; petioli una cum caule pilis longis 
tenui^f-imis vel saepissime deflexis vestiti. Folia radicalia pler- 
umque trifoliolata, foliola petiolulata, cuneato-obovata, supra 
medium trilobata, caulina subses?ilia, 3-5-divisa, segmentis per- 
angustis, apicem versus saenissime 3-lobis ceterum integerrimis. 
Flores mirirri, sepalis ovalibus, concavis, extus valde pilosis; 
filamentis brc\ ibus, liguliformibus. Carpella fere orbicularia, vix 
subcompressa, in acum,en brevem, tenuem et arete recurvem 
desinentia, et in capitulum. ovale obtusum conferta. 

A common plant of low woodland borders and open thickets, 
in rich alluvial soil along the Potomac River and its tribularies 
in Maryland and Virginia, where it flowers and fruits in April 
and early May, its season being entirely in advance of that of 
R. abortivus with which it has been confused, and which occurs 
in these regions only under widely dissimilar environment. 

It has usually been listed as R. abortivus var. micranthus: 
but this quite as erroneously; for that plant is of Missouri and 
Arkansas, according to Nuttall its author; and the comparatively 
diminutive plant of this affinity which comes into our herbaria 
from those distant parts, and which answer to Nutall's description, 
as far as his meager and inadequate account of it goes, has re- 
markably elongated heads of achenes. They are too long to be 
called oval, and may be called subcylindric. If this be Nuttall's 
plant, this character, now first named, is a better one by far than 
any indicated by Nuttall. As to its fruit, and even as to size, 
R. Holmii is clearly distinct. 

Ranunculus ruderalis, nov. spec. 

Perennis, radicibus longis, fil>rosis, attamen sursum breviter 
et leviter incrassatis. Caulis 5 cm. altus, validulus, usque ad 
medium simplex, inde ramosus. Herba tota glaberrima, laete 



NEW SPECIES OF RANUNCULUS 335 

virens, nullo modo nitens, at quasi leviter glaucescens. Folia 
radicalia pro planta parvula, longe petiolata, pelerumque rotundato- 
reniformia, 2-3 cm. lata, crenata; caulina inferiora radicalibus 
majora, breviter sed distincte petiolata, profunde trisecta, segmentis 
cuneato-flabelliformibus vel anguste rhomboideis, supra medium 
plus minus distincte crenatis vel dentatis, suprema sessilia, tri- 
partita, segmentis oblongis integris. Flores minimi. Capitula 
globosa. Achaenia modice compressa et stylo brevissimo acuto 
recurvo apiculata. 

First observed by me as growing on a railway embankment 
near Linden Station of the Baltimore and Ohio Railway, within 
the State of Maryland, but not far outside the District of Columbia, 
this in May, 1912. Then a few weeks later I saw it growing in 
great profusion along the line of the same railway quite within 
the District, namely, on the outskirts of Tacoma Park eastward. 
It grows there in abdunance in the most exposed places, partic- 
ularly about piles of brush-wood or other rubbish. In respect to 
its peculiar habitat, as well as by many diagnostic characters, it 
is in strong contrast to the less common R. abortivus, the leaves 
of which are thrice as large, besides being readily distinguished' 
always by their deep-green color, with a polished and shining 
surface; and this, the real R. abortivus inhabits only rich soil, 
entirely in the shade of woods, or if within city limits, in like 
shaded proximity to walls and buildings. 

R. ruder alis is, indeed, next of kin to R. Allegheniensis, which 
it much resembles in the small size and light shade of leaves, 
without a trace of that lustre characteristic of R. abortivus alone; 
but while the achenes of R. Allegheniensis are tipped with a long 
and conspicuous style, those of R. ruderalis end so bluntly as to 
seem to have no style at all, and a lens is requisite to reveal 
their presence. 

The fact of its having been found by me nowhere but in 
proximity to a line of railway that runs westward half across the 
continent should have suggested to me the possibility of its being 
in this part of the world only as an immigrant from the West; 
yet the thought did not occur; therefore it was with surprise that 
I observe it a year later, in the prairie region of the Middle West, 
and saw that it was clearly native there, where the botanists 
of that region, never having known the real R. abortivus, called 
it always by that name. 



336 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

THE ANATOMY OF MEGALODONTA BECKII. 



BY A. V. HOECK. 

Owing to the abundance of material found during the past 
vacation at Bankson Lake, Cass Co., Mich., as also because of 
the unique character of the plant itself as a submerged composite, 
it was considered possible that the anatomical study of Megaladonta 
Beckii (Torrey) Greene would show some interesting features 
structurally. The following notes are the result of the investigation 
of the plant, which is rather abundant in the places where it is 
found, but has not been reported from many localities in our 
region. 

The plant was first discovered by Dr. Lewis C. Beck in 
Schuyler's Lake near Schenectady, N. Y. It was published by 
Torrey who referred it to the genus Bidens as Bidens Beckii in 
1821.' Dr. E. L. Greene^ raised the plant to generic standing as 
type of his new genus Megalodonta. He published at the same time 
a second species M. nudata from the Adirondacks, and another 
species from Greene Lake, Washington. As characteristic dis- 
tinctions from the genus Bidens is mentioned especially the 
singular peculiarity not only among the Bidentidcae as a group 
but even of the whole composite family, aquatic habit with- 
submersed and dissected foliage not so much different in appear- 
ance from that of Batrachium (Ranunculus) aquatile (Linn.) 
Wimm^. of the old world or our own Batrachium trichophyllum 
Chaix) Bosch. "f The flowers both ray and disk are peculiar. The 
rays are "retuse and notched instead of obtuse and entire." "The 
disk corollas are slender and clavate." "The achenes with their 
not at all compressed or angled but almost terete body surmounted 
by several long stout persistent awns of great size and prominence 
in relation to the essential part the fruit "^ are the other characters 
of note. The generic name of the plant is derived from the Greek 
' Torrey, J. in Spreng. Neue Entdeck., 2, p. 135 (182 1) also Torrey, J., 
Flora of New York, i, p. 388, pi. 68, (1843), Torrey, J., Compend. p. 312 
(1826)) Spreng. Syst. 3, p. 455, (1826), Beck, L. C, Botany, p. 207 (1833) 
p. 191 (1848). 

* Greene, E. L., Pittonia, 4, p. 271 (1901). 

» Wimm. Fl. Schles. p. 8(1841). 

^ Bossch, Prod. Fl. Bat., p. 5 (1850). 

5 Greene, 1. c. 



ANATOMY OF MEGALODONTA BECKII 337 

fieyag, fieyaXog (megas, megalos) great, large and o^ovg, oSovTog, 
(odous, odontos) tooth. 

The plants used for study were found submerged in both 
Bankson and North Bankson Lakes in bloom during the latter 
part of August and the early part of September. The submerged 
leaves are opposite or whorled in 3's, and finely repeatedly dis- 
sected on the palmate plan. The emersed leaves two or three 
pairs in number are narrowly lanceolate to oblong and laciniately 
toothed, pinnate and reticulately veined. The lower emersed or 
intermediate leaves are often more or less deeply lobed or cleft 
appearing as transition forms from the aquatic to the aerial forms. 
The 'aquatic foliage invariably withers when by design or accident 
exposed even for a short time to the air though the emersed 
may for a rather long time remain undecayed when submerged. 
The plant grows in rather deep water from several decimeters 
to several meters, the lower stem or rhizome rooting below the 
mud level. The submerged floating stem and the aerial part are 
rather similar in structure and have large air cavities in the cortical 
region as also in single large central air space in the pith. The 
rihzome rooting below in the mud is devoid of this central air 
space and the cortical spaces are smaller and fewer. The adven- 
titious roots at the nodes, even on the floating stem, and the 
upper roots are conspicuously green with chlorophyll. These roots 
reach down several decimeters or over a meter and when reaching 
the muddy bottom branch into numerous smaller divisions. The 
part of the stem creeping in the mud is not much over half the 
diameter of the floating aquatic stem, or about 2 mm. and some- 
times less. The aquatic foliage is nearly as persistent as that of 
Cabomba but not as deciduous as that of Neobeckia. (Roripa or 
Nasturtmm aquatiiim). A rather poor drawing of the plant is 
found in Torrey's Flora of New York already cited and one some- 
what better perhaps in Britton and Brown's Flora, both editions 
pp. 440 and 500 respectively. The characters of the plant may be 
had in the works cited as also from our common manuals more 
or less incompletely. 

THE ROOT. 

The young root has a well marked stele surrounded with well 
defined endodermis limiting the periblem (Fig. i).- The cell structure 
of the epiblema seems in no particular way different from that of the 



338 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

epidermis of the stem. As a rule even in the older roots there is 
but one series of intercellular spaces more or less oblong and 
irregular in the cortex and with their ends pointing to the outside 
and inwards to the stele or anticlinaly while in the stems they are 
periclinal (Fig. la). Only one series of the larger spaces are found 
in the root and several in the stem, though in the former a few 
smaller ones are occasionally met with (Fig. ib). Only one to three 
layers of cells are found between the larger spaces and the stele 
inclusive of the endodermis. The cortex of the larger adventitious 
roots (which were the only ones found for study) has a large 
number of chlorophyll grains even as far inwards as the endodermis 
excluded. Nor is chlorophyll found in either the epiblema or the 
palisaded hypodermal layer of the older roots (Fig. 2). The stele 
has a wood bundle of the radial type and the xylem is exarch 
pentarch, the phloem alternating with the xylem rays. Just 
outside of each phloem strand is a latex tube containing a brownish 
somewhat resinous substance. The tube is surrounded in this 
case by four secreting cells in the older roots (Fig. 3) though in 
young specimens these are not as yet well differentiated or developed 
These latex tubes are rather straight mostly unbranched tubes 
with four secretion cells around them (Fig. 3) and are found 
throughout the plant, and in the stem the secretion cells are 
more than four, usually about six. (Figs. 5, 8, 9, 13, 17). The peri- 
cycle is rather well differentiated as a marked layer of medium 
sized cells in young parts of the roots, but later it loses to some 
extent its characteristic appearance the cells of the cortex seeming 
to pass by gradual variations of size to those of the stele. Ver}- 
little secondary change takes place in the stele especial in the 
xylem (hadrome) portion thereof; the ducts always are few in 
number as would be expected in this case because of the needless- 
ness of these water conducting vessels in aquatic plants. The 
larger vessels formed later as metaxylem or perhaps secondary 
xylem are scalariform pitted, those of the protoxylem are annular 
and later spiral transitional to pitted. Longitudinal section of 
the root shows the peculiar variations of the tissues in the root 
in a marked way (Fig. 4). From the exterior we have in order 
the outer layer of cells (a) and the hypodermal layer (b) these 
two both devoid of chlorophyll. The cortical cells on both sides 
of the large intercellular spaces resemble one another, and bear 
chlorophyll in larger or smaller quantity depending on the exposure 



IMli 



ANATOMY OF mrgai.odonta brckii 339 

to light. The section shown was made somewhat obliquely through 
the organ, showing several layers of cells of the tissue connecting 
the outer lavers with the inner near the endodermis (f). In older 
roots six or seven of the cells in the outer part of the phloem acquire ' 
thickened walls though the thickening is never considerable. They 
seem to approximate to a schlerenchymatous nature, but scarcely 
typical stereome. Though there is now much difference between the 
outer layer of the stem and that of the young root, that of the latter 
with age is strikingly angled and the layer immediately under the 
epidermis has the appearance of palisaded cells, both layers being 
devoid of chlorophyll. That this layer may have arisen by subse- 
quent periclinal division is not improbable but was not definitely 
determined (Fig. 2). 

The pith of the root is devoid of intercellular spaces as found 
in the cortex. 

RHIZOME. 

While there does not seem to be any considerable difference 
in structure between the emersed and the submersed part of the 
stem, there is considerable variation between these and that 
part of the plant axis which creeps and roots under the mud and 
may be designated as the rhizome. This is never proportionately 
as thick and to the naked eye or under a common lens has an in- 
ternally different structure, being devoid of the central inter- 
cellular space, while the cortical spaces are fewer and smaller. 
(Fig. 6 and 7). The librovascular bundles are of the collateral 
open type and the xylem is strictly pentrach and endarch (Fig. 
5 and 6). The cambium forms a rather perfect circle in cross 
section, developing interiorly somewhat bricklike cells in the 
interfascicular part (medullary rays), the cells inwards passing 
gradually into those of the pith. These cells are much in appear- 
ance like the cells of the bundle and are thickwalled. The ducts 
in each bundle are in several series instead of only one as in the 
rest of the stem. On the outer part of the phloem there are a 
few layers of schlerenchyma fibres and just outside in the cortex 
an occasional latex tube. The interfascicular cambium dips 
inwards but little. 

THE STEM PROPER. 

The differences between the stem proper and the creeping 
rhizome have been noted alreadv. The intrastelar fundamental 



340 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

tissue (medullary rays) are so far extended into the cortical region 
that the interfascicular cambium is nearer to the epidermis than 
the outermost portions of the phloem, in spite of the fact that the 
bundles are open (?) collateral of the typical kind and the xylem 
endarch pentarch. (Figs. 7 and 8). Several layers within the epi- 
dermis there appear at regular intervals perfectly straight vertical 
latex tubes and near the fibrovascular bundles a few are found at 
irregular intervals. The xylem is wedge shaped and has outside of it 
oval strands of phloem, the latter with stereome in several layers 
on its outer margin. The protoxylem has the usual annular ducts 
which gradually pass into spiral and finally scalariform pitted, 
and the ducts in each bundle arc all arranged in one line or series 
increasing in size outwards towards the surface of the plant. The 
centre of the stem or pith is occupied with a large hollow space. 

LEAVES. 

As already intimated there are two kinds of leaves present, 
the submersed and the emersed. The former are short petioled 
or nearly sessile and repeatedly palmately dissected into linear 
divisions which in structure are of the centric type. (Fig. 9). The 
epidermis which is scarcely differentiated except in size and lack 
of cellwall markings, bears chlorophyll like the rest of the mesophyll 
layers. Only the layers of cells immediately bordering on the 
vascular system are devoid of it. The cells of the mesophyll are 
polygonal in cross section and their sides are marked transversely 
with scalariform markings. (Fig. 10). The wood bundle is very 
simple and varies according to the distance the section is made 
from the petiole. Fig. 9 shows a cross section made of one of the 
divisions about the middle of the leaf, several ducts are present 
as also a latex tube as are phloem elements and wood parenchyma. 
The ))undles of the larger and lower divisions are more typically 
open collateral (Fig. 11). Both- xylem and phloem are rather well 
developed, the former rather more so than were expected in 
aquatic plants. The epidermis of the submersed leaves is of 
course totally devoid of stomata and the cells arc somewhat 
longer than broad. (Fig. 12). The petiole of the aquatic leaf is 
rather more flattened than any of the divisions but it has only a 
single larger bundle not essentially diff'erent from the collateral 
iDundle of the divisions. The phloem strand is rather extensive 



ANATOMY OF MEGALODONTA BECKII 34 1 

in area and number of elements. (Fig. 13). Calcium oxalate 
crystal aggregates are sometimes found. 

EMERSED LEAVES. 

The emersed leaves are oblong to lanceoplate sharply or even 
laciniately toothed, and the intermediate ones between the aquatic 
more or less cleft or lobed. In structure they are bifacial. A 
surface view of the epidermis of the upper face is more regular 
or rather less irregular in cell structure (Fig. 14). The stomata 
are smaller than those of the lower face and orbicular whereas 
below they are slightly larger and oval. (Fig. 15). The chloren- 
chyma viewed from the lower face has many intercellular spaces 
(Fig. 16). It changes in shape gradually as it passes inwards to 
the two layers of palisade chlorenchyma. Ijjearer the midrib the 
palisade as well as the chlorenchyma pass gradually into rounder 
chlorophylless cells on both faces. This is augmented by two 
lavers of thick walled cells (Collenchyma) on the lower face and 
a wedge of similar stereome on the other face. Sectioned about 
the middle of the leaf there is a large central collateral bundle 
with several lateral ones in a semicircle (Figs. 17 and 18). In 
the petiole or at the base of the leaf these are coalesced into one 
Large semicircular collateral bundle. Opposite to the phloem 
strand and immediately under the stereome on the lower face. 

The characteristic features of the plant are the very simple 
wood bundles undergoing scarcely any secondary changes, as 
also the simplicity and regularity of all the structures. The roots 
are in the adult stage of the plant all adventitious and develop 
chlorophyll regularly as far as the stele. The stomata of both faces 
of the leaves are somewhat diderent and the extrastelar cells of 
the aquatic foliage exclusive of the epidern'is have very character- 
istic scalariform m.arkings. The aquatic foliage is as typically 
centric in type as the aerial leaves are bifacial. 

EXPLANATION OF THE FIGUREvS. 

Fig. I. — Cross section of the young root of Megalodontu. Beckii. (a) 
cortical intercellular spaces, (h) smaller spaces, (c) endodcrmis, (d) peri- 
cycle, (/) phloem (leptome), (/) xylem (hadrome), {g) pith, (/?) latex tube. 

Fig. 2. Cross section of the epidermis (ep) and hypodermis (hy) 
of an older root, (co) cortical chlorenchyma. 

Fig. 3. Structure of a latex tube in an older root showing the arrange- 
ment of the secreting cells. 



,^2 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

I'ig. 4. Longitudinal section tlirough the central part of an older 
root. (a) epidermis, (b) hypodermis, (c) cortical parenchyma with 
chlorophyll, (d) intercellular space, (e) extrastelar fundamental tissue the 
outer cells with chlorophyll, (/) endodermis, (g) pericycle, (h) secretion cells 
with a latex tube between them, (/) phloem, (/) wood parenchyma between 
the protoxylem and inner metaxylem. 

Fig. 5. Cross section of a secton of the stele of the rhizome, (sp) 
cortical intercellular space, (co) cortex cells, (la) latex tube, (st) stereome 
outside of the phloem of the fibrovascular bundle (mestome), {c'a) Cambium, 
(pi) pith. 

Fig. 6. Cross section showing the arrangement of the bundles in 
the stem of the same. The xylem is cndarch pentarch. 

Fig. 7. Cross section of the stem (floating, showing the arrangement 
of the bundles. Figs. 6 and 7 diagramatic and magnified about 18 diameters.) 

Fig. 8. — Cross section of the floating equatic stem showing (e) epidermis 
with cortex beneath in which are the latex tubes (la) and the large inter- 
cellular spaces isp) farther in the stele with the collateral bundles and the 
outwardly bulging pith (Medullary rays) (w), the central pith (pi), (xV) 
the protoxylem and (xy^) the mataxylem. 

Fig. 9. Cross section of medium sized division of the aquatic leaf 
a little above the middle, showing the outer layer of epidermis with chlor- 
ophyll and the inner mesophyll also with chlorophyll. In the centre is the 
single fibrovascular bundle with a few xylem and phloem elem.ents also 
a latex tube. 

Fig. 10. One of the larger mesophyll cells of the above teased out to 
show markings of the cell wall. 

Fig. I I . Single fibrovasular bundle of a larger division near the base 
of petiole, ipli) phloem and (.V3') xylem. (ivp) wood parenchyma, and (me) 
mesophyll. 

Fig. 12. View of the epidermis of the aquatic leaf divisions. 

Fig. 13. Cross section of the bundle of the aquatic leaf petiole with 
bundle of (xy) xylem and (ph) phloem, (gl) latex tube, (cr) crystal aggregate 
of calcium oxalate. 

Fig. 14. Epidermis of the upper face of the aerial leaf with stomata. 

Fig. 15. Epidermis of the lower face of the aerial leaf showing stomata. 

Fig. 16. View of the pneumatic tissue under the epidermis of the 
lower face of the emcrsed leaf. 

P'ig. 17. Cross section of the middle part of an aerial leaf at the midrib 
(ep) lower epidermis with collenchyma or thick angled cells within it, (c), (co) 
fundamental tissue, (ph) phloem and (xy) xylem of the collateral bundles, 
(pi) modified palisade chlorenchyma. 

Fig. 18. Cross section of an emersed leaf showing the arrangement 
of (ep) the lower epidermis, (clil) pneumatic chlorenchyma, (pa) ])alisade 
chlorenchyma. (st) stomata. 

Scale of all llu- drawings: one division equals 12.5 microns. 



PLANTS FROM NORTH DAKOTA 343 

NEW PLANTS FROM NORTH DAKOTA— XII. 



BV J. LUNELL. 

Dodecatheon thornense sp. nov. 

Margines loborum calycis hyalini. Segmenta corollae 12-14 
mm. longa, 3 mm. lata, rectangularia vel aliquantulum spatulata, 
obtusa, pallide usque saturate rosea, linea obscure rosea partem 
non divisam proxima. Haec pars lineam albam angustam exter- 
iorem habet, deinde cum annulo parpureo fluctuoso inter basim 
segmentorum et tubum stamineum interjecto flava fit. Filamenta 
conjuncta 2 mm. longa. Antherae tubo filamentorum duplo 
longiores, tergo saturate rubrae usque atropurpureae, lateribus 
albidae. 

Calyx lobes hyaline margined. Segments of the corolla 
12-14 mm. long, 3 mm. wide, rectangular or somewhat spatulate, 
obtuse, varying from a pale to a deep rich rose color, with a dark 
rose line nearest to the undivided part; this has a white, narrow 
outer line, then becomes yellow, with a narrow, scalloped ring of 
deep purple midways between the base of the segments and the 
filament tube. United filaments 2 mm. long. Anthers twice as 
long as the tube of filaments, deep red to black-purple on the 
back, with whitish sides. For the description of the other parts 
of the plant read page 146, vol. Ill of this journal (October 1913)- 

This plant was collected in flower on June 10, 19 14, by the 
writer at Thorne, N. Dakota. The leaves were considerably 
infected by a fungus, Nigredo Polemonii (Peck) Arth. I. 

The characters segregating ' it from its ally, D. pauciflorum 
(Durand) Greene, are: segments of the corolla are of a pale to 
deep rich, rose color, in drying changed to lilac; flowers 10-16, 
united filaments are 2 mm. long; anthers are twice, as long as 
the stamen tube; and the leaves differ (1. c. p. 146). D. pauci- 
florum seems, to have lilac colored corolla segments also in the 
fresh plant, has the united filaments at least 3 mm. long, the 
anthers less than twice as long as the stamen tube, the flowers 
are few, and the leaves differ (1. c. p. 146). 

This description has been added because only the fruiting 
plant was the available material for study in writing the paper 
of October 19 13. 



344 AMI'KICAN' MIDLAND NATURALIST 

Laciniaria scariosa uniflora \ ar. nov. 

Apex caiilis calathiiim solitariiim jfcreiis. Planta 1-2 dm. 
alta. 

vStcra I 2 dm. liigh, with one siugle calathium. Leaves often 
arranged as in var. supereminens, or var. basilaris (vide Vol. II. 
p. 92 of this journal). 

Collected by the writer on August 2^, 1914, iit Leeds, Benson 
County, where it is met occasionally on level plains. 

Aster Kumleinii oliganthemos var. no\-. 

Planta decimetralis, plerumque uniflora, parva. 

Plant 1 dm. high, usually carrying only one flower, this small, 
like the whole plant, which is one or few stemmed, few-branched 
or simple. 

Collected by the writer on liigh hills bordering James River, 
at Jamestown, vStutsman County, August 24, 1913. 

Erigeron tardus sp. nov. 

Caules solitarii usque plares, 3-4.5 dm. alti, 3-iisque 6-capitati, 
pubescentia brevi appressa vestiti, usque inflorescentiam stricti, 
dein aequc atque vS curvati. Folia demum glabrata, denticulata, 
caulina superiora linearia, inferiora angustc lanceolata, radicalia 
late lanceolata, in petiolos longos alatos sensim reducta, 10-15 
cm. longa. Capitula 3-4 cm. diametro (radiis albis latis inclusis). 

Stems I or more, 3-4.5 dm. high, with 3 to 6 heads, having 
a short appressed pubescence, straight up to the inflorescence 
then bent like an S. Leaves at length glabrate, denticulate, on 
the upper part of the stem linear, on the lower part of the stem 
narrowly lanceolate; basal leaves broadly lanceolate, gradually 
narrowed into long, winged petioles, 10-15 cm. long. Heads 3-4 
cm. in diameter (including the broad, white rays). 

Distinguished from E. procerus and E. anodonUts by its broad, 
acuminate, glabrate leaves and its appearance during the latest 
part of July, which is a long time since these allies have passed 
flowering. 

Collected by the writer on a sunny roadside in York Township 
of Benson County, northwest of Leeds, July 26, 191 3. 

This group of daisies seems to be, under favorable conditions, 



PLANTS FROM NORTH DAKOTA 345 

capable of a prodigious development. I have of E. procerus one 
plant, bearing nine stems and thirty flowering heads! 

Chenopod vm virgatum sp. nov. 

Caul's 9-1 1 dm. altus, erectus, virgatus, ramis brevibus, 
g acilibus, fastigiatis 4-20 cm. longis, de basi sursum florentibus 
vestitus, pulverulentus, striato-angulatus. Folia flavido-viridia, 
rhombico ovata, tenuiora sed firma, dentibus men ura variabi'ibus 
angulato-dentata, hastata, superne glabrata, subtus pulverulenta, 
gracilius petiolata, prope basim distincte 3-nervata. Flores in 
racemos vel spicas longas densasque, in paniculum amplum con- 
fertum collocates dispositi. Perianthus pulverulentus flavido- 
fuscus (maturus saltern), lobis e us leviter cristatis, scarioso- 
marginatis, diffusis, dimidium tantum utriculum operient bus. 
Perlcarpus opacus, leviter pulverulentus. Semen atrum, nitens, 
1. 25-1. 5 mm. diametro, pericarpo firmissime adherens. 

Stem 9-1 1 dm. high, erect, virgate, with short, slender, fas- 
tigiate branches, flowering from the base upwards, 4-20 cm. long; 
pulverulent, striate-angled. Leaves yellowish-green, 'hombic- 
ovate, rather thin but firm, angulate-toothed, with the teeth of 
variable size, hastate or nearly so, glabrate above, pu'veru'ent 
beneath, on slender petioles, distinctly 3-nerved at the base. 
Flowers in long and dense cluster or spikes, arranged in a large 
and close panicle. Perianth pulverulent, yellowish-brown (at 
least when mature), its lobes lightly crested, scarious margined, 
spread ng, long enough to cover only the half of the utricle. Peri- 
carp dusky, pulverulent. Seed black, shining, i. 25-1. 5 mm. in 
diameter, very firmly adherent to the pericarp. 

Collected by the wr ter on August 23, 1913 at Bismarck, 
Burleigh County, on the banks of the Missouri. 

Chenopodium virgatum var. junceum var nov. 

Graciliores etiam rami; flores in spicis angustioribus, nonnihil 
inter uptis; folia Integra, lanceato-linear a. 

Still more slender branched, with narrower, somewhat inter- 
rupted flower-clusters; leaves entire, lance-linea. 

Col ected by the writer on the same date and place as the 
type, though they were not intermingled. 

Leeds, North Dakota. 



vK' AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

NOTES ON OUR LOCAL PLANTS.— IX. 



RY J. A. NIEUWLAND. 

I'amily 70. PODOPHYLLEAE DC, Syst. II, p. 31,32, (182 1). 

Podophylaccae Bartling, (jrd. ]). 251, (1831). 

vSubfamily Podophyllieae. 

ANAPODOPHVLLUM Tour., Els. p. 204, (1694), I. R. H. 
p. 259 (1700) also Moench Metli., p 227 (^1794). Podophyllum 
I. inn. Syst. (i7;,.s) Gen. p. 131 (1737) p. 223 (1755). 

Anapodophyllum peltatum (Linn.) Moench, 1. c. 

Podophyllum pcltaiiDii Linn. Sp. PI. p. 505 (1758). 

Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke) No. 1942 Notre Dame. 
Common and abundant throughout the whole region. 

vSubfamily Caulophyllicae. 

CAULOPHYLLUM L. C. Richard in Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 
I 204 (1803). 

Caulophyllum thalictroides (Linn.) L. C. Rich., 1. c. 

Lcontice thalictroides Linn. Sp. PL, p. 312 (1753). 

No. 2703 Rum Village, South of South Bend, Ind., Laporte Co. 
(Deam). Rather common' and quite abundant in moist woods 
throughout the region. Found in Cass, Berrien, Lake, Laporte, 
Marshall, Elkhart and Van Buren Cos. 

Family 71. EERBERIDEAE Vent., Tab., Ill, p. 83 (1799). 

Berberidaceae T. and G. N. Am. Fl., p. 49 (1839). 

BERBERIS Cuba, Hort. Sanit. (15th Cent.), also Jacob de 
Manliis in Brunfels Herb. Viv. Ic. p. 174 (1531), Tour., Els. p 
487 C1694), p. 614 1700). Amhihcrhcris Galen (?) Amirbaris, 
Avicenna (?) Oxyacanthos Dioscorides (?) Crespinus Matthioli, 
Rucllius, Tragus, Fuchs. Bcrheris Dodonaeus (1557) Turner, 
Gesner, Lacuna, Lonicer, Lobelius, Castor Durante, Cusa, Rauwollf, 
Camerarius, etc. Oxyacav.tha Ruellius but not Diosc. tests C. 
Bauhin Pinax, p. 454 (1623). 

Berberis vulgaris Bcllonius, Cult., (1553). also Clusius, Ber- 
ber is diiineterun: Tour., Els. 1. c. Berberis officinaruni Ruellius 
Diosc, p. 77 (1547). Berberis vuliiaris Linn. Sp. PI., p. 330 (1753). 

The cultivated \aricty with purplish leaves was found to 



NOTES ON OUR LOCAL PLANTS 347 

have escaped in the Rum Village weeds a considerable distance 
from any habitation. It was probably disseminated from seed. 
It was also found along the Pere Marquette R. R. south of vSt. 
Joseph, Mich. In the latter case it probably came from an adjoin- 
ing park or grave yard. 

No. 2134 Notre Dame also 7509, 906. 

Berberis canadensis Miller Gard. Diet., Ed. 8. 

A specimen was found about 20 years ago near the bank of 
the St. Joseph River at the Four Mile Bridge. The plant has 
since disappeared. 

Berberis Thunbergii DC, Syst., II, p. 9 (1821). 

The plant shows a tendency to escape from cultivation at 
Notre Dame and sows itself and spreads in moist and .shac'y 
locations. It is at least as presistent an escape as Philadelj Juts 
coronariiis. 

Family 72. MENISPERMACE.4E DC. Prod., I, p. 85 (1824). 

' MENISPERMUM Tour., Acad. Reg., 237 (1705), also Dill., 
Gen., p. 150 (1719). Linn., Gen. p. 107 (1737), p. 158 (1754), 
Syst. (1735)- 

Menispermum canadens Linn., vSp. PL, p. 34 (1753). 

No. 2172 vSt. Mary's, Notre Dame, Ind., also 2i67>2. Found 
throughout the region. 

Family 73. LAURINEAE Vent., Tabl. II, 247 (1799). 

Lauraceae Lindley Nat. Syst., Ed. 2, p. 535. 

SASSAFRAS Monardes (1580), also Castor Durante (1685) 
C. and J. Bauhin, Gerard, Ray, Muntigius, Plunkenett, Caesalpinus 
De Plantis, p. 418 (1583), Sassafras Trew, Herb. Blackw., 267, 
(1757). Euosnms Nuttall, Gen., p. .'.sS (1808). 

Sassafras variifolium (Salisb) Kuntze Rev. Gen. PL, p. 

574 (iSqO- 

Laurus variijolia Salis. Prod., p. 3'>4 (1796), Sassafras officinale 
Nees and Eberm., Hand. Med. Pharm. Bot., II, p. 418 (1831). 
Laurus Sassafras Linn., vSp. PL, p. 371 (1753). 

Sassafras albida var. glauca Nov. var. 

Sassafras albida .Nuttall, 1. c. segregate. 
Planta Sassafras albidac Nuttallii similis sed arbor magna cum 
foliis inferiore facie pervenosis et cum arbor maturus sit integris 
obtusis oN'atis. 



34S AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

This plant is indeed so very different from the typical pubescent 
Red Sassafras that it seems a wonder to us that Nuttall's plant 
has not been recognized. The twigs at first but slightly pubescent 
become bluish white glaucous later without the slightest trace 
of pubescence. The real Sassafras variijolium is a plant whose 
twigs are permanently tawny or brown tomentulose. The leaves 
in older specimens are broad and two lobed. I have found our 
western white Sassafras as a large tree and typically without any 
lobed leaves when it has attained maturity. I have watched 
several trees for a number of years and have never seen a single 
lobed leaf on these, though in widely separated localities. Usually 
there are a few lobed leaves and these are the more numerous 
the younger the specimens. Our western plants are somewhat 
more treelike than those described by Nuttall and the leaves are 
thicker and more veiny, the twigs more angled and glaucous 
On these few characters it is perhaps sufficient to characterize 
a new variety as distinct from 5. alhida. Type No. 18000 from 
Rum Village south of vSouth Bend, Ind. in the University 
Herbarium. 

In studving the plants of the east in the field as also from 
specimens in our herbarium it would seem that there are several 
widely different varieties at least along the Atlantic Seaboard. 
I have not found typical Sassafras variifoliuni in our region. 

Reported as Sassafras variifoliuni (?) from the counties are: 
Millers, Lake Co. (Deam) Pine, Ind. Higdon and Raddin, Lake 
Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke) Laporte Co. (Deam) also Starke 
Co. (?) Specim^ens of the variety in our herbarium are No. 971, 
2222, Notre Dame, Chain Lake, vSt. Joseph Co. No. 9442, Mineral 
Springs, Porter Co. Nos. 11057, 10272. No. 2004 Notre Dame, 
(Powers). 

BENZOIN Boerhaave, Index Alter Plantar., II, p. 259 (1727), 
also Ludwig Def. Gen. PL, (1737), Fabricius, Enum. PI. Hort. 
Helmst., (1763), Lindera Thunberg Diss. Ill, p. (1783) not Lindera 
Adanson, (1763)- 

Benzoin aestivale (Linn.) Nees, Syst. Laur. p. 495 (1836). 

Lanrus Benzoin Linn., Sp. PL, p. 370 (1753) Lindera Benzoin 
Blume, Mus. Bot. Lugd., I, p. 324 (1857). 

Porter, Starke Co. (Deam) Millers and Casella (Higdon a;nd 
Raddin) Lake Maxinkuckee (H. W. Clarke), Nos. 11458 Rum 
Village, vSouth Bend, Ind. 9368 Notre Dame, Ind. 



NOTES ON OTTR LOCAL PLANTS 349 

ORDER 26. RHOEDALES. 

Bartling, Ord. Nat. PL, p. 254 ( 1831 ) Papaverales Britton, Man. 
p. 437 (1901). 

Family 74. PAPAVERACEAE B. Jussien, Hort. Trian. 
A. Jussieu, Gen" (1789). 

PAP AVER Vergil, Georg. I, 212, IV, 131, 545, Aen, I, 78. 

Also Columella X, 314, Pliny, XX, 76, Mekon of tlie Greeks, 
Homer, 306, Nicander, Dioscorides, Theophra^.tus, Theocritus 
Papaver of all the pre-Linnaean authors without exception, Papaver 
Tour., Els. p. 203 (1694), I- R- H., 234, Linn., vSyst. (1735), Gen. 
P- 150, (1737), P- 224 (1755). 

Papavex cereale Vergil, Columella 1. c. 

Papaver erraticiim Pliny, 1. c. also Matthioli, Cordus, Gesner, 
Lenicer, Dodonaeus, Thalius, Castor Durante, Tabernaementanus, 
Fuchs, etc. Papaver Rhocas Lobelius, Gerard, Dodonaeus (1557) 
Linnaeus Sp. PI., p. 507 (1753) Papaver erraticum or rubemn 
Brunfels Herb. Viv. Ic, 11, 28 (1532) Mekon Rhoias Theophrastus 
IX, 13. 

The plant is found escaped from gardens though not found 
as commonly as a weed in fields as in Europe. Found in Berrien 
and St. Joseph Cos. 

Papaver soporiferum Vergil, Aen., IV, 131. 

Papaver sativum Pliny, XX, 13, Columella, XI, 3, Papaver 
nigrum Brunfels, Papaver somnifermn Linn., Sp. PL, pf. 508 (1753), 
Papaver album Pliny, Tragus Dodonaeus. Papaver candidum 
Lobelius, Caesalpinus, Papaver soporifenwj. Matthioli, Dodonaeus, 
Tabernaemontanus. 

The plant is not as commonly escaped as the preceding but 
I have found it in St. Joseph Co. 

STYLOPHORUM Nuttall Gen., II, p. 7 (1818). 

Stylophorum diphyllum (Michx.) Nutt. 1. c. 

Chelidonium diphyllum Michx. Fl. Bor. Am., I, 309 (1803), 
Mcconopsis diphylla DC. Syst., II, p. 88 (1821). 

Berr}' Lake, Pine Station, Millers (Higdon and Raddin). 
Nos. 500, 532, Rum Village, South Bend, Ind. 

ECHTRUS Loureiro, Fl. Cochin Ch., p. 344 (1790). 

Argemonc Tour., Els. p. 204 (1694' I. R. H., p. 532 (1700). 
Also Linn., Syst. (1733) Gen. p. 150 (1737) p. 225 (1755) Hort. 



350 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

Cliff., p. 209 (1737) not Argemone Tragus Lacuna, Lonicer, or 
of the older writers = species of Papaver. 

Echtrus mexicanus (Teux). 

Argemone mexicana Tour. 1. c. Linn. Sp. PI., p. 508 (1753), 
h'.chtrus trivialis Tour.,*l. c. 

No. 11183 Webster's Station North of Notre Dame, in a 
field of clover. 

BELHARNOSIA Sarracen ex A.danson Fam. p. 43- (1763). 

Sanguinaria Dillenius Hort., Eltham., p. 252 (1732) Linn., 
Syst. (173.5) Gen. p. 150 (1737), p. 223 (1755), not Sanguinaria 
Pliny, and the pre-Linnaean writers, nor Tragus, etc. =Panicuin 
sangninalc Linn, or some grass. 

Beiharnosia canadensis (Linn.). 

Sanguinaria canadensis Linn., Sp. PI. p. 505 (1753). 

vSt. Joseph Co. (Rothert), Laporte Co. (Deam), Lake Maxin- 
kuckee (H. W. Clarke), Nos. 2005, 9424, 2008, Notre Dame, Ind. 
7705 3 miles north of Notre Dame, 11 176 Rum Village south of 
South Bend, Ind., 1435 Notre Dame (W. W. Johnson), Nqs. 826 
North Liberty, St. Joseph Co., 654 Notre Dame have the leaves 
and general characters of B. (S.) mesochora (Greene). 

CHELIDOKIUM TheophrastustHist., VH, 14. 

Theocritus Idyl: XIII, 40, Nicander Ther. 857. Dioscorides 
Mat. Med., II, 211. Pliny XXV, 50, also nearly all of the older 
writers. Chelidonium Tour. Els. p. 197 (1694). Hirundinaria 
Theodore Gaza, (15:^9) also Lobelius. 

Chelidonium majus Ruellius, Diosc. p. 207 (1547), also 
Gerard (1596 and of' most of the pre-Linnaeans! Chelidonium 
vulgare Clusius, Hirundinaria major Lobelius. Chelidonium majus 
Arguillara, Matthioli, Fuchs, Turner, Lacuna, Cordus, Gesner, 
Castor Durante, Caesalpinus, Lobelius, Thalius, Tabernaemon- 
tanus, Gerard, Dodoriaeus, etc. also Linn., Sp. PI. p. 305 (1753). 

Found at St. Joseph, Mich, along the Pere ISIarquette R. R. 
No. ! 1030 along the St. Joseph River at Notre Dame on the high 
saiKh' bank in several places some distance apart. 

Family 75. FUMARIACEAE DC. vSyst., II, p. 105 (1821). 

Subfamily Fumarieae. 

CAPNORCHIS Boerhaave Index Alter Planter. I, p.309 (1727) 
I'icutidla Adanson, Fam. II. App. p. 23 (1163), Dielytra 
Borckb. Roeni., Arch. I, p. 46 iiT^-j), Dicentra Bernh. Linnaea 
VI H, 46S (1833), Cuctdlaria Jussieu Act. Par. (1743). 



NOTES ON OUR LOCAL PLANTS .IS I 

Capnorchis canadensis (Goldie). 

Corydalis canadensis Goldie Edinh. Phil. Jr. VI, 329 (1822) 
Dielytra canadensis DC. & Prod. T, p. 126 (1824), Dicentra canaden- 
sis Walp., Rep., I, p. 128 (1842), Bicuctdla canadensis Millspaugh, 
Bull. W. Va. Agric. Exp. Sta., 11, p. 327 (1892). 

No. 7708 Notre Dame, Ind., (W. W. Johnson), 7702 Rum 
Village, vSouth Bend, Ind. 9217 1<, Twin Springs, Mich. (Berrien Co.). 

Capnorchis Cucullaria (Linn.) 

Dielytra Cucullaria DC. Syst. Veg. II, 608 (182 1), Dielytra 
Cuctdlaria Torrey Fl. N. Aim. I, p. 66 (1838), Dicentra Cucullaria 
Torrey, Fl. N. Y., I, p. 451 (1843), Bicuculla Cticullaria Mills. 1. c. 

Lake Maxinknckee (H. W. Clarke) Nos. 451, 2486, Rum 
Village, South Bend. 7700 2 miles north of Notre Dame. 

Nos. 7702 and 7700 contain two specimens that look super- 
ficially somewhat like C. canadensis but a closer examination of 
them reveals the following. The spurs though short are not turned 
inwards to the pedical but divaricate and blunt. The sepals are 
short and of the same shape as those of C. Cucullaria though but 
about one-fourth as large whereas the shape of these of typical 
C. canadensis are lanceolate. The underground parts are like 
those of the former. The plant seems intermediate between the 
two typical plants and might possibly be a hybrid as those some- 
times bloom at about the same time in our region, belated flowers 
of C. Cucullana being almost coetaneous. 

Subfamily, Corydalieae. 

CORYDALIS Castor Durante (1585). 

Capnoides Tour., Els., p. 335 (1695), I. R. H., p. 423 (1700) 
Neckeria Scepoli Introd. p. 313 iiTT]), Corydalis Vent., also 
Medicus Phil. Bot., p. 96 (1789), Pseudo-f urn aria Rivinus. (i656) 
Capnoides Adans., Fam. PI. p. 431 (1763). 

Corydalis sempervirens Pers. vSyn. II, p. 269 (1807). 

Capnoides sempervirens Borek., Roem., Arch., I. p. 44 (1797). 
pt. I. Corydalis flauca Parsh Fl. Sept., p. 463 (1814) Fumaria sem- 
pervirens I.inn., Sp. PI. p. 700 (1753). 

Lake Co. (Hill), Porter Co. (Cowles). 

Corydalis flavula Raf., DC, Prod. I. p. 120 (1824). 

Capnoides flavulum Kuntze Rev. Gen., p. 14 (1891). 

Nos. 1916, 1838, 9222 Rum Village, south of South Bend, Ind. 
(To be continued.) 



352 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

A NEW ANTENNARIA. 

BY B. F. BUSH. 



Antennaria ampla n. sp. Folia caulium sterilium 4-5 cm. 
lata, 5-10 cm. longa, (petiolos tenues includentia), primo villoso- 
tomentosa facie superiore cito glabra, inferiore qiiidem dense 
flaveo-tomentosa. Planta fertilis caulibus 3-4 dm. altis, tenuibus, 
laxe tomentosis cum foliis 8-12 oblongis, acutis, 1-3 cm. longis. 
Capitula pauca, minuscula, subsessilia in summitate pedunculi 
insita. Bractcae involucri permultae in 2-3 seriebus; interiores 
vero longiores, angustiores et aciitae, exteriores quidem apice 
denticiilato, et ambae ad apicem scariosae. Planta staminea 
caulibus .5-1.5 dm. alta laxe tomentosa, cum 5-8 foliis anguste 
oblongis acutis. Capitula pauca in summitate pedunculi capitata; 
bracteis paucis in 2-3 seriebus, exterioribus oblongis, et brevioribus 
quam in interioribiLS, quae late oblongae aliquamtulum dilatatae, 
majores, et ad apicem denticulatae singulariterque scariosae sunt. 
Pappus ad apicem aliquantulum dilatatus et serratus. 

Antennaria ampla n. sp. Leaves of the sterile shoots ample, 
4-5 cm. broad, 5-10 en), long, including the slender petioles, at 
first villous-tomentose above, soon glabrous, below densely yellow- 
ish-tomentose. Fertile plants with stems 3-4 dm. tall, slender, 
loosely tomentose, with 8-12 oblong, pointed leaves, 1-3 cm. 
long; heads several, rather small, subsessile at the top of the 
stems; involucral scales numerous, in 2 or 3 series, the inner 
longer, narrower, and acute, the outer broader, shorter, and 
denticulate at apex, all showily scarious at tips; male plants with 
stems yi-^Yi dm. tall, loosely tomentose, with 5-8 narrowly- 
oblong pointed leaves; heads several, in a capitate cluster at 
top of stems; involucral scales few, in 2 or 3 series, the outer 
oblong, shorter than the inner, the inner broadly oblong, some- 
what dilated, larger than the outer, denticulate at apex, the upper 
portion showily scarious; pappus-tips slightly dilated, serrate. 
This species was discovered by myself, in compan}- with Misses 
Martha and Pearl Julian, and my two daughters. May and Hazel, 
on May 22, 1914, No. 71 19. 

The precise locality where this species was found is about 
2 miles east of Atherton, Missouri, and near the old postofifice 
of Blue Mills, now called Twyman, in honor of Dr. Twy man's 



NOTES ON HEMEROCALLIS 353 

family, who have long resided there. The special habitat of the 
species, the wooded crowns of several high hills along the Missouri 
River at this place. The fertile and sterile plants were growing 
together, the males by the hundred, the fertile plants rather scarce, 
therein differing from, all the other broad-leaved species of this 
region, the sterile plants of which have never been seen. 

This plant is distinct from all the broad-leaved species known 
to me to occur in this region, as shown by the following key: 
Scales of the fertile involucre broad, with broad showy tips. 

Pappus-tips in male narrow, serrate 4. occidentalis. 

Pappus-tips in male wide, crenate A. calophylla. 

Scales of the outer involucre narrow 

vScales not showily scarious-Lipped. 

Scales few, subequal; pappus-tips in male 

subserrate A. umhellata. 

Scales many, well-imbricated; pappus-tips in 

male crenate A. mesochora. 

vScales showily scarious-tipped, numerous, un- 
equal, in several series ; pappus-tips in male 
narrow, serrate A. ampla. . . 



NOTEvS ON HEMEROCALLIS. 



BY N. M. GRIER. 



The writer while comparing specimens of Hemerocallis fulva 
and flava during the past summer, was led to note peculiarities 
of these two species, which do not seem to be generally known 
to botanists. It will be convenient to introduce excerpts from 
our common manuals. 

Gray's Manual.' Hemerocallis L. Day Lily. 

". . . . Capsule at first rather fleshy, 3-angled, loculicidally 
3-valved, with several black spherical seeds in each cell. . . ." 

H. fulva — (Common D.). . . . Roadsides, escaped from gardens. 
Introduced from Europe. 

Britton and Brown. ^ 

". . . . Ovary oblong, 3-celled, ovules numerous in each 
cavity. ..." 

' Gray's New Manual, 7th edition. 

- Britton and Brown "Illustrated Flora of U. S. and Canada." 



354 .\mp:ricak midland naturalist 

1. H. Jiilva- .... Found New Brunswick to Virginia to 
Tennessee. In meadows and by streams. Kurope and Asia. 
Escaped from cultivation. 

2. H.fiava — yellow day lily, with yellow flowers, occasionally 
found near old gardens, and on roadsides. 

It will be noted from the above, that in Gray but one species 
of Hemerocallis is given — the more common one. Britton and Brown, 
however, add to this flava as well, as other plants closely allied. 
Since it seems that neither fidva nor flava were the original type 
species of this genus, the writer has noted that at least within the 
geographical range to be mentioned, capsules, which one might infer 
to present, are wanting in H. fulva. Referring to Knuth,' this is 
found to be the normal condition in Europe. A paragraph from 
this work may be of interest. 

"According to Sprengel's assertion, which Kerner confirms, 
the plant, [Hemerocallis fulva), never sets fruit here, so it is highly 
probable that in its original home in east Asia, it is pollinated 
by such insects as arc not to be found in Europe. Maximowicz 
states that artificial pollination is also ineffective, the flowers 
do not produce mature seeds in P^urope. Sprengel, who pollinated 
the flowers artificially with their own pollen, also obtained no 
fruits, etc." There then follows a description of the mechanisrri 
producing this condition. Mr. W. G. Gibson of Avalon, Pa., who 
is an experienced horticulturist, and who has observed this species 
well within the limits as described by Britton and Brown, reports 
that he has never seen the plant in fruiting condition. It is not 
improbable therefore that such a condition as above described 
prevails in the American form also. Granted that this is the 
case, descriptions of H . fulva as ordinarily given tend to be some- 
what misleading in the respect discussed— an error which will be 
found to be present in many of the popular "Wild Flowers" books. 
H. Jlova, less known in this country and also self-sterile, is thus 
more typical of the genus. It is noted that in some 63 specimens of 
//. jUiva examined, the greatest numloer of seeds in any valve was 7, 
some of the valves being devoid of these, or containing a mini- 
mum number. 

The writer is able to add H. /lava to the flora of Pennsylvania 
Porter^ not recording it. //. fulva, as an escape is distributed over 

' ' Knuth's Handliook of riowcr Pollinntimi." Trans. J. R. A. Davis, 
VoL III., p. 462. 

-' "Flora of Pennsylvania." —Porter, C. H. 



MIGRATION OF OUR BIRDS IN AUTUMN 355 

the greater part of the upper Ohio Valley, growing principally 
upon earlier glacial deposits. H. flava, although as yet seen onlv 
in cultivation by the writer, may then be expected to be found 
at any time as an escape in the locality given. Dr. O. E. Jennings 
relates of collecting this species in Ohio, although it is not listed 
by Schaffner.' 

Central Hi^h School, St. Louis, Mo. 



COMPARATIVE MIGRATION OF OUR BIRDS 
IN AUTUMN. 

BY BROTHER ALPHONSUS, C. S. C. 



■ Between the earliest and latest date of the Cowbird there 
were 58 days, which wT)uld indicate that either the writer missed 
the date in one year by a very wide mark or that the Cowbird 
can be very irregular in its time of migrating. The date for 1911 
was 23 days earlier than in 191 2 and 28 days earlier than in 1913. 
The two regular dates were in October, which is likelv the usual 
time of migrating. 

In 1909 the Red-winged Blackbird was observed last on 
August 26 and in 1911 no record was made for autumn. These 
facts show that the species is exceedingly rare at this season of 
the year, and will be found only by a fortunate observer. The 
two dates in November for 191 2 and 1913, which are 
two weeks apart, gives us the probable time of departure as well 
as the difference of one year from another. 

The Hermit Thrush was very regular in its arrival from the 



' "Catalogue of Ohio Vascular Plants." Schaffner, J. H. Ohio State 
University Bulletin, Vol. 28, No. 224. 

Linnaeus. (Species Plantarum, 1753, p. 324). admitted the now 
recognized species H. flava, {flaviis), and H. fiilva, (fnlvtis), as varieties of 
H. Lilio Asphodelus both forming a composite type species for the genus. 
Dr. J. A. Nieuwland has pointed out, (American Midi.and Naturalist, 
Vol. II., p. 106), and also in a recent letter to the writer, that an interpre- 
tation of Linnaeus consistent with the rules of Rochester and Vienna, makes 
the form recognized as H. flava the type of the genus, as it was by examina- 
tion of Pre-Linnaean authors. It is evident from the above therefore, 
that the valid name according to the nomenclature of H. flava, is really 
//. Lilio Asphodelus. 



35^^ AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

nortli for Uirec years, but in 191 2 it was not seen until Oct. 13, 
which was the only record for the species that autumn. (When 
two dates are given for any species, that means the first was the 
date of arrival from the north). It will be noted that the Hermit 
Thrush was regular for two years in the time of its departure, 
but 8 and 9 days earlier and 9 and 10 days later than the regular 
dates in the other two years — 18 days being the difference between 
the earliest and the latest date of departure. 

The Kingbird was regular in its time of leaving except in 
191 2, when it departed on August 22. This date was 15 days 
earlier than the late?t date, which was on Sept. 6. Barring the 
one early date, this species left regularly in the first week of- 
September. 

The Hummingbird is seldom recorded by the writer at any 
season of the year, and this fact will probably explain the marked 
difference in the dates of migration for the species. Only two 
dates — in September — can be called regular, the third — in August — 
being 23 days earlier than the latest date. The August date must 
have been far from the true time of departure, yet it was obtained 
from a fairly diligent search. 

Considerable disparity is shown in one of the dates of the 
Vesper Sparrow — Sept. 30, 1912. This date was 26 days later 
than the earliest date. No record was made in 19 13, which, with 
the single late date in 191 2, would indicate that it is difficult 
to determine the time of departure for this species. The 
regular dates are too early for this sparrow, which — being such 
an early spring migrant — must tarry with us as late as October. 

In the Baltimore Oriole we have a species that shows the 
greatest regularity of any of our birds in the time of its autumn 
migration. Only 2 days between the earliest and the latest date, 
is the remarkable record for this species. 

The Barn Swallow shows 18 days between to be the dift'erence 
between its earliest and latest date of migration. The time between 
the third date — August 31 — and the latest date — Sept. 6 — the 
writer thinks indicates the true tim.e of migration. 

Only two dates were made for the Loggerhead Shrike — one 
in August and one in September — with the difference 24 days. 
This species is difficult to record, especially after the nesting season; 
and the single record for vSeptember is hardly sufficient to determine 
with satisfaction when the species migrates. 



MIGRATION OP OUR BIRDS IN AUTUMN 357 

The four records of the Purple Martin are divided iDetween 
August and September -the dates of each set being regular. 
There are i6 days between the earliest and latest dates, and 
12 days separating the other records. From these figures we can 
see that this species may leave on dates that are i or 2 days apait 
or within a period that is a little less or a little more than a 
fortnight. 

The three dates of the Yellow Palm Wrabler place this species 
among the migrants that are regular in their time of leaving, 
two days being the greatest difference. But the same regularity 
is not observable in the two dates of arrival — 12 days separating 
them. 

The Bronzed Grackle presents a case of great disparity in 
its dates of migration, no fewer than 54 days intervening between 
the earliest and the latest dates. But such an early record as 
September 15 may be set aside in determining the true time of 
migration for this species; and the interval between Oct. 20 and 
Nov. 8 — 18 days — may be taken as the probable period in which 
this grackle usually departs. 

The Warbling Vireo showed regularity in all of its dates 
except one, which was 10 days later than the earliest date. The 
Redstart was more regular still — two of the dates being identical 
and the others, 3 and 8 days later respectively. The Golden- 
crowned Kinglet must also be ranked among the regular arrivals 
in autumn — 5 days making the longest interval; but there is 
less regularity in the time of departure. 

A very curious case both of irregularity in migrating and of 
non-migration was that of the Red-headed Woodpecker. BetM^een 
the earliest and the latest date there were 23 days; between the 
earliest and a later date there were 8 days. In 1913 the species 
did not migrate; but remained throughout both autumn and 
winter. A very interesting occurrence indeed was this non- 
migration of a species that left for three previous years in the 
month of September. What is the explanation? The winter proved 
a very mild one; and could the bird have known so long before- 
hand that the season would not be severe? I think the bird must 
have been able to determine this, but how I can not say. 

Two species that showed marked regularity in three of their 
dates, but great disparity in one date, were the Myrtle Warbler 
and the vSnowbird. The early arrival of the Snowbird on Sept. 4, 



^S'*^ AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

1013 — was 13 days ahead of the earliest date of the other three 
years; while the Myrtle Warbler was 26 days earlier in 191 1 
than any other of its dates. Perhaps the early date of the Snowbird 
may be accounted for as the result of greater diligence on the 
part of the writer; but such an explanation would not be correct 
for the Myrtle Warbler. In 1911 this species was frequently seen 
after Sept. 11, which is 14 days earlier than the earliest date of 
any other year; and the characteristic call-note of the species 
always makes its presence practically certain. 

In the Red-breasted Nuthatch we have' a species that is not 
recorded often enough to ascertain its approximate date of migra- 
tion. The records obtained show great disparity, with 52 days 
between the extrem.e dates. 

When the Tree Sparrows first arrives from the north, the 
birds are neither numerous nor in song, and consequently may be 
overlooked unless the observer is both experienced and diligent. 
My records^ for the species fall into two sets — two in November 
and two in October, but I think that the latter dates may be taken 
as the more exact, and so in the fourth week of October the careful 
observer will be sure to find a few Tree Sparrows. 

Mv records for the Robin do not give conclusive evidence 
about the correct time of migration for the species. Two dates 
fall close together and two others are almost five weeks apart. 
This great irregularity is likely due to the habit which the Robin 
has of moving about a good deal in autumn in search of fruit — 
wild or cultivated — for food. 

The writer has usually omitted from his comparison those 
species for which he has but a single date, hoping that future 
observations will furnish a sufficient number of records for a 
comparison. 





1909 


lOI I 


1012 


191. 


\ 


Cowl>ird 


Aug. ix 


Sept. iS 


Oct. 1 I 


Ocl. 


16 


Rcd-wingcd Hlackbird 


Aug. 26 




Nov. 1 


Nov. 


I.S 


Hermit Thrush 


.Vug. .'9-()ct. . 


;-• .\UK. ,v>-Oct. . 


21 del. 1,? 


Aug. 


30- Not. I 


KiriRbird 


Sept. 2 


Sepl .^ 


Aug. 22 


Sept. 


f> 


Orchard Oriole 


Sept. 3 










ntininiingbird 


Sept. 4 


S.pl. J 7 


.Aug. 14 


SeiH. 


21) 


Vesper .Sparrow 


Sept. 4 


Sept. 6 


Sept. 30 






Baltimore Oriole 


Sept. 4 


Sept. 3 


Sept. 5 


.Sept. 


4 


Barn Swallow 


Sept. (> 




Aug. 19 


Aug. 


3' 


Loggerhead vShrike 


Sept. 6 




Aug. 12 







MIGRATION OP OUR BIRDS IN AUTUMN 



359 





1909 


191 1 


igi2 




1913 


I'urple Martin 


Sept. 8 


Aug. 23 


Sept. 5 




Aug. 25 


Long-billed Marsh Wren 


vSept. 8 








Aug. 28 


Least Flycatcher » 


Sept. 1 1 


Aug. 22 






Aug. 25-Sept. 26 


Yellow Palm Warbler 


Sept. 15-Oct. 15 




Oct. 12 




Sept. 27-Oct. 14 


Bronzed Grackle 


Sept. 15 


Oct. 20 


Nov. 8 




Oct. 25 


Warbling Vireo 


Sept. 16 


Sept. 27 


Sept. 13 




vSept. 15 


Red-eyed Vireo 


Sept. 17 




Aug. 6 




Sept. 3 


Redstart 


vSept. 20 


Sept. 24 


Sept. 20 




Aug. 29-.Sept. 28. 


Maryland Vellowthroat 


Sept. 21 








Sept. 13 


Cedarbird 


Sept. 23 


Sept. 10 


Aug. 31 




Sept. II 


Red-headed Woodpecker 


Sept. 24 


Sept. I 


Sept. 9 






Wood Pewee 


Sept. 24 


Sept. 10 


Sept. 1 8 




Sept. 28 


Greater Yellowlegs 


Sept. 24 


Sept. 20 


Oct. 25 




Aug. 31 


Brown Creeper 


Sept. 25 arrival 


vSept. 17 arrival 






Sept. 13 arrival 


Myrtle Warbler 


Sept. 25-Oct. I 


Aug. 3 i-Oct. 29 


Sept. 30 


-Oct. 27 Sept. 27-Nov. 6 


Snowbird 


Sept. 26 arrival 


Sept. I 7 arrival 


Sept. 28 


arrival 


.Sept' 4 arrival 


Catbird 


vSept. 26 


Sept. 4 


Sept. 18 




Sept. 25 


Xndigo Bird 


Sept. 26 


Sept. 27 


Sept. 22 




Oct. .s 


White-throated Sparrow 


Sept. 28-Nov. I 


.Sept. 27-Oct. 18 


; Sept. 26-Oct. 2.5 


.Sept. 15-Oct 27 


Red-breasted Nuthtach 


Sept. 30 


Sept. 4 


Oct. 26 




Sept. 20 


Black-billed Cuckoo 


Sept. 30 








Sept. 14 


Chimney Swift 


Get. 4 


Oct. 7 


Sept. 29 




.Sept. 24 


Yellow-billed Cuckoo 


Oct. 7 


Sept. 16 


Sept. 25 




.Sept. 24 


Yellow-bellied Sapsucker 


Oct. 4-10 


Sept. 5 


Oct. 3 




Sept. 19 Oct. 1 1 


Phoebe 


Oct. 10 


Oct. 17 


Sept. 25- 


Oct. 4 


Oct. 13 


Brown Thrasher 


Oct. 12 


Sept. 20 


Sept. 13 




Oct. 9 


Nighthawk 


Oct. 13 








Sept. 8 


Kingfisher 


Oct. 13 


Oct. 25 


Oct. 27 




Nov. 14 


House Wren 


Oct. 16 


Sept. 2 I 


Oct. 8 




Oct. 14 


Bluebird 


Oct. 21 


Nov. I 


Nov. 8 




Oct. 3 1 


Fox Sparrow 


Oct. 23 










Meadowlark 


Oct, 28 


Oct. 23 


Oct. 15 




Nov. 5 


Towhee 


Oct. 28 


Nov. 8 


Oct. 24 




Nov. 2 


Chipping Sparrow 


Oct. 29 


Oct. 12 


Sept. 4 




Oct. 17 


Hell Diver 


Oct. 30^ 


Oct. 28 


Oct. r6 






Killdeer 


Nov. I 


Oct. 14 


Oct. 21 




Oct. 31 


Robin 


Nov 4 


Nov. 2 I 


Oct. 27 




Nov. 5 


Tree Sparrow 


Nov. 9 arrival 


Nov. 15 arrival 


Oct. 25 : 


arrival 


Oct. 21 arrival 


Goldfinch 


Nov. 16 


Nov. 24 


Nov. 19 




Dec. 14 


Flicker 


Nov. 18 


Oct. 16 


Oct. 15 




Oct. II 


Cardinal 


Nov. 20 


Nov. 8 


Nov. 13 






Northern Shrike 


Nov. 29 arrival 




Nov. 2.5 


arrival 




.\lder Flycatcher 


Aug. 22 








Aug. 14 


Black and White Warbler Aug. 22 , 








Aug. 29-.Sept. 27 


Yellow-bellied Flycatcher Aug 27 










Crested Flycathcer 




Sept. I 


.Sept. 13 




.Sept 12 


Pine Warbler 




Sept. 24 


Sept. 14 




Sept. II -Oct. 26 



t 



360 AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST 

1909 1911 1912 19'3 

Black-throated Green Warbler Sept. 29 Sept. 17 Aug. 30-Oct. ii 

Spotted Sandpiper Oct. 3 Aug. 5 

Chickadee Oct. 9 arrival Oct. 25 arrival Oct. 6 arrival 

Winter Wren Oct. 14-Nov. 4 

Mourning Dove Oct. 15 Sept. 23 

Field Sparrow Oct. 29 Oct. 16 Oct. 27 

Canada Geese Nov. i Nov. 18 Oct. 20 

Song Sparrow Nov. 8 Nov. 15 Dec. 15 Dec. 7 

Yellow Warbler Aug. 6 Aug. 3 

Wilson Wargler Aug. 31 

/ Whip-poor-will Sept. 20 

Pages 311-332 published August 4, 1914. 



ERRATA. 

Page 138, line 6. Scratch : — Rachis folii et petioluli dense albido-tomentori, 
marginaliter saltern. 

Page 144, last line: — panes read paene. 




St '-^J'^V^'M^, 
Plate XIII. HoBCK on Anatomy of Megalodomta Beckii. 



♦. ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦'* * -* *■ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ * ,*■ ♦ ••**4**** -f •#■#■#-#'# #^ 



: Microscopical Slides of Plants : 

i For Schools and Teachers I 

I of Botany I 

■■♦■■ <* 

*' *■ 

♦ ^ These mounts are illustrative of the prin- t 

♦ -'f 
I cipal plant groups showing life history and t 

t methods of reproduction, and are put up t 

♦ ^^ .it 

I by the Glycerme, Venetian Turpentine, and I 

♦ Balsam methods. Filamentary forms of Algae I 
I a specialty. Limited amounts of alcoholic * 

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♦ '* 

I can be supplied as also live fresh water algae * 

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r Notre Dame, Indiana -'t 

♦ *t 
■♦ ■'♦■ 

♦> m By special request and pre-arrangement live forms in fruit * 

*' of fresh water algae, prothallia, liverworts, mosses, etc., will be ''^. 

,* sent as desired, it is necessary to send orders m a season ahead *, 

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" " Fresh Water Sponges of the United iStates, 1909, 10 pp. .10 



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INDEX 



Abbotia 19 

palustris 19 

Acalypha 233 

Acer 181, 182 

barbatnm 182 

floridanum 182 

grandidentatum 183 

hispidum 182 

leucoderme 182 

Acetosa 236 

minor 236 

repens 236 

tenuifolia 237 

Acetosella 237 

Acnida 279 

tamariscina 279 

tuberculata 279 

Aconitum 171 

Acoron Discorides 47 

Acorum 7 

Diocordis 47 

legitimum 47 

Acorus 47 

Calamus 47 

palustris 47 

verus 47 

Actaea 326 

alba 326 

racemosa 326 

spicata var. alba 326 

spicata var. rubra 326 

Adenimesa 193 

Adicea 6, 234 

Deamii 7, 10 

fontana 7 

Nieuwlandii 7, 10, 234 

opaca 7, 8, 10 

pumila 6, 7, ri 

Adike 234 

Adlumia 1 74 



Admirabilis 280 

peruana 280 

Aesculus 229 

Aglitheis 104 

Agrostemma 290 

agrestis 290 

coronaria 292 

Githago 290 

Aigeiros 222 

candicans 223 

deltoides 222 

heterophyllos 222 

nigra 222 

Aigilops 229 

Aizoaceae 281 

Alaria 96 

Alcali 277 

Aletroideae 107 

Aletris 107 

farinosa 107 

Algae, Some Littoral, of 

Puget Sound 91 

Alisma 21 

aquatica 21 

erecta 21 

Plantago 21 

Alismaceae 21. 

Alnus 228 

incana 228 

glutinosa 228 

hirsuta 228 

rugosa 228 

serrulata 228 

vulgaris 228 

Alliaceae 104 

Allieae 104 

Allionia 280 

nyctaginea 280 

Allium 105 

canadense 105 



362 



INDEX 



Allium cernuum 105 

stellatum 105 

tricoccum 105 

vineale 105 

Alsine 282 

graminea 282 

longifolia 282 

longipes 282 

media 282 

minor 282 

minima 289 

Alsineae 282 

Alsinaceae 282 

Alsinoideae .' 282 

Amaranthides i53 

Amaranthoideae 278 

Amaranthus 278 

albus 278 

blitoides 278 

cristatus 278 

graecizanus 278 

hydbridus 278 

purpureus 278 

retroflexus 278 

spinosus 278 

tamariscinus 279 

Amarantus 278 

Amarella theiantha var. livida.. . . 142 

Ambrina ambrosioides 275 

anthelmintica 275 

Amelanchier macrocarpa 143 

alnifolia 144 

oblongifolia 144 

Amentaceae 226 

Armeria 297 

Amerina 223 

Ammocallis 150, 151 

rosea 151 

Amphiroa 93 

Aplectrum 125 

spicatum 125 

Anacharis canadensis 22 

Andrachne 281 

Anemanthus 322 

Anemonanthaea... .173. 174.318,322 

trifolia 174 

quinquefolia . .174 
Anemone i73. 322 



Anemone canadensis 322 

cylindrica 322 

Hepatica 321 

pennsylvanica 322 

quinquefolia 322 

thalictroides 288 

trifolia 174 

Anemonella thalictroides.. .288, 323 

Anemonoides 322 

Angiospermae 14 

Anguina 46 

Anona triloba 297 

Anonaceae 297 

Antennaria 352 

ampla 352, 353 

angustiarum 352 

calophylla 353 

mesochora 353 

occidentalis 352 

umbellata 353 

Antennarias 88 

Anthalogea 180 

polygama 180 

rubella 180 

Anthericum 1 1 1 

Anychia 279 

Baldwinii 152 

canadensis 279 

capillacea 280 

dichotoma 280 

hernarioides 154 

Anychiastrum 154, 155 

Baldwinii 152 

hernarioides 154 

^ montanum 155 

riparium 155 

Aphyllon 157, 190 

Apinus 69 

Aplectrum 125 

Aplilia 187 

Apocynum cannabinum 54 

Carolini 53 

cinereum 56 

isophyllum 56, 57 

tomentellum. . . .55, 166 

tomentulosura 166 

Aquatile 336 



INDEX 



363 



Aquilegia 324, 325 

canadensis 325 

Aquileia 324 

Aquilina 325 

Arabis Douglassi 287 

rhomlioidea var. purpurea . 287 

Araceae 44 

Arales 44 

Arboreta, Forest 255 

Arenaria 289 

brevifolia 289 

lateriflora 289 

multicaulis 289 

rubra 290 

serpyllifolia 289 

Arethusa 121, 122 

ophioglossoides 121 

bulbosa 122 

spicata 12.5 

Argemone 349, 350 

mexicana 350 

Argyrocoma imbricata 153 

Arioides 46 

Arisaema 44 

Dracontium 45 

triphyllum 44, 45 

Arisareae 46 

Aristolochia 236 

Serpentaria 236 

Aristolochiaceae 236 

Aristolochieae - 235 

Arnoglossum 193 

-Arnoglossum plantagineum 193 

Aroideae 44 

Arum 44, 45 

Dracontium 45 

triphyllum 44 

virginicum 45 

Arundo Phragmites 332 

Asaraceae 235 

Asarineae 235 

Asarum 235, 236 

canadense 236 

Asimina 297 

triloba 297 

Asparagi 109 

Asparagineae 108 

Asparagoideae 108 



Asparagus 108 

altilis 108 

domesticus 108 

esculentus 109 

holeraceus 108 

oflicinalis 109 

petraeus 108 

sativa 109 

sativus 109 

scanensis 109 

vulgaris 108 

hortensis 108 

Aster Kumleinii oliganthemos. . 344 

Astcranthemum 109 

stellatum 109 

trifolium 109 

vulgaris 109 

Astragulus conjunctus 32 

hoodianus 32 

Atragene 323 

Atriplex 275 

hastata 276 

littoralis 276 

patula 276 

Avellana 226 

Bacciferae 108 

Batrachion 318 

Batrachium 320, 336 

Trichophyllus . .320, 336 

circinatum 321 

Batschia 194 

linearifolia 194 

longifolia 194 

Belharnosia 350 

canadensis 350 

Bermudiana 115 

angustifolia 115 

apiculata 116 

apiculata var. 

mesochora 116 

campestris 116 

graminea 116 

Betonica 293 

Betula 227 

Betula alba var. populifolia 227 

Betula Alnus 228 

Alnus var. incana 228 



364 



INDEX 



Betula Alnus rugosa 228 

lenta 227 

lutea 227 

nigra 227 

papyracea 227 

pumila 227 

BetuUa 227, 228 

papyrifera 227 

populifolia 227 

Besseya 188 

rubra 184 

Bicuculla 174. 350 

chrysantha 174 

canadensis 351 

Cucullaria 351 

ochroleuca 174 

uniflora 174 

Bidens 336 

Beckii 336 

Bidentideae 336 

Bifolium 128, no 

auriculatura 129 

australe 129 

convallarioides 129 

cordatum 128, 129 

majus 129 

minimum 128, 129 

ovatum 129 

Smallii 129 

Bilderdykia cilinodis 242 

Convolvulus 242 

dumetorum 242 

Birds. . .23-29; 48-53 ; 60-62; 65- 
68;70-76; 125-127 ; 158-166; 
201-206; 243-253; 283-286; 
298-310; 3^7-330; 355-360 

Blephara 295 

Blepharigottis 119 

alba 120 

ciliaris 119 

lacera 120 

laucophaea 120 

psycodes 120 

Blitum 276 

capitatum 276 

glaucum 275 

Boehmeria 234 

cylindrica 235 



Botryanthus 107 

Botrydium 275 

aromaticum 275 

Botryphile 107 

Bortys alba 276 

ambrosioides 275 

ambrosioides mexiocana .275 

anthelmintica 275 

aromatica 275 

Berlandieri 276 

bosciana 275 

glauca 275 

hybrida . .275 

leptophylla 275 

Brasenia 294 

nymphaeoides 295 

Brasenia peltata . 294 

purpurea 294 

Schreberi 294 

Bruniera 41 

Columbiana 42 

punctata 42 

Bryonia alba 155 

Buccaferrea 16 

natans 16 

Buda 290 

rubra 290 

Buinalis 152, 153, 154 

Baldwinii 154 

floridana 152, 153 

Cabombeae 294, 337 

Cacalia 192, 193 

atriplicifolia 193 

floridana 193 

ovata 193 

reniformis 193 

tuberosa 193 

Calceolus 117 

Reginae 117 

hirsutus 118 

candidus 117 

Mariae 117 

parviflorus 118 

Calendula 325 

Calliprena 105 

Calla 46 

palustris 46 



INDEX 



365 



Calamus 47 

aromaticus 47 

odoratus 47 

Caltha 325 

palustris 325 

Calycomelia 186 

americana 186 

biltomoreana 186 

caroliniana 186 

pennsylvanica 186 

pistaciaefolia 186 

profunda 186 

quandrangulata 186 

Cameraria 108 

Campanula biflora 192 

Campydorum no 

Cannabis 233, 232 

sativa 233 

Cannarhodium 108 

Cantabrica 293 

Capnoides 351 

flavulum 351 

sempervirens. 351 

Capnorchis 350 

canadensis 351 

Cucullaria 351 

Cardamine 287 

Douglassi 287 

purpurea 287 

Carpinus 226 

caroliniana 226 

virginiana 226 

Carya 219 

alba 219, 220 

amara ^. 220 

microcarpa 220 

sulcata 219 

tomentosa 220 

Caryon 219 

Caryophylleae 272, 290 

Caryophyllus 292, 274 

minor 293 

Castalia 295 

odorata 296 

pudica 296 

tuberosa 296 

Catharanthus 150, 151 

roseus 151 



Cathea 124 

pulchella 124 

tuberosa 124 

Cathartolinum 151 

striatum 152 

Caulinia flexilis ... 19 

Celosia 278 

cristata 279 

Celsia 107 

Celtis 231 

crassifolia 232 

occidentalis ., 231 

occidentalis var. pumila. . ..232 

pumila 232 

Centunculus Plinii 235 

Cepaeae 104 

Centrospermae 274 

Cerastium 282, 283 

arvense.. 289 

longipedunculatum . . . .289 

nutans 289 

viscosum 283 

vulgatum 283 

Ceratophylleae 294 

Ceratophyllum aquaticum 294 

demersum 294 

submersum 294 

Ceriferae 220 

Cerris 229 

Ceryna 332 

Chaemaenerion latifolium var. 

megalobum i . . 132 

Chamaesyce glyptosperma var. 

integrata 142 

Chelidonium 350 

Chelidonium diphyllum 344 

majus 350 

vulgare 350 

Chenopodiales 274 

Chenopodium 274, 275 

ambrosioides 275 

album 275, 276 

anthelminticum 275 

Berlandieri 276 

boscianum 276 

Botrys 275 

capitatum 276 

glaucum 275 



366 



INDEX 



Chenopodium hybridum 275 

leptophyllum 275 

Chenopodio-Morus 276 

Christophoriana rubra 326 

alba 326 

Chlorophyllum 331, 332 

viride .332 

Chrysion biflontm 215 

Cicuculla uniflora 175 

Cimicifuga 326 

racemosa 326 

Cirsium Flodmanni 143 

ochrocentrum 142 

nebraskense var. for- 

midolosum 142 

nebraskense var. dis- 

cessum 142 

Circaea 813, 184 

alpina var. aleutica 184 

intermedia 184 

Cistaceae .176 

Claytonia 281 

virginica 281 

Cleistogamoiis Flowers 85 

Clematis 155, 156, 322, 323 

Flamula 1.55 

florida.. 156 

japonica 156 

Viticella 156, 155 

Viorna 323 

virginiana 323 

Vitalba 323 

Clethra 228 

Cnida .' 234 

Coeloglossum 121 

bracteatum 121 

Coelopleurum longipes 32 

Collenchyma 337 

Collinsonia 178 

anisata 178, 177 

scabra 177 

verticillata 178 

verticillaris 1 77,' 1 78 

Calopogon pulchellus 124 

tuberosus 124 

Comandra 235 

umbellata 235 

Commelina 99 



Commelina virginica 100 

Compositae 192 

Comptonia 220 

asplenifolia 220 

peregrina 220 

Conophora 193 

atriplicifolia 193 

diversifolia 193 

floridana 193 

maxima 193 

ovata 193 

reniformis 193 

similis 193 

tuberosa 193 

Consolida 173, 325 

Ajacis 173, 326 

regalis 173, 326 

Convallaria 111 

biflora no 

commutata iii 

Lilium Convallium 1 1 1 

majalis in 

racemosa 109 

trifolia 109 

Coprosmanthus 113 

herbaceus var. ecirrhatus. 113 

Coptis 324 

trifolia 324 

Corallina 93 

Corallorhiza 124 

Corallorhiza 124 

innata 124 

odontorhiza 124 

trifida. . .: 124 

Corispermum 277 

hyssopifolium 278 

Corrigiolaceae 279 

Corion 290 

Corone 291 

Coronaria 292 

tomentosa 292 

Corniveum 174, 175 

uniflorum 175 

Cornus canadensis 166 

Corydalis 351 

canadensis 351 

flavnla 351 

glauca 351 



INDEX 



367 



Corydalis sempervirens 351 

Corylus 226 

americana 227 

Crocanthemum 207, 176 

Crocion 209, 214 

eriocarpum 214 

pubescens 214, 215 

Curages 201 

Cucubalus 57 

latifolius 291 

stellatus 58 

Cucullaria 350 

Cupuliferae 226, 228 

Cupulaceae 226 

Cyclinanthus 293 

barbatus 293 

maculatus 293 

Cycloloma 276 

atriplicifolia 277 



Cymbidium odontorhiza 

pulchellum 

Cynorrodium 

Cyperella 

Cyphorima 

angustifolia. 

Cypripedieae 117, 

Cypripedium Reginae 

acaule 

album 

candidum 

Calceolus 

hirsutum 

parviflorura 

pubescens 

spectabile 



Czernya 332 

Damasonium 21 

Dasiphora fructicosa 130 

Dasiphora fruticosa var. ap- 

pendiculata 129 

Decemium 156 

Delphidium 172 

Delphinastrum 172 

Anderson! 172 

carolinianum 172 

distichum 172 

exaltaturn 172 



Delphinastrum glaucum 172 

leucophaeum 172 

Menziesii 172 

nudicaule 172 

nuttallianum 172 

Nelsoni 172 

occidentale 172 

Treleasei 172 

tricorne 172 

trollifolium 172 

urceolatum 172 

vimineum 172 

Delphinastrum virescens 172 

Delphinium 171, 173, 225 

Ajacis 171, 173, 326 

carolinianum 172 

Consolida 171, 173, 326 

exaltaturn 172 

Nelsoni 172 

peregrinum 171, 173 

Treleasei 172 

tricorne 172 

virescens 172 

Dens canis 106 

Dentali 106 

Despeleza 175, 176 

angustifolia 176 

capitata 176 

hirta 176 

leptostachya 177 

Dianthus 293 

Armeria 293 

barbatus 293 

plumarius 293 

Dicentra 350 

canadensis 35 1 

Cucullaria 351, 174 

uniflora 1 74, 1 75 

Dichotophyllum 294 

demersum 294 

Diclytra 350 

Cucullaria 351 

canadensis 351 

canadensis 351 

Dicotyledoneae 217 

Dicotyledones 217 

Diosanthos 293 



368 



INDKX 



Diosanthos armerium 293 

barbatum 293 

Theophrasti 293 

Dioscorea paniculata 114 

villosa 1 14 

Dioscoreae 114 

Dioscorideae 114 

Dioscorineae 114 

Diphryllum 128 

Distomaea 128 

cordata 129 

ovata 129 

Dogbanes 53 

Dodocatheon 147 

pauciflorum .... 146, 343 

thornense 146, 343 

Drimocaria 220 

minima 220 

Drosera rotundifolia 20 

Drys 229 

Duretia 234 

Echinocaulos 242 

Echtrus 349 

Mexicanus 350 

trivialis 350 

Eleagnus argentea 142 

Elodea canadensis 22 

Ellisia microcalyx 157 

Elodis 198 

Elodea 198 

Enemion .324 

Enemion biternatum 324 

Enetophyton 189 

cleistogamum 189 

Ensatae 114 

Enteromorpha linza 94 

Ephemero-phalangium 100 

Ephemerum 100 

Ephemerum congestum 100 

Epilobium adenocaulon var. 

pseudocoloratum 142 

Epilobium Hammondi 32 

Epipactis 123 

Equisetales 47 

Equisetum Telmateia 16 

Erigeron i 

abruptorum 1, 2, 3 



Erigeron var. appressus i, 2, 3 

anodontus 2, 6, 344 

asper i, 2 

var. appressus. ... 1, 2, 3 

var. subinteger 143 

oligodontus 2, 3 

oxyodontus 2, 3 

procerus 2, 5, 344 

subcostatus 2, 5 

tardus 344 

Eriocauleae 99 

Eriocaulon 99 

articulatum 99 

septangulare 99 

Eriocauloneae 99 

Erythronium 106 

albidum 106 

americanum ....... 106 

angustatum 106 

Eucarya 219 

Eucentrion. .' 210, 216 

Euion 209, 211 

Eulophion 210, 215 

Eupersicaria 239 

Euthalia. . 289 

serpyllifolia 289 

Evactoma. 57, 291 

stcllata 58, 59 

stellata var. scabrella 

58, 291 

Evallaria 110 

Fagaceae 228 

Fagales 226 

Fagineae 228 

Fagopyrum 237 

esculentum 238 

vulgare 238 

Fagus 229 

americana 229 

ferruginea 229 

grandifolia 229 

Fissipes 118 

acaulis r 18 

Fluviales 16, 19 

Fraximus 184, 185 

americana 186 

anomala 187 



INDIvX 



369 



Fraxinus biltmoreaiia i86 

caroliniana 186 

cuspidata 187 

dipetala 188 

Greggii 187 

lanceolata 186 

longicuspis 187 

nigra 186 

Ornus 187 

pennsylvanica 186 

pistaciaefolia 187 

profunda 186 

pubescens 186 

platycarpa 186 

quadrangulata 186 

viridis 186 

Frasera .....192 

Fraxinoides 186 

excelsior 186 

nigra 186 

Fucus 95 

Fumariaceae 1 74, 350 

Galearis 69, 198, 1 18 

spectabilis 119 

Galeorchis 198, 118 

spectabilis 119 

Galax 157 

Galliaria 278 

albida 1 278 

blitoides 278 

graecizans 278 

hybrida 278 

retroflexa 278 

scabra 278 

spinosa. . . 278 

Galypola 179, 180 

incarnata 180 

Geboscon 104 

Geminaceae 184 

Gentiana 1 84 

Oxfordii 32 

Gentianaceae 192 

Gigartina mammilosa 93 

Gillenia 198 

Githago 290 

segetalis 291 

segetum 290 



Glandifcrac 228 

Glastum 293 

Gonopyros 170, 171, 242 

Gonoi)yrum 170, 171, 242 

americanum 171 

orticulatum 171, 243 

Goodyera 123 

piiljescens 123 

Grindclia squarrosa var. qua- 

siperrenis 143 

Grantia 42 

Columbiana 42 

Gueria canadensis 279 

Gymnandra 188 

rubra 189 

Gyrostachys 122 

cernua 122 

gracilis. . . .' 123 

latifolia 122 

plantaginea 122 

Gymnadeniopsis 120 

clavellata r2o 

Gypsophyton 292 

Habenaria 119, 120, 121 

Blephariglottis 120 

ciliaris 120 

ciliaris var. alba 120 

clavellata 120 

dilalata 119 

flava 121 

hookeriana 119 

Hookeri var. oblongi- 

folia 1 19 

hyperborea 119 

lacera 120 

leucophaea 120 

orbiculata 119 

psycodes 120 

tridentata 120 

virescens 121 

Halimium '. . . 176, 207 

Hamamelis 62 

corylifolia 62 

hyemalis 62 

japonica 61 

macrophylla 64 

riparia 62 



370 



INDIvX 



Ha mamelis rotundifolia 64 

verna 61 

virginiana . . . .61, 62, 63 
virginiana var. au- 

gustifolia 63 

virginiana var. or- 

biculata 64 

Hederula aquatica 43 

Hclianthemum 1 76, 207 

Helleborine 124 

Helobiae 15 

Helleboraceae 324 

Helleborus trifolius 324 

Helxinc 237 

cissampelos 242 

Hedysarum hirtum 176 

Hecatonia 318 

palustris 318 

Hemerocallis 108, 353, 354 

flava 353, 354, 355 

fiilva 108, 353, 354 

Lilio-Aphodclus ful- 

vus 108 

Hepatica 321 

acuta 321 

acutiloba 321, 316 

trifolia •321 

trifolium 321 

triloba 321 

triloba var. acuta 321 

nobili.s 321 

verna 321 

Heptarinia 240 

Heracleum 184 

Herniaria floridana 152 

Hesperion 209, 211 

Heteranthera loi 

dubia , 1 01 

Hexaglochin 19, 20 

sexlocularis 20 

martima 20 

Hexonychia 105 

Hibiscus Trionum 291 

Hicoria 219 

cordiformis 220 

laciniosa 219 

microcarpa 220 

minima 220 



Hicoria ovata 219 

Hierochloa 198 

alpina 198 

Nashii 198 

odora 198 

pauciflora 198 

Hippia minor 282 

Hirundinaria 350 

major 350 

Holeraceae 274 

Horkelia 42 

Humulus 233 

americanus 233 

Lupulus 233 

salictarius 233 

Hutchinsia 184 

Hyacinthus botryoides 107 

racemosus 107 

Hydroceratophyllum 294 

Hydroceratum 294 

laevis 294 

Hydropeltis 294 

purpurea 294 

Hydrophace 42 

minor 42, 43 

trisulca 43 

Hydrophyllum appendiculatum 

156, 157 

Hydrophyllum pusillum 158 

Hypogon 177 

anisatum 178 

verticillaris 177 

verticillatum 177, 178 

Hypoxis 114 

erecta 114 

hirsuta 114 

Ibidium 122 

plantagineum 122 

Ictodes 46 

foetidus 46 

Ilex 229 

Iris 115 

foetidissima 99 

versicolor 115 

versicolor var. blandescens.. . . 115 
vriginica 115 

Ischaemon 103 



INDEX 



371 



Ischaemum 103 

Isoetes Howellii 32 

Isopyrum 324 

biternatum 324 

Itea 62, 223 

Jalap 280 

Jalapa 280 

Juglans 218 

alba 219, 220 

alba odorata 220 

alba minima 220 

cinerea 219 

laciniosa 219 

nigra 218 

' ovata 219 

regia 219 

tomentosa 220 

Juliferae 226 

Juliflorae 226 

Juncago 19 

palustris 19 

Juncodes 1 03 

Juncoides 103 

campestre 103 

Juncacae loi 

Juncoide.e loi 

Juncus loi 

acuminatus 103 

balticus 102 

bachycarpus 103 

bufouius 102 

brachycephalus 103 

canadensis 102, 103 

canadensis var. brachy- 
cephalus 103 

Dudleyi 103 

effusus 102 

Greenii 102 

marginatus 102 

nodosus 103 

polycarpus 102 

richardsonianus 102 

robustus 102 

scirpoides 103 

tenuis 102 

Torreyi 103 

Jupica 99 



Kali 277 

Kobus 297 

acuminata 297 

tripetala 297 

Kochia atriplicifolia 277 

Knawel 280 

Knavelia 280 

Knavel 280 

Knavel annuum 280 

Kottsjillettia 98 

flexuosa 99 

Krinon 106 

Lacinaria scariosa uniflora var. 

nov 344 

Lapathos 237 

Lapathum . .237 

altissimum 237 

brittanicum 237 

crispum .237 

mexicanum 237 

verticillatum 237 

Laportea 234 

canadensis 234 

Larix 69 

Legouzia 192 

perfoliata 192 

Lemma 42 

Lemna 42, 44 

minor 43 

polyrhiza 44 

trisulca 43 

Lens palustris 42, 43 

Lenticula 42 

aquatica 42, 43 

trisulca 43 

Lepigonum 290 

Leptalix 186 

platycarpa 186 

pubescens 186 

Leptophyllum 275 

Leptorchis 124' 

Leptorchis liliifolia 124 

Loeselii 123 

Lespedeza 175, 176 

capitata 176 

capitata var. angustifolia. ... 176 
hirta 176 



372 



INDEX 



Lespedeza Icptostachya 177 

virginica 175 

Leuce 221 

Leuconym])haca 296 

odorata 296 

rcniformis 296 

Leucocoma 254, 323 

canadensis 254, 323 

dioica 324 

Leucopitys 69 

Strobus 70 

excelsa 70 

Liliales loi 

Liliaceae 105 

IJliodeae 105 

Lilium 106 

andinum 106 

canadensis; 105 

album Ill 

•Convallium 42, 1 1 1 

majalis 1 1 1 

superbum 106 

tigrinum 106 

umbellatum 106 

Liliasphodelus 108 

Liliago Ill 

Lilio asphodelus 108 

Limnorchis 119 

dilatata 119 

hyperborea 119 

Limodorum 124 

tuberosum 124 

tuberosum 

var. nanum 130 

Linum striatum 151, 152 

Cymbalaria 333 

lyinnaea americana 166 

Linum catharticum 151, 152 

rigidum 152 

sulcatum i,S2 

Liquidambar asplenifolia 220 

peregrina 220 

Liparis 123 

liliifolia 124 

Loeselii 123 

Liriodendron 297 

Tulipifera ■. . . 297 

Listera 128 



Listcra auriculatum 129 

australis 129 

convallarioides 129 

cordata 128 

ovata 128 

reniformis 129 

Smallii! 129 

Lithospernum 194 

angustifolium 194 

linearifolium 194 

Lochnera '151 

rosea 151 

Lonicera 191 

sempervirens 191 

arizonica 191 

Lopliion 209, 2 15 

canadense 216 

rostratum 216 

striatum 216 

Lotos 231 

Luciola 104 

Lunellia • 188, 189 

rubra 189 

Lupulus 232, 233 

communis 233 

salictarius 233 

Luzula 103 

campestris 103 

saltuensis 104 

Lychnis 292 

agrestis 291 

agria 291 

arvensis 291 

coronaria 292 

Githago 291 

rustica 291 

segetum 291 

stephanomatike 292 

Lycopodincae 47 

Lysias 119 

hookeriaiia 119 

Lythnim alatum.266, 267, 268, 270 

cordifolium 265, 266 

dacotanum 266 

flagellare . . . 267, 268, 270 

gracile 266 

hyssopifolia 270 

lineare 266 



INDEX 



373 



Lythrum ovalifolium. .268, 269, 270 

parvulum 267, 270 

Vulneraria 266 

Madura 232 

aurantiaca 232 

pomifera 232 

Macrotrys 326 

racemosa 326 

Magnoliaceae 296, 297 

acuminata 297 

virginiana var. acu- 
minata 297 

Maia 1 10 

Maianthemum 109, 1 10, 1 1 1 

Majanthemum stellatum 109 

Mannaphorus 187 

Marsilia 42 

Massula angustifolia 14 

Matteucia 196, 195, 196, 197 

Struthiopteris. ...... 194, 197 

Meconopsis diphylla 349 

Medeola iii 

virginiea 112 

Medlar tree 63 

Megalodanta Beckii 336, 341 

nudata 336 

Mekon 349 

Rhoias 349 

Melanojae 1 1 1 

Melanthaceae 104 

Melanthideae 104 

Melanthium 104 

virginicum 104 

Melobesia marginata 92 

Mesadenia 192, 193 

atriplicifolia 193 

diversifolia 193 

ovata 193 

plantaginea 193 

maxima 193 

reniformis 193 

similis 193 

tuberosa 193 

Mesochora 350 

Mespilus 63 

Micheliella 177, 178, loi 

verticillata 178 



Micheliella anisata 178 

Miphragtes 332 

Mirabilis 280 

peruviana 280 

Jalapa 280 

Mirabile peruvianum 280 

Mithridatium 106 

Mnemion 210, 217 

arvense 217 

Rafinesquii 217 

tricolor 217 

Moehringia 290 

lateriflora 290 

Molluga 281 

verticillata 281 

Monocotyledoneae 14 

Monophyllon 1 10 

Montia Howellii 32 

Moraceae 232 

Morocarpus 276 

major 276 

Morus 232 

alba 232 

Candida 232 

rubra 232 

Muralis herba 235 

Muricauda 44 

Dracontium 45 

Murrillia 332 

Murrillomyces 332 

Muscari 107 

botryoides 107 

racemosum 107 

Muscipula 291 

Myosuru,s 313 

minimus 311, 312, 

313, .314. 315, 316 

Myriceae 220 

Myrica asplenifolia 220 

Myosotis 283 

Najas 19 

flexilis 19 

Narthecium glutinosum 104 

Narukila loi 

cordata loi 

var. lancifolia loi 

Nasmythia articulata 99 



374 



INDEX 



Nasturtium aquatium 337 

Nayadeae 16, 19 

Negundo 148, 149, 150 

Californicum 149 

fraxinifolium 150 

interius 149, 150 

Nuttallii 149, 150 

texanum 149 

Nelumbo 296 

lutea 296 

Nelumbium 296 

luteum 296 

Nemexia 113 

Nemexia pulverulenta 113 

ecirrhata 113 

Nemophila 158 

micrbcalyx 157 

Nemorosa 321, 322 

canadensis 322 

quinquefolia 322 

Nenuphar 295 

Neobeckia 337 

Neolexis 109 

Neottiinae * 121 

Neottia lucida 122 

plantaginea 122 

pubescens 123 

Neurophyllum viridc 331, 332 

Nezera 151 

albif olia 152 

striata 152 

virginiana 152 

Nigellastrum 290 

Nigredo Polemonii 337 

Nintooa 191 

Nuciferae 218 

Nuculaceae 218 

Nux 218 

Avellana 226 

Juglans 218 

juglans virginiana nigra 218 

Nuphar 295 

advena 295 

Nymphaea 295, 296 

advena 295 

odorata 296 

tuberosa 296 

maculata 296 



Nymphosanthos 295 

Nympozanthus 295 

Octima 221 

Oionychion 209, 2 1 1 

pedatum 210 

pedatum var. ampli- 

tum 211 

pedatum var. inor- 

natum 210 

Olfa 324 

Onagraceae 184 

Oncerum 291 

Ophris 128 

Ophrydeae 118 

Ophrys, cernua 122 

cordata 129 

Corollorluza 124 

liliifolia 124 

Loeselii 123 

ovata 12 

Orchideae 117 

Orchidion 122 

Orchiastrum 122 

Orchis 119, 123 

alba 120 

blephariglottis 120 

ciliaris 120- 

ciliaris (var.) alba 120 

dilatata 119 

limbriata b20 

flava 121 

hyperborea 119 

lacera 120 

leucophaea 120 

psycodes 120 

spectabilis 119, 198 

tridentata 120 

virescens 121 

Ornanthes 187 

florida 187 

Ornithogalum 107 

hirsutum 1 14 

umbellatum 107 

Ornus 187, 188 

bracteata 187 

cuspidata 187 

dipetala 188 



INDEX 



375 



Orniis europaea 187 

Gregii 187 

longicuspis 187 

retusa 187 

sieboldiana 187 

Orobanche 124 

Ruellii 242 

Orontiaceae 46 

Ostrya 226 

Ostrya virginiana 226 

Ostrys 226 

Oxys 229 

Oxybaphus 280 

nyctagineus 280 

Oxycocus macrocarpus 20 

Oxylapathum 236 

Oxyanthe 332 

Phragmitfes 332 

Paeoniaceae 324 

Paliris 123 

Pandanales 14 

Panicum sanguinale 350 

Papaver 349 

album 349 

candidum 349 

erraticum 349 

nigrum 349 

Rhoeas 349 

sativum 349 

soporiferum 349 

somniferum 349 

urbicum 349 

Parietaria 235 

pennsylvanica 235 

Paronychia 154, 279 

Baldwinii. . . . 152, 154, 155 

hernarioides 154 

riparia 154, 155 

Peltandra 45 

undulata 45 

virginica 45 

Pentaphylloides 130 

Pentalophus 194 

augustifolius 194 

longiflorus 194 

Pentstemon 157. 191 



Peramium 123 

pubescens 123 

Perdicium 235 

Persicaria 238, 236, 200 

ammophila 239, i6 

carictorum 238 

coccinea 238 

coccinea (var.) asprella. . .238 

emersa 238 

emersa var. asprella 238 

fluitans 239 

grandifolia 238 

Hartwrightii 239 

Hydropiper 240 

hydropiperoides 240 

lapathifolia 239 

maculata 239 

mesochora 239 

mesochora var. areni- 

cola 239 

mitis 239 

Persicaria orientalis 241 

pratincola 238 

pennsylvanica 239 

persicarioides 239 

punctata 240 

punctata var. leptosta- 

chya 240 

punctata var. eciliata. . . . 132 
punctata var. tacubayana.131 

tanaophylla 238 

tomentosa 240 

urens 240 

Perularia 121 

flava 121 

Petlomelia 187 

dipetala 188 

Peyssonnellia dubia 92 

Pfegus 229 

Phalangium iii 

Phellos 229 

Phenianthus 191 

arizonicaus 191 

sempervirens 191 

Philotria 221 

canadensis 22 

Phragmitis 332 

Phragmites communis 332 



376 



INDEX 



Phyllanthcnim 112 

recurvatum 113 

sessile 112 

Physocarpum 254 

clavatum 254 

Phytolacca 279 

americana 279 

decandra 279 

vulgaris 279 

Pinus 68, 69 

Cembra 68 

excelsa 68, 70 

Pinea 69 

Strobus 68, 69, 70, 64 

Virginiana 333 

Piperales 217 

Piperinae 217 

Piperitae 44 

Pistolochia 236 

Plagidia 153. i54 

Baldwinii. . . . 152, 154, 155 

hernarioides 153, 154 

montana 155 

riparia 155 

rufa 154 

Plantaginastrum 21 

Plantanthera 119 

Phledinium 173 

peregrinurn 173 

Pleuropterus 241 

Zuccarinii 241 

Poa chapmaniana 312 

Pogonia 121 

ophioglossoides 121, 125 

pendula 121 

PoUinirhiza 128 

cordata 129 

ovata 129 

Polyanthemum 320 

Polygala 178, 179, 180, 181 

cinarnata 180 

paucifolia 180, 181 

polygama 88, 180 

vSenega 181 

uniflora 181 

Polygonastram log 

Polygonatum 1 10 

biflorum no 



PcflygoiKitiiiii coiiiiiiutatuni. ... 1 10 

giganteum i i i 

Polygonastrum racemosum 109 

Polygone'la 171, 242 

americana 171 

articulata 171, 243 

ericoides 171 

Polygonum 237, 241, 236 

acre 240, 132 

acre (var.) leptostachyum 240 
amphibium (var.) cmer- 

sum 238 

arifolium 242 

articulatum 171 

bicorne 200, 201 

longistylum 200, 201 

cilinode 242 

cuspidatum 241 

dumetorum 242 

erectum 241 

Polygonum Fagopyrum 238 

Polygonum hederaceum 242 

Hydropiper 240 

hydropiperoides 240 

incarnatum 239 

lapathifolium 239 

latifolium 241 

majus 241 

mas 241 

masculum 241 

mite 240 

Polygonatum multiflorum 100 

Polygonum orientale 241 

pennsylvanicum. . . .239 

Persicaria 240 

persicarioides 239 

primum 241 

punctatum 240 

punctatum( var.) 

leptostachyum . . . 240 

sagittatum 242 

virginianum 241 

tenue 241 

tomentosum 240 

vulgare 241 

Polysiphonia californica 93 

Polysporon 276 

Pontederia loi 



INDEX 



377 



Pontederia cordata loi 

(var.) lancifolia.. loi 

lancifolia loi 

Populago 325 

palustris 325 

Populus 221, 222 

alba 221 

alba bolleana 221 

angulata 

balsamifera (var.) can- 

dic&ns 223 

bolleana 221 

canadensis 222 

candicans 223 

Candida 221 

carolinensis 222 

deltoides 222 

grandidentata 221 

heterophylla 222 

marilandica 222 

montilifera 222 

nigra ; ... .221, 222 

nigra italica 222 

pyrimidalis 222 

tremuloides 221 

virginiana 222 

Portulacca 281 

arvensis 281 

grandiflora 282 

minor 281 

oleracea 281 

sylvestris 281 

Potamogeton 16 

americanus 16 

amplifolius 16 

angustifolius 17 

praelongis 17 

compressus . . . 17, 18, 19 

diversifolius 18 

filiformis 18 

flabellatus 18 

foliosus (var.) niaga- 

rensis 

Friesii 17 

heterophyllus 17 

hybridus 18 

lonchites 16 

luCens 17 



Potamogeton major 18 

niagarensis 18 

obtusifolius 19 

pauciflorus var. ni- 
agarensis 18 

pectinatus 18 

perfoliatus 17 

perfoliatus (v§ir.) lan- 

Ceolatus 17 

perfoliatus (var.) 

lanceolatus 17 

perfoliatus (var). 

richardsonii 17 

pulcher 16 

pusillus 18 

pusillus var. major.. . 18 

Robinsii 19 

Xizii 17 

zosteraefolius 17 

Prinus 205 

Prionitis . . .91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97 

lanceolata 93 

Lyallii 92, 93 

Provenzalia 46 

palustris 46 

Psammogonum 242, 171 

americanum 171 

articulatum .... 242, 171 

Pseudomelanthium 290 

Pseudorchis 123 

Loesellii 123 

Psittacus 278 

Ptelea 62, 131 

Quercus 229 

alba 229, 333 

minor 229 

bicolor 230 

coccinea 230 

var tinctoria 230 

ellipsoidalis 230 

imbricaria 230 

lyrata 230 

macrocarpa 230 

Michauxii 230 

minor 209 

obtusiloba 209 

olivaeformis 230 



378 



INDEX 



Quereus palustris 230 

prinoides 230 

rubra 230 

stellata 230 

tinctoria 230 

velutina 230 

Queria canadensis 273 

capillacea 279 

Ramium 234 

cylindricum 235 

Ramotha 99 

Ranales 294 

Ranunculus, 21, 174, 312, 318, 

320, 333, 336 
abortivus . 312,318, 

333. 334. 335 
var micanthus. . .334 

acer 320 

acris 320 

AUegheniensis 335 

aquaticus 318 

aquatilis var. divari- 

catus 320 

var. trichophyllus 32 

Auricomus 318 

bulbosus 320 

caricetorum 319 

circinatus 321 

cymbalistes 333 

delitesceus 333 

delphinifolius 319 

ellipticus 13 

exiguus 320 

fascicularis 320 

glaberrimus 13 

Harveyi 333 

Holmii 334 

lacustris 319 

lumosus 319 

micranthus 321 

multifidus var. re- 

repens 319 

Nemorasus 288 

ovalis 13 

palustris 318 

pensylvanicus 319 

Purshii 319 



Rananculus Randalia 99 

rapaceus 320 

recurvatus 315 

repens 319 

ruderalis 334, 335 

septentrionalis 319 

sylvestris 318 

thalictrifolius 288 

tricophyllus 320 

tuberosus 320 

vinealis 319 

Waldronii 12, 13 

Rhabdotion 210, 216 

Rhagrostis 277 

Rhizocarpeae 47 

Rhizocorallon 124 

Rhoedales 349 

Rhodomelia 95, 97 

larix 93 

Rhus angustiarum 144 

cismontana 145, 148 

glabra 145 

Hapemanii 147 

petiolata 146 

sambucina 145 

Roripa 337 

Rosa deserta 136, 137. i39 

Fendleri 139 

gratiosa 135. 136, 137 

var. dulcissima 135 

136, 139 

heliophila 135, 135. i37 

var. foliosissima. . 135, 

'136, 137 

Lunellii 135. 136, I37 

Maximiliani 139 

naiadum 136, 137, 139 

poetica 136, 137, 139 

polyanthema 135, 136, 138 

pratincola 137 

subnuda 136, 137. i39 

terrens 139 

R. Maximiliani) 136 

Rulac 180, 183 

Ruppia 16 

Rumex 237 

Acetosella 236 

brittanicus '. 237 



INDEX 



379 



Rumex crispus 

Hydrolapathum var. 

americana 237 

mexicanus 237 

orbiculatus 237 

salicifolius 237 

verticillatus 237 

Saccharodendron 182, 183 

barbatum 182 

floridanum 182 

grandidenta- 

tum 183 

hispJidum 183 

leucoderme 182 

saccharinum .... 183 

Sacchrosphendamus 183 

saccharinus. . .183 

Sagitta 21 

engelmanniana 22 

latifolia 21 

rigida 22 

Sagittaria 21 

engelmanniana 22 

graminea 22 

heterophylla 22 

latifolia 21 

rigida 22 

variabilis var. gracilis ... 22 

Salix 223 

adenophylla 224 

Alba 223 

amygdaloides 224 

angustata 224 

babylonica 223 

bebbiana 225 

Candida 223, 225 

candidula 225 

cordata 224 

angustata 224 

discolor 225 

eriocephola 225 

exigua 224 

falcata 224 

fluviatilis exigua 224 

fragilis 223 

glaucophylla 225 

gracilis 225 



Salix humilis 224 

var. tristis 225 

interior 223 

longifolia 223 

lucida 223 

myrtilloides var. pedicel- 

laris 225 

nigra 224 

pedicellaris 225 

pentandra 223 

perticalis 223 

petiolaris 225 

prinoides 225 

purpurea 224 

rostrata 225 

sericea 225 

syrticola 224 

tristis 225 

viminalis 224 

viminea 224 

vitellina 223, 225 

Salomonia no 

biflora no 

commutata in 

Salsola 277 

pestifer 277 

Sarabucus 310 

Ebulus 326 

pubens var. xantho- 

carpa 310 

racemosa var. xan- 

thocarpa 310 

Sanguinaria 350 

canadensis 350 

Santalaceae 235 

Santalales 235 

Saponaria 292 

major 292 

officinalis 292 

vaccaria 293 

vulgaris 292 

Sarracenia purpurea 20 

Saururus 217 

cernuus 218 

Savastana 198 

alpina 198 

Nashii 198 

odorata 198 



38o 



INDEX 



Savastana pauciflora 198 

Saxifraga Howellii 32 

Scheuchzeria 19, 20 

palustris 20 

Scelcranthus 280 

annus 280 

Schizmaxon 99 

Schollera loi 

Scilleae 107 

Sciophyla no 

Schiophylla no 

Scorius 219 

Senega 181 

officinalis 181 

Serapias 123 

Setiscapela 190 

cleistogama 190 

subulata 190 

Sieboldia 156 

japonica 156 

Viticella 156 

Sigillaria 109 

Silene 57, 291 

antirrhina 291 

armeria 291 

conica 291 

inflata 291 

latifolia 291 

stellata 58 

var. scabrella 58 

virginica 291 

Siler 223 

Sisryinchium 115 

angustifolium 116 

apiculatum 116 

var. meso- 

chorum.. . . 116 

campestre 116 

gramineum 116 

graminoides 116 

Smallia 158 

Smilacina 109 

bifolia var. cana- 
densis no 

racemosa 109 

trifolia 109 

Smilax 113 



Smilax caduca 113 

echirrhata 113 

glauca 114 

quadrangularis 113 

hispida 114 

pulverulenta 113 

rotundifolia 113 

spinulosa 114 

Sobraliinae 125 

Soranthera sp. Prionitis 94 

Sorghum 332 

Sparganium 15 

eurycarpum 15 

minimum 15 

simplex 15 

Spathyema 46 

foetida 46 

Specularia 191, 192 

biflora 192 

leptocarpa 192 

perfoliata 191, 192 

Speculum 191 

Veneris 191 

Spergula 292 

multicaulis 289 

Spergularia 290 

rubra 290 

Spiranthes 122 

cernua 122 

gracilis 123 

latifolia 122 

lucida 122 

plantaginea 122 

Spirillus 16 

amplifolius.. . 16 

diversifolius. 18 

filiformis 18 

foliosus var. niagaren- 

sis 18 

Friesii 17 

heterophyllus 17 

interruptus 18 

lonchites 16 

Iticens 16 

nataus 17 

obtusifolius 19 

pectiniformis 18 



INDEX 



381 



Spirillus perfoliatus 

var. Richardsonii .. . . 17 

praelongus 17 

pulcher i6 

pusillus 18 

Robinsii 29 

Zizii 17 

zosteraefolius 17 

Spirodela 44 

polyrhiza 44 

Staurogeton 42 

trisulcus 43 

Stellaris '. 282 

graminea 284 

longifolia 282 

longipes 282 

Stellaric 107 

Strithiop)teris 197 

Struthion 292 

Struthiopteris . . .194, 195, 196, 197 

Cordi 196, 197 

Sturmia 123 

Stylophorum 344 

disphyllum 341 

Styrandra no 

Suber 229 

Sumnera 254 

clavata 254 

Superba 293 

recentiorum. 293 

Sykaminea 232 

Symplocarpus. . 46 

foetidus 46 

Synandrae 117 

Syndesmon 253, 254, 288, 323 

thalictroides 288, 323 

Syntheris. . . 188 

alpina i88 

gymnocarpa 189 

rubra 188, 189 

wyomingensis ! . 189 

Talauma 297 

Talinum 281 

teretifolium 281 

Telmatophace 44 

Thalesia 190, 191 

Thesium umbellatum 235 



Thalictrum 253, 323 

alpinum 254 

anemonoides. . . .253, 

288. 323 

canadense 254, 323 

caule unifloro 288 

clavatum 254 

cornuti 254, 323 

corynellum 323 

dasycarpum j . . . . 324 

dioicum 324 

foetidum 254 

polyamum 254, 323 

Thamecnemum 293 

Thuja occidentalis 166 

Thuniinae 124 

Thyris 293 

Tiniaria 242 

cilinodis 242 

convolvulus 242 

dumetorum 242 

Tissa 296 

Tofieldia 104 

glutinosa 104 

Tovara 241 

virginiana 241 

Adams 109 

Toxylon. . . . : 232 

pomiferum 232 

Tracaulon 242 

arifolium 242 

sagittatum 242 

Tradescantia 100 

reflexa 100 

virginica 100 

Tragopyrum 237 

Tremula 281 

Trichoon 332 

Phragmites 332 

Trichlisperma 180, 181 

grandiflora 181 

paucifolia 181 

Trichophyllos 320 

Trichophyllon 320 

Triglochin 19, 20 

data 20 

maritima 20 

var. elata 20 



382 



INDEX 



Triglochin palustris 19 

sexlocularis 20 

striata 20 

tricapsularis 19 

Trillium 112 

cernuiim 112 

erectiim 112 

grandiflorum 112 

recurvatum 113 

rhomboideum var. 

grandiflorum 112 

sessile 112 

Trilopus 62, 63 

hymealis 62, 63 

riparius 62, 63 

virginicus 62 

Trinitas 321 

Triodanis 191. 192 

biflora 191 

leptocarpa 192 

perfoliata 192 

rupestris 192 

Triodallus rupestris 192 

Triorchis 122, 123, 158 

cernua 122 

gracilis 123 

Grayi 123 

linearis 123 

ochroleuca 123 

ovalis' 123 

plantaginea 122 

praecox 123 

romanzofliana 123 

stricta 123 

Triphora 121 

trianthophora 121 

Triteleia Howellii 32 

Tulipastrum 297 

Tulipfera 296, 297 

Liriodendron 297 

Typha 14 

angustifolia 14 

aquatica 14 

latifolia 14 

media 14 

palustris 14 

Typhaceae 14 

Typhoideae 14 



Ulmus .231 

americana 231 

fulva 231 

racemosa 231 

Thomae 231 

Ulva 92, 96 

lactuca 93 

Unifolium 109, 1 10 

canadense 1 10 

Urtica 233, 234 

canadensis 234 

capitata 235 

cylindrica 235 

divaricata 234 

Dioica 234 

gracilis 234 

major 234 

perennis 234 

rubra . . .' 234 

Utricularia 190 

cleistogama 190 

subulata 190 

var. cleisto- 
gama 190 

Urticastrum 234 

divaricatum 234 

Uvularia 104 

grandiflora 104 

Vaccaria 292, 293 

Vagnera 109 

racemosa 109 

stellata 109 

trifolia 109 

Valaea glauca 32 

Valentinia no 

Vallisneriaceae 22 

Vallisneria spiralis 22 

Validallium 104 

tricoccum 105 

Venosae 226 

Verbasculum 209, 213 

Vinca 150 

Vinea pusilla 151 

rosea 151 

species 151 

Veronica sylvestris 293 

Viola. .207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 215 



INDEX 



383 



Viola affinis 83, 84, 85, 213 

ampliata 211 

arvensis 134, 217 

blanda 88, 208 

canadensis 208, 209 

210, 215, 216 

candidula 85, 88, 

90, 91, 209, 213 

communis 82, 84 

cucullata 80, 84, 

199, 200, 208, 211, 212 

cuspidata 213 

eriofcarpa 208, 214 

incognita.. .208, 214 

lanceolota 208, 213 

martia 211 

nigra 211 

odorata 209, 2 1 1 

officinarum 211 

obliqua 79, 80, 

81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 199 

ovata 211 

papilionacea 83, 212 

palmata 209, 212 

Fallens 214 

pedata 209, 2 1 1 

var. inormata 210 

pedatifida 88 

peramoena 88 

populifolia 212 

primulaefolia . . . .208, 209, 213 
pubescens. . .208, 209, 214, 215 

var. scabriuscula 215 

purpurea 211 

Rafinesquii 134, 217 

rostrata 88, 90, 

208, 210, 215, 216 
rotundifolia 209 



Viola sagittata 213 

var. ovata 211 

scabriuscula 208, 215 

striata 208, 209, 210, 216 

tenella 217 

tricolor 134, 210, 211, 217 

variabilis 212 

Viorna 323 

Vitex 155 

Viticella.. . .155, 156, 157, 158, 191 

florida 156 

microcalyx 158 

Volubilis nigra 242 

Vulvaria 275 

ambrosioides 275 

Botrys 275 

Warnera 327 

canadensis 327 

Wolffia 41 

brasiliensis 42 

Columbiana 42 

Wolfia 41 

punctata 42 

Wulfenia 188 

Bullii 189 

rubra 188, 189 

Wulffia 41 

Xiphion 115 

Xylosteum 191 

Xyrideae 98 

Xyridaceae 98 

Xyridales 98 

Xyris 98, 99, 115 

flexuosa 99 

Yulania 297 



yfiM/p^^^^^ 



A 



nPC1968 




i 



ii